Browsing by Subject "atipamezole"

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  • Granholm, Mikael (Helsingfors universitet, 1993)
    In veterinary practice intraveneous anaesthesia has numerous advantages. An important advantage is the ease and rapidity of induction. Compared to administration of inhalant anaesthetics, a minimum of apparatus is necessary in administration of intraveneous anaesthetic agents. The possibility of antagonization of certain drugs used as intraveneous anaesthetics increases the safety of anaesthesia. The unpleasant recovery period can also be shortened, which for a busy veterinarian and also the owner can be of great relief. Ideally, a postoperative patient should be conscious, co-operative, calm and free of pain. This will provide better homeostasis of vital functions, allow early diagnosis and treatment of complications and decrease the need for nursing care. The aim of these studies was to analyze the sedative/ analgetic / anaesthetic, cardiovascular and respiratory effects produced by a combination of medetomidine and climazolam at two different dose levels (1.5 mg/kg and 3.0 mg/kg). Climazolam was also combined with fentanyl. Antagonization followed anaesthesia, using atipamezole, nalorphine and a new benzodiazepine antagonist, sarmazenil. 7 laboratory beagles were used inthis experimental study. In combination with medetomidine, climazolam produced smooth anaesthesia and had only small effects on the cardiovascular and respiratory system. Total analgesia was not achived. Intubation was easily performed. The antagonization proved to be fast and complete. When combining climazolam with fentanyl, dose levels were chosen according to previous studies (Erhardt et al., 1986). The anaesthesia was light and short, probably due to the short action of fentanyl. This combination depressed the respiratory system in a much larger scale than the combination of medetomidine and climazolam did. Antagonization was effective.
  • Adam, M.; Raekallio, M. R.; Keskitalo, T.; Honkavaara, J. M.; Scheinin, M.; Kajula, M.; Mölsä, S.; Vainio, O. M. (2018)
    The effect of MK-467, a peripheral alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist, on plasma drug concentrations, sedation and cardiopulmonary changes induced by intramuscular (IM) medetomidine was investigated in eight sheep. Additionally, the interactions with atipamezole (ATI) used for reversal were also evaluated. Each animal was treated four times in a randomized prospective crossover design with 2-week washout periods. Medetomidine (MED) 30 mu g/kg alone or combined in the same syringe with MK-467 300 mu g/kg (MMK) was injected intramuscular, followed by ATI 150 mu g/kg (MED+ATI and MMK+ATI) or saline intramuscular 30 min later. Plasma was analysed for drug concentrations, and sedation was subjectively assessed with a visual analogue scale. Systemic haemodynamics and blood gases were measured before treatments and at intervals thereafter. With MK-467, medetomidine plasma concentrations were threefold higher prior to ATI, which was associated with more profound sedation and shorter onset. No significant differences were observed in early cardiopulmonary changes between treatments. Atipamezole reversed the medetomidine-related cardiopulmonary changes after both treatments. Sedation scores decreased more rapidly when MK-467 was included. In this study, MK-467 appeared to have a pronounced effect on the plasma concentration and central effects of medetomidine, with minor cardiopulmonary improvement.