Browsing by Subject "atrial fibrillation"

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  • Altavilla, Riccardo; Caso, Valeria; Bandini, Fabio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Yaghi, Shadi; Furie, Karen L.; Tadi, Prasanna; Becattini, Cecilia; Zedde, Marialuisa; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H.; Lees, Kennedy R.; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; Acciarresi, Monica; D'Amore, Cataldo; Mosconi, Maria Giulia; Cimini, Ludovica Anna; Fusaro, Jessica; Bovi, Paolo; Carletti, Monica; Rigatelli, Alberto; Cappellari, Manuel; Putaala, Jukka; Tomppo, Liisa; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Marcheselli, Simona; Pezzini, Alessandro; Poli, Loris; Padovani, Alessandro; Masotti, Luca; Vannucchi, Vieri; Sohn, Sung-Il; Lorenzini, Gianni; Tassi, Rossana; Guideri, Francesca; Acampa, Maurizio; Martini, Giuseppe; Ntaios, George; Athanasakis, George; Makaritsis, Konstantinos; Karagkiozi, Efstathia; Vadikolias, Konstantinos; Liantinioti, Chrysoula; Chondrogianni, Maria; Mumoli, Nicola; Consoli, Domenico; Galati, Franco; Sacco, Simona; Carolei, Antonio; Tiseo, Cindy; Corea, Francesco; Ageno, Walter; Bellesini, Marta; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Ciccone, Alfonso; Lanari, Alessia; Scoditti, Umberto; Denti, Licia; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Maccarrone, Miriam; Ulivi, Leonardo; Orlandi, Giovanni; Giannini, Nicola; Gialdini, Gino; Tassinari, Tiziana; De Lodovici, Maria Luisa; Bono, Giorgio; Rueckert, Christina; Baldi, Antonio; D'Anna, Sebastiano; Toni, Danilo; Letteri, Federica; Giuntini, Martina; Lotti, Enrico Maria; Flomin, Yuriy; Pieroni, Alessio; Kargiotis, Odysseas; Karapanayiotides, Theodore; Monaco, Serena; Baronello, Mario Maimone; Csiba, Laszlo; Szabo, Lilla; Chiti, Alberto; Giorli, Elisa; Del Sette, Massimo; Imberti, Davide; Zabzuni, Dorjan; Doronin, Boris; Volodina, Vera; Michel, Patrik; Vanacker, Peter; Barlinn, Kristian; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Barlinn, Jessica; Deleu, Dirk; Melikyan, Gayane; Ibrahim, Faisal; Akhtar, Naveed; Gourbali, Vanessa; Paciaroni, Maurizio (2019)
    Background and Purpose- Bridging therapy with low-molecular-weight heparin reportedly leads to a worse outcome for acute cardioembolic stroke patients because of a higher incidence of intracerebral bleeding. However, this practice is common in clinical settings. This observational study aimed to compare (1) the clinical profiles of patients receiving and not receiving bridging therapy, (2) overall group outcomes, and (3) outcomes according to the type of anticoagulant prescribed. Methods- We analyzed data of patients from the prospective RAF and RAF-NOACs studies. The primary outcome was defined as the composite of ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, systemic embolism, symptomatic cerebral bleeding, and major extracerebral bleeding observed at 90 days after the acute stroke. Results- Of 1810 patients who initiated oral anticoagulant therapy, 371 (20%) underwent bridging therapy with full-dose low-molecular-weight heparin. Older age and the presence of leukoaraiosis were inversely correlated with the use of bridging therapy. Forty-two bridged patients (11.3%) reached the combined outcome versus 72 (5.0%) of the nonbridged patients (P=0.0001). At multivariable analysis, bridging therapy was associated with the composite end point (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4-3.7; P Conclusions- Our findings suggest that patients receiving low-molecular-weight heparin have a higher risk of early ischemic recurrence and hemorrhagic transformation compared with nonbridged patients.
  • Klijn, Catharina J. M.; Paciaron, Maurizio; Berge, Eivind; Korompoki, Eleni; Korv, Janika; Lal, Avtar; Putaala, Jukka; Werring, David J. (2019)
    Patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and non-valvular atrial fibrillation have a high risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The aim of this guideline is to provide recommendations on antithrombotic medication for secondary prevention of stroke and other vascular outcomes in these patients. The working group identified questions and outcomes, graded evidence, and developed recommendations according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach and the European Stroke Organisation (ESO) standard operating procedure for guidelines. The guideline was reviewed and approved by the ESO guideline board and the ESO executive committee. In patients with atrial fibrillation and previous stroke or transient ischemic attack, oral anticoagulants reduce the risk of recurrence over antiplatelets or no antithrombotic treatment. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants are preferred over vitamin K antagonists because they have a lower risk of major bleeding and death. Recommendations are weak regarding timing of treatment, (re-)starting oral anticoagulants in patients with previous intracerebral haemorrhage, and treatment in specific patient subgroups of those of older age, with cognitive impairment, renal failure or small vessel disease, because of a lack of strong evidence. In conclusion, for patients with atrial fibrillation and ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants are the preferred treatment for secondary prevention of recurrent stroke or thromboembolism. Further research is required to determine the best timing for initiating oral anticoagulants after an acute ischemic stroke, whether or not oral anticoagulants should be (re)started in patients with a history of intracerebral haemorrhage, and the best secondary preventive treatment in specific subgroups.
  • Teppo, Konsta; Jaakkola, Jussi; Biancari, Fausto; Halminen, Olli; Linna, Miika; Haukka, Jari; Putaala, Jukka; Tiili, Paula; Lehtonen, Ossi; Niemi, Mikko; Mustonen, Pirjo; Kinnunen, Janne; Hartikainen, Juha; Airaksinen, K. E. Juhani; Lehto, Mika (2022)
    Low socioeconomic status has been associated with poor outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, little is known about socioeconomic disparities in adherence to stroke prevention with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). We assessed the hypothesis that AF patients with higher income or educational levels have better adherence to DOACs in terms of treatment implementation and persistence. The used nationwide registry-based FinACAF cohort covers all patients with incident AF starting DOACs in Finland during 2011-2018. The implementation analyses included 74 222 (mean age 72.7 +/- 10.5 years, 50.8% female) patients, and persistence analyses included 67 503 (mean age 75.3 +/- 8.9 years, 53.6% female) patients with indication for permanent anticoagulation (CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score >1 in men and >2 in women). Patients were divided into income quartiles and into three categories based on their educational attainment. Therapy implementation was measured using the medication possession ratio (MPR), and patients with MPR >= 0.90 were defined adherent. Persistence was measured as the incidence of therapy discontinuation, defined as the first 135-day period without DOAC purchases after drug initiation. Patients with higher income or education were consistently more likely adherent to DOACs in the implementation phase (comparing the highest income or educational category to the lowest adjusted odds ratios 1.18 (1.12-1.25) and 1.21(1.15-1.27), respectively). No association with income or educational levels was observed on the incidence of therapy discontinuation. In conclusion, we observed that income and educational levels both have independent positive association on the implementation of DOAC therapy but no association on therapy persistence in patients with AF.
  • Pauklin, Priit; Eha, Jaan; Tootsi, Kaspar; Kolk, Rein; Paju, Rain; Kals, Mart; Kampus, Priit (2021)
    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in clinical practice and beta blockers (BBs) are the drugs of choice for rate or rhythm control in these patients. The purpose of this study was to describe differences in arterial stiffness (AS), central blood pressure (cBP), and the role of BBs on cBP in patients with AF compared to healthy individuals. The authors included 76 patients with paroxysmal/persistent AF. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and cBP were measured and compared with data from 75 healthy individuals. Patients with AF had higher PWV (8.0 m/s vs. 7.2 m/s, p < .001), central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) (118 mm Hg vs. 114 mm Hg, p = .033), central pulse pressure (cPP) (39 mm Hg vs. 37 mm Hg, p = .035) and lower pulse pressure amplification (PPA) (1.24 vs. 1.30, p = .015), without differences in peripheral blood pressure (pBP) and heart rate (HR). AF patients had significantly increased PWV (beta= 0.500, p = .010, adjusted R-2 = 0.37) after adjustment for confounding factors. The use of BBs significantly reduced PPA (beta = -0.059, p = .017, adjusted R-2 = 0.30). AF patients have higher PWV, cSBP, cPP, and lower PPA, compared to healthy patients. These findings support the role of AS in the development of AF. Use of BBs is related to a potential adverse effect on cBP.
  • Pokorney, Sean D.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Stevens, Susanna R.; Patel, Manesh R.; Pieper, Karen S.; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Breithardt, Gunter; Singer, Daniel E.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hacke, Werner; Becker, Richard C.; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fox, Keith A. A.; Califf, Robert M.; ROCKET AF Steering Comm; Kaste, Markku (2016)
    Background-Atrial fibrillation is associated with higher mortality. Identification of causes of death and contemporary risk factors for all-cause mortality may guide interventions. Methods and Results-In the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) study, patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation were randomized to rivaroxaban or dose-adjusted warfarin. Cox proportional hazards regression with backward elimination identified factors at randomization that were independently associated with all-cause mortality in the 14 171 participants in the intention-to-treat population. The median age was 73 years, and the mean CHADS(2) score was 3.5. Over 1.9 years of median follow-up, 1214 (8.6%) patients died. Kaplan-Meier mortality rates were 4.2% at 1 year and 8.9% at 2 years. The majority of classified deaths (1081) were cardiovascular (72%), whereas only 6% were nonhemorrhagic stroke or systemic embolism. No significant difference in all-cause mortality was observed between the rivaroxaban and warfarin arms (P=0.15). Heart failure (hazard ratio 1.51, 95% CI 1.33-1.70, P= 75 years (hazard ratio 1.69, 95% CI 1.51-1.90, P Conclusions-In a large population of patients anticoagulated for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, approximate to 7 in 10 deaths were cardiovascular, whereas
  • Väliaho, Eemu-Samuli; Lipponen, Jukka A.; Kuoppa, Pekka; Martikainen, Tero J.; Jäntti, Helena; Rissanen, Tuomas T.; Castren, Maaret; Halonen, Jari; Tarvainen, Mika P.; Laitinen, Tiina M.; Laitinen, Tomi P.; Santala, Onni E.; Rantula, Olli; Naukkarinen, Noora S.; Hartikainen, Juha E. K. (2022)
    Aim: Atrial fibrillation (AF) detection is challenging because it is often asymptomatic and paroxysmal. We evaluated continuous photoplethysmogram (PPG) for signal quality and detection of AF.Methods: PPGs were recorded using a wrist-band device in 173 patients (76 AF, 97 sinus rhythm, SR) for 24 h. Simultaneously recorded 3-lead ambulatory ECG served as control. The recordings were split into 10-, 20-, 30-, and 60-min time-frames. The sensitivity, specificity, and F1-score of AF detection were evaluated for each time-frame. AF alarms were generated to simulate continuous AF monitoring. Sensitivities, specificities, and positive predictive values (PPVs) of the alarms were evaluated. User experiences of PPG and ECG recordings were assessed. The study was registered in the Clinical Trials database (NCT03507335).Results: The quality of PPG signal was better during night-time than in daytime (67.3 +/- 22.4% vs. 30.5 +/- 19.4%, p < 0.001). The 30-min time-frame yielded the highest F1-score (0.9536), identifying AF correctly in 72/76 AF patients (sensitivity 94.7%), only 3/97 SR patients receiving a false AF diagnosis (specificity 96.9%). The sensitivity and PPV of the simulated AF alarms were 78.2 and 97.2% at night, and 49.3 and 97.0% during the daytime. 82% of patients were willing to use the device at home.Conclusion: PPG wrist-band provided reliable AF identification both during daytime and night-time. The PPG data's quality was better at night. The positive user experience suggests that wearable PPG devices could be feasible for continuous rhythm monitoring.
  • Kytö, Ville; Saraste, Antti; Rautava, Päivi; Tornio, Aleksi (2022)
    Digoxin is used for rate control in atrial fibrillation (AF), but evidence for its efficacy and safety after myocardial infarction (MI) is scarce and mixed. We studied post-MI digoxin use effects on AF patient outcomes in a nationwide registry follow-up study in Finland. Digoxin was used by 18.6% of AF patients after MI, with a decreasing usage trend during 2004-2014. Baseline differences in digoxin users (n = 881) and controls (n = 3898) were balanced with inverse probability of treatment weight adjustment. The median follow-up was 7.4 years. Patients using digoxin after MI had a higher cumulative all-cause mortality (77.4% vs. 72.3%; hazard ratio [HR]: 1.19; confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-1.32; p = 0.001) during a 10-year follow-up. Mortality differences were detected in a subgroup analysis of patients without baseline heart failure (HF) (HR: 1.23; p = 0.019) but not in patients with baseline HF (HR: 1.05; p = 0.413). Cumulative incidences of HF hospitalizations, stroke and new MI were similar between digoxin group and controls. In conclusion, digoxin use after MI is associated with increased mortality but not with HF hospitalizations, new MI or stroke in AF patients. Increased mortality was detected in patients without baseline HF. Results suggest caution with digoxin after MI in AF patients, especially in the absence of HF.
  • Johnson, Linda S. B.; Salonen, Minna; Kajantie, Eero; Conen, David; Healey, Jeff S.; Osmond, Clive; Eriksson, Johan G. (2017)
    Background-Early life risk factors are associated with cardiometabolic disease, but have not been fully studied in atrial fibrillation (AF). There are discordant results from existing studies of birth weight and AF, and the impact of maternal body size, gestational age, placental size, and birth length is unknown. Methods and Results-The Helsinki Birth Cohort Study includes 13 345 people born as singletons in Helsinki in the years 1934-1944. Follow-up was through national registries, and ended on December 31, 2013, with 907 incident cases. Cox regression analyses stratified on year of birth were constructed for perinatal variables and incident AF, adjusting for offspring sex, gestational age, and socioeconomic status at birth. There was a significant U-shaped association between birth weight and AF (P for quadratic term = 0.01). The lowest risk of AF was found among those with a birth weight of 3.4 kg (3.8 kg for women [85th percentile] and 3.0 kg for men [17th percentile]). High maternal body mass index (>= 30 kg/m(2)) predicted offspring AF; hazard ratio 1.36 (95% CI 1.07-1.74, P = 0.01) compared with normal body mass index ( Conclusions-High maternal body mass index during pregnancy and maternal height are previously undescribed predictors of offspring AF. Efforts to prevent maternal obesity might reduce later AF in offspring. Birth weight has a U-shaped relation to incident AF independent of other perinatal variables.
  • Paciaroni, Maurizio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Falocci, Nicola; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Vadikolias, Kostantinos; Liantinioti, Chrysoula; Chondrogianni, Maria; Bovi, Paolo; Carletti, Monica; Cappellari, Manuel; Zedde, Marialuisa; Ntaios, George; Karagkiozi, Efstathia; Athanasakis, George; Makaritsis, Kostantinos; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Lanari, Alessia; Ciccone, Alfonso; Putaala, Jukka; Tomppo, Liisa; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H.; Lees, Kennedy R.; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; Acciarresi, Monica; D'Amore, Cataldo; Becattini, Cecilia; Mosconi, Maria Giulia; Cimini, Ludovica Anna; Soloperto, Rossana; Masotti, Luca; Vannucchi, Vieri; Lorenzini, Gianni; Tassi, Rossana; Guideri, Francesca; Acampa, Maurizio; Martini, Giuseppe; Sohn, Sung-Il; Marcheselli, Simona; Mumoli, Nicola; De Lodovici, Maria Luisa; Bono, Giorgio; Furie, Karen L.; Tadi, Prasanna; Yaghi, Shadi; Toni, Danilo; Letteri, Federica; Tassinari, Tiziana; Kargiotis, Odysseas; Lotti, Enrico Maria; Flomin, Yuriy; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Maccarrone, Miriam; Giannini, Nicola; Bandini, Fabio; Pezzini, Alessandro; Poli, Loris; Padovani, Alessandro; Scoditti, Umberto; Denti, Licia; Consoli, Domenico; Galati, Franco; Sacco, Simona; Carolei, Antonio; Tiseo, Cindy; Gourbali, Vanessa; Orlandi, Giovanni; Giuntini, Martina; Chiti, Alberto; Giorli, Elisa; Gialdini, Gino; Corea, Francesco; Ageno, Walter; Bellesini, Marta; Colombo, Giovanna; Monaco, Serena; Baronello, Mario Maimone; Karapanayiotides, Theodore; Caso, Valeria (2017)
    Background-The optimal timing to administer non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation is unclear. This prospective observational multicenter study evaluated the rates of early recurrence and major bleeding (within 90 days) and theirtiming in patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation who received NOACs for secondary prevention. Methods and Results-Recurrence was defined as the composite of ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, and symptomatic systemic embolism, and major bleeding was defined as symptomatic cerebral and major extracranial bleeding. For the analysis, 1127 patients were eligible: 381 (33.8%) were treated with dabigatran, 366 (32.5%) with rivaroxaban, and 380 (33.7%) with apixaban. Patients who received dabigatran were younger and had lower admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and less commonly had a CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score >4 and less reduced renal function. Thirty-two patients (2.8%) had early recurrence, and 27 (2.4%) had major bleeding. The rates of early recurrence and major bleeding were, respectively, 1.8% and 0.5% in patients receiving dabigatran, 1.6% and 2.5% in those receiving rivaroxaban, and 4.0% and 2.9% in those receiving apixaban. Patients who initiated NOACs within 2 days after acute stroke had a composite rate of recurrence and major bleeding of 12.4%; composite rates were 2.1% for those who initiated NOACs between 3 and 14 days and 9.1% for those who initiated > 14 days after acute stroke. Conclusions-In patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation, treatment with NOACs was associated with a combined 5% rate of ischemic embolic recurrence and severe bleeding within 90 days.
  • Paciaroni, Maurizio; Angelini, Filippo; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Furie, Karen L.; Tadi, Prasanna; Becattini, Cecilia; Falocci, Nicola; Zedde, Marialuisa; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H.; Lees, Kennedy R.; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; Acciarresi, Monica; Altavilla, Riccardo; D'Amore, Cataldo; Mosconi, Maria G.; Cimini, Ludovica A.; Bovi, Paolo; Carletti, Monica; Rigatelli, Alberto; Cappellari, Manuel; Putaala, Jukka; Tomppo, Liisa; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Bandini, Fabio; Marcheselli, Simona; Pezzini, Alessandro; Poli, Loris; Padovani, Alessandro; Masotti, Luca; Vannucchi, Vieri; Sohn, Sung-Il; Lorenzini, Gianni; Tassi, Rossana; Guideri, Francesca; Acampa, Maurizio; Martini, Giuseppe; Ntaios, George; Karagkiozi, Efstathia; Athanasakis, George; Makaritsis, Kostantinos; Vadikolias, Kostantinos; Liantinioti, Chrysoula; Chondrogianni, Maria; Mumoli, Nicola; Consoli, Domenico; Galati, Franco; Sacco, Simona; Carolei, Antonio; Tiseo, Cindy; Corea, Francesco; Ageno, Walter; Bellesini, Marta; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Ciccone, Alfonso; Scoditti, Umberto; Denti, Licia; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Maccarrone, Miriam; Orlandi, Giovanni; Giannini, Nicola; Gialdini, Gino; Tassinari, Tiziana; De Lodovici, Maria Luisa; Bono, Giorgio; Rueckert, Christina; Baldi, Antonio; Toni, Danilo; Letteri, Federica; Giuntini, Martina; Lotti, Enrico M.; Flomin, Yuriy; Pieroni, Alessio; Kargiotis, Odysseas; Karapanayiotides, Theodore; Monaco, Serena; Baronello, Mario M.; Csiba, Laszlo; Szabo, Lilla; Chiti, Alberto; Giorli, Elisa; Del Sette, Massimo; Imberti, Davide; Zabzuni, Dorjan; Doronin, Boris; Volodina, Vera; Pd-Mer, Patrik Michel; Vanacker, Peter; Barlinn, Kristian; Pallesen, Lars P.; Kepplinger, Jessica; Deleu, Dirk; Melikyan, Gayane; Ibrahim, Faisal; Akhtar, Naveed; Gourbali, Vanessa; Yaghi, Shadi; Caso, Valeria (2019)
    Background The relationship between different patterns of atrial fibrillation and early recurrence after an acute ischaemic stroke is unclear. Purpose In a prospective cohort study, we evaluated the rates of early ischaemic recurrence after an acute ischaemic stroke in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation or sustained atrial fibrillation which included persistent and permanent atrial fibrillation. Methods In patients with acute ischaemic stroke, atrial fibrillation was categorised as paroxysmal atrial fibrillation or sustained atrial fibrillation. Ischaemic recurrences were the composite of ischaemic stroke, transient ischaemic attack and symptomatic systemic embolism occurring within 90 days from acute index stroke. Results A total of 2150 patients (1155 females, 53.7%) were enrolled: 930 (43.3%) had paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and 1220 (56.7%) sustained atrial fibrillation. During the 90-day follow-up, 111 ischaemic recurrences were observed in 107 patients: 31 in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (3.3%) and 76 with sustained atrial fibrillation (6.2%) (hazard ratio (HR) 1.86 (95% CI 1.24-2.81)). Patients with sustained atrial fibrillation were on average older, more likely to have diabetes mellitus, hypertension, history of stroke/ transient ischaemic attack, congestive heart failure, atrial enlargement, high baseline NIHSS-score and implanted pacemaker. After adjustment by Cox proportional hazard model, sustained atrial fibrillation was not associated with early ischaemic recurrences (adjusted HR 1.23 (95% CI 0.74-2.04)). Conclusions After acute ischaemic stroke, patients with sustained atrial fibrillation had a higher rate of early ischaemic recurrence than patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. After adjustment for relevant risk factors, sustained atrial fibrillation was not associated with a significantly higher risk of recurrence, thus suggesting that the risk profile associated with atrial fibrillation, rather than its pattern, is determinant for recurrence.
  • Paciaroni, Maurizio; Bandini, Fabio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Yaghi, Shadi; Furie, Karen L.; Tadi, Prasanna; Becattini, Cecilia; Zedde, Marialuisa; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H.; Lees, Kennedy R.; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; Acciarresi, Monica; D'Amore, Cataldo; Mosconi, Maria Giulia; Cimini, Ludovica Anna; Altavilla, Riccardo; Volpi, Giacomo; Bovi, Paolo; Carletti, Monica; Rigatelli, Alberto; Cappellari, Manuel; Putaala, Jukka; Tomppo, Liisa; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Marcheselli, Simona; Pezzini, Alessandro; Poli, Loris; Padovani, Alessandro; Masotti, Luca; Vannucchi, Vieri; Sohn, Sung-Il; Lorenzini, Gianni; Tassi, Rossana; Guideri, Francesca; Acampa, Maurizio; Martini, Giuseppe; Ntaios, George; Athanasakis, George; Makaritsis, Konstantinos; Karagkiozi, Efstathia; Vadikolias, Konstantinos; Liantinioti, Chrissoula; Chondrogianni, Maria; Mumoli, Nicola; Consoli, Domenico; Galati, Franco; Sacco, Simona; Carolei, Antonio; Tiseo, Cindy; Corea, Francesco; Ageno, Walter; Bellesini, Marta; Colombo, Giovanna; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Ciccone, Alfonso; Lanari, Alessia; Scoditti, Umberto; Denti, Licia; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Maccarrone, Miriam; Ulivi, Leonardo; Orlandi, Giovanni; Giannini, Nicola; Gialdini, Gino; Tassinari, Tiziana; De Lodovici, Maria Luisa; Bono, Giorgio; Rueckert, Christina; Baldi, Antonio; D'Anna, Sebastiano; Toni, Danilo; Letteri, Federica; Giuntini, Martina; Lotti, Enrico Maria; Flomin, Yuriy; Pieroni, Alessio; Kargiotis, Odysseas; Karapanayiotides, Theodore; Monaco, Serena; Baronello, Mario Maimone; Csiba, Laszlo; Szabo, Lilla; Chiti, Alberto; Giorli, Elisa; Del Sette, Massimo; Imberti, Davide; Zabzuni, Dorjan; Doronin, Boris; Volodina, Vera; Michel, Patrik; Vanacker, Peter; Barlinn, Kristian; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Barlinn, Jessica; Deleu, Dirk; Melikyan, Gayane; Ibrahim, Faisal; Akhtar, Naveed; Gourbali, Vanessa; Caso, Valeria (2018)
    Background-In patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation, early anticoagulation prevents ischemic recurrence but with the risk of hemorrhagic transformation (HT). The aims of this study were to evaluate in consecutive patients with acute stroke and atrial fibrillation (1) the incidence of early HT, (2) the time to initiation of anticoagulation in patients with HT, (3) the association of HT with ischemic recurrences, and (4) the association of HT with clinical outcome at 90 days. Methods and Results-HT was diagnosed by a second brain computed tomographic scan performed 24 to 72 hours after stroke onset. The incidence of ischemic recurrences as well as mortality or disability (modified Rankin Scale scores > 2) were evaluated at 90 days. Ischemic recurrences were the composite of ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, or systemic embolism. Among the 2183 patients included in the study, 241 (11.0%) had HT. Patients with and without HT initiated anticoagulant therapy after a mean 23.3 and 11.6 days, respectively, from index stroke. At 90 days, 4.6% (95% confidence interval, 2.3-8.0) of the patients with HT had ischemic recurrences compared with 4.9% (95% confidence interval, 4.0-6.0) of those without HT; 53.1% of patients with HT were deceased or disabled compared with 35.8% of those without HT. On multivariable analysis, HT was associated with mortality or disability (odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-2.35). Conclusions-In patients with HT, anticoagulation was initiated about 12 days later than patients without HT. This delay was not associated with increased detection of ischemic recurrence. HT was associated with increased mortality or disability.
  • Teppo, Konsta; Jaakkola, Jussi; Airaksinen, K. E. Juhani; Biancari, Fausto; Halminen, Olli; Putaala, Jukka; Mustonen, Pirjo; Haukka, Jari; Hartikainen, Juha; Luojus, Alex; Niemi, Mikko; Linna, Miika; Lehto, Mika (2022)
    BACKGROUND: Mental health conditions (MHCs) are associated with poor outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation. However, persistence of oral anticoagulation therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation and MHCs is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effect of MHCs on the persistence of direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) use in patients with atrial fibrillation based on a nationwide cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: The nationwide registry-based FinACAF (Finnish Anticoagulation in Atrial Fibrillation) cohort included 67 503 patients with incident atrial fibrillation and indication for permanent oral anticoagulation (CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score >1 in men and >2 in women) starting DOAC therapy between 2011 and 2018. MHCs of interest were depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, and composite of any MHC. The main outcome was nonpersistence of DOAC use, defined as the first 120-day period without DOAC purchases after drug initiation. The mean age of the patients was 75.3 +/- 8.9 years, 53.6% were women, and the prevalence of any MHC was 17.8%. Persistence after 1 year from DOAC initiation was 79.3% in patients without MHCs and 77.2% in patients with any MHC, and after 2 years were 64.4% and 60.6%, respectively (P CONCLUSIONS: MHCs are associated with nonpersistence of DOAC use.
  • Paana, T; Jaakkola, S; Biancari, F; Nuotio, I; Vasankari, T; Kiviniemi, TO; Airaksinen, KEJ (2021)
    Background There are limited data on the association of minor troponin elevation in unselected patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) presenting to the emergency department (ED) with adverse events. In this study, we sought to assess the early and mid-term mortality of these patients. Methods In this observational study, 2911 patients with AF were admitted to the ED. They were divided into 3 groups based on peak high-sensitivity troponin (TnT) levels: normal ( Results All-cause mortality was 6.7% (n = 196) at 30 days and 22.2% (n = 646) at 1 year. Mortality rate increased along with increasing levels of TnT irrespective of baseline covariates, primary discharge diagnosis and type of AF. A significant association between TnT levels and all-cause mortality was observed. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) at 30 days was 6.02 (95% CI 2.62-13.83) for TnT 15-50 ng/L and 11.28 (95% CI 4.87-26.12) for TnT 51-100 ng/L (P Conclusions Among patients with AF admitted to the ED, increased TnT levels were associated with increased early and mid-term all-cause mortality irrespective of baseline covariates and type of AF.
  • Aarnio, Emma; Huupponen, Risto; Hämeen-Anttila, Katri; Merikoski, Merja; Puhakka, Jaana; Korhonen, Maarit J. (2019)
    Direct oral anticoagulants provide an alternative to vitamin K antagonists for the anticoagulation therapy in atrial fibrillation (AF). The availability of several treatment options with different attributes makes shared decision-making appropriate for the choice of anticoagulation therapy. The aim of this study was to understand how physicians choose an oral anticoagulant (OAC) for patients with AF and how physicians view patients' participation in this decision. Semi-structured interviews with 17 Finnish physicians (eight general practitioners and nine specialists) working in the public sector were conducted. An interview guide on experience, prescribing and opinions about oral anticoagulants was developed based on previous literature. The data were thematically analysed using deductive and inductive approaches. Based on the interviews, patient's opinion was the most influential factor in decision-making when there were no clinical factors limiting the choice between OACs. Of patient's preferences, the most important was the attitude towards co-payments of OACs. Patients' opinions on monitoring of treatment, dosing and antidote availability were also mentioned by the interviewees. The choice of an OAC in AF was patient-centred as all interviewees expressed that patient's opinion affects the choice.
  • Savolainen, Jyri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Aorttaläpän ahtauma on yleisin sydämen läppäsairaus länsimaissa. Väestön yhä ikääntyessä potilaiden määrä kasvaa merkittävästi tulevina vuosina. Lääkkeellistä hoitoa aorttaläpän ahtaumaan tai sen estoon ei ole. Aorttaläppä voidaan korvata biologisella tekoläpällä avoleikkauksessa ja nykyisin valtimoteitse asennettavia TAVI-läppiä asennetaan enenevissä määrin suuren leikkausriskin potilaille. Tässä retrospektiivisessä kansallisessa monikeskustutkimuksessa kerättiin tiedot 721 potilaasta, joille oli asennettu avokirurgisesti ja isoloidusti biologinen aorttaläppäproteesi. Potilaiden taustatiedot kerättiin neljästä suomalaisesta yliopistosairaalasta osana CAREAVR-projektia (1). Tämän tutkielman tarkoitus oli selvittää potilaiden preoperatiivisen munuaisfunktion vaikutusta ennalta valittuihin päätetapahtumiin, joita olivat uusi eteisvärinä, merkittävät verenvuodot, aivoinfarkti tai TIA-kohtaus sekä kuolleisuus. Aiempaa tutkimustietoa munuaisfunktion vaikutuksista kuolleisuuteen ja muihin päätetapahtumiin aorttaläppäleikkauspotilailla on ollut saatavilla niukasti, ja tutkimusasetelmat ovat olleet suurelta osin puutteellisia mm. seurannan järjestymisen osalta. Tutkimusasetelmassa potilaat jaettiin preoperatiivisen munuaiskerästen suodatusnopeuden (eGFR) perusteella kahteen ryhmään käyttäen jakoa eGFR<60 ml/min ja eGFR≥60 ml/min. Näiden kahden potilasryhmän taustatiedot taulukoitiin systemaattisesti. Seuranta-aika kuolleisuudelle oli 8,4 vuotta (kvartiilivälin pituus [IQR] 6,5–10,3 vuotta) ja muille päätetapahtumille 4,7 vuotta (IQR 2,9–6,9 vuotta). Heikentynyt suodatusnopeus eGFR<60 ml/min lisäsi yhden muuttujan mallissa selvästi kuolleisuutta, hieman yli 70 % pitkäaikaisseurannassa. Eroa näytti tulevan jo ensimmäisinä kuukausina leikkauksen jälkeen ja tästä eteenpäin hiljalleen lisääntyen (HR 1,709, 95% LV 1,342–2,175, p<0,0001). Preoperatiivinen eGFR ei ennakoinut muiden päätetapahtumien ilmaantuvuutta.
  • Acciarresi, Monica; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Falocci, Nicola; Caso, Valeria; Becattini, Cecilia; Marcheselli, Simona; Rueckert, Christina; Pezzini, Alessandro; Morotti, Andrea; Costa, Paolo; Padovani, Alessandro; Csiba, Laszlo; Szabo, Lilla; Sohn, Sung-Il; Tassinari, Tiziana; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H.; Michel, Patrik; Cordier, Maria; Vanacker, Peter; Remillard, Suzette; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; D'Amore, Cataldo; Scoditti, Umberto; Denti, Licia; Orlandi, Giovanni; Chiti, Alberto; Gialdini, Gino; Bovi, Paolo; Carletti, Monica; Rigatelli, Alberto; Putaala, Jukka; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Masotti, Luca; Lorenzini, Gianni; Tassi, Rossana; Guideri, Francesca; Martini, Giuseppe; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Vadikolias, Kostantinos; Liantinioti, Chrissoula; Corea, Francesco; Del Sette, Massimo; Ageno, Walter; De Lodovici, Maria Luisa; Bono, Giorgio; Baldi, Antonio; D'Anna, Sebastiano; Sacco, Simona; Carolei, Antonio; Tiseo, Cindy; Imberti, Davide; Zabzuni, Dorjan; Doronin, Boris; Volodina, Vera; Consoli, Domenico; Galati, Franco; Pieroni, Alessio; Toni, Danilo; Monaco, Serena; Baronello, Mario Maimone; Barlinn, Kristian; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Kepplinger, Jessica; Bodechtel, Ulf; Gerber, Johannes; Deleu, Dirk; Melikyan, Gayane; Ibrahim, Faisal; Akhtar, Naveed; Mosconi, Maria Giulia; Lees, Kennedy R. (2017)
    Background and Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate for a possible association between both prestroke CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score and the severity of stroke at presentation, as well as disability and mortality at 90 days, in patients with acute stroke and atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: This prospective study enrolled consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, AF, and assessment of prestroke CHA2DS2-VASc score. Severity of stroke was assessed on admission using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (severe stroke: NIHSS >= 10). Disability and mortality at 90 days were assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS <3 or >= 3). Multiple logistic regression was used to correlate prestroke CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc and severity of stroke, as well as disability and mortality at 90 days. Results: Of the 1020 patients included in the analysis, 606 patients had an admission NIHSS score lower and 414 patients higher than 10. At 90 days, 510 patients had mRS >= 3. A linear correlation was found between the prestroke CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score and severity of stroke (P = .001). On multivariate analysis, CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score correlated with severity of stroke (P = .041) and adverse functional outcome (mRS = 3) (P = .001). A logistic regression with the receiver operating characteristic graph procedure (C-statistics) evidenced an area under the curve of .60 (P = .0001) for severe stroke. Furthermore, a correlation was found between prestroke CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score and lesion size. Conclusions: In patients with AF, in addition to the risk of stroke, a high CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score was independently associated with both stroke severity at onset and disability and mortality at 90 days.
  • Hijazi, Ziad; Lindahl, Bertil; Oldgren, Jonas; Andersson, Ulrika; Lindback, Johan; Granger, Christopher B.; Alexander, John H.; Gersh, Bernard J.; Hanna, Michael; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Hylek, Elaine M.; Lopes, Renato D.; Siegbahn, Agneta; Wallentin, Lars (2017)
    Background--Cardiac biomarkers are independent risk markers in atrial fibrillation, and the novel biomarker-based ABC stroke score (age, biomarkers, and clinical history of prior stroke) was recently shown to improve the prediction of stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation. Our aim was to investigate the short-term variability of the cardiac biomarkers and evaluate whether the ABC stroke risk score provides a stable short- term risk estimate. Methods and Results--According to the study protocol, samples were obtained at entry and also at 2 months in 4796 patients with atrial fibrillation followed for a median of 1.8 years in the ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) trial. Cardiac troponin I, cardiac troponin T, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide were measured with high-sensitivity immunoassays. Associations with outcomes were evaluated by Cox regression. C indices and calibration plots were used to evaluate the ABC stroke score at 2 months. The average changes in biomarker levels during 2 months were small ( median change cardiac troponin T +2.8%, troponin I +2.0%, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide +13.5%) and within-subject correlation was high ( all >= 0.82). Repeated measurement of cardiac biomarkers provided some incremental prognostic value for mortality but not for stroke when combined with clinical risk factors and baseline levels of the biomarkers. Based on 8702 person-years of follow-up and 96 stroke/systemic embolic events, the ABC stroke score at 2 months achieved a similar C index of 0.70 (95% CI, 0.65-0.76) as compared with 0.70 (95% CI, 0.65-0.75) at baseline. The ABC stroke score remained well calibrated using predefined risk classes. Conclusions--In patients with stable atrial fibrillation, the variability of the cardiac biomarkers and the biomarker- based ABC stroke score during 2 months are small. The prognostic information by the ABC stroke score remains consistent and well calibrated with similar good predictive performance if patients are retested after 2 months. Clinical Trial Registration --URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00412984.
  • Koivula, Teija (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac arythmia. It has been estimated that there will be 14 to 17 million atrial fibrillation patients in Europe by the year 2030. In Finland, there are over 50 000 atrial fibrillation patients. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation increases by age. In addition to age, people who have hearth failure, high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, valvular hearth disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease or who suffer from obesity have increased prevalence. Atrial fibrillation is usually not a life threatening condition. However, people who suffer from atrial fibrillation have a greater risk of the stroke compared with people who have normal sinus rhythm. Warfarin has been the standard treatment for preventing the stroke in atrial fibrillation patients. However, there are many inconveniences in warfarin therapy such as food and drug interactions and frequent laboratory visits. Therefore, new oral anticoagulants have been introduced to prevent the stroke in non-valvular atrial fibrillation. These new drugs apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban and rivaroxaban are more expensive than warfarin. Many people suffer from atrial fibrillation and the number of atrial fibrillation patients is increasing. Due to the expected increase in the number of atrial fibrillation patients in future the costs of the new drugs have led to a concern for their impact on the health care budget. The knowledge of the cost-effectiveness of the new anticoagulants is important for decision making. In this Master's thesis, the cost-effectiveness of rivaroxaban was compared with warfarin for stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Systematic literature review was used as the study method and 363 studies were screened and 23 of them filled the inclusion criteria. One was a previously published systematic review and 22 were cost-utility studies. All of the cost-utility studies had used decision analytic modelling. The studies were conducted in 13 different countries. In the cost-utility studies included in this systematic review there was a great variability in the cost-effectiveness of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin. Rivaroxaban was cost-effective in more than half of the studies, for example in Belgium, Italy, Norway and Singapore. However, in China, Thailand and Slovenia the cost-effectiveness could not be established. Contradictory cost-effectiveness results were obtained in studies conducted in Germany, Canada and USA. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio varied from 2580 € to 174915 € per quality adjusted life years (QALY) gained with warfarin over all the 22 cost-utility studies. In studies conducted in Europe the incremental cost effectiveness ratio varied from 4188 € 139163 €/QALY gained. In studies where rivaroxaban, apixaban, dabigatran and warfarin were compared together using an indirect comparison or a network meta-analysis it seemed that rivaroxaban was not the optimal treatment. The most common adverse effect of anticoagulation treatment is bleeding. This complication was included in all the cost-utility studies. However, there was only some uniformity of the bleeding events reported. In most cost-utility studies the acute care cost of intracranial hemorrhages was reported and in many studies, also the long term costs. The cost-utility studies included in this systematic review were quite heterogeneous. Because they were done in different countries their health care settings, treatment options and costs were different. There were also differences in cost-effective models. Modell structure, settings, data and assumptions were different. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the studies, no unambiguous answer could be reached to the question concerning the cost-effectiveness of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin. The quality assessment of the cost-utility studies revealed that some quality criteria were not met. Transferability of the results from one country to the other seemed to be poor. The strength of this master's thesis is the comprehensive literature search concerning the cost-effectiveness of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin. Also, the reporting of methods and results are transparent. There are also limitations in this study. One person was conducting the literature search, data extraction and quality assessment. This might have increased the risk for subjective interpretations and errors.
  • Väliaho, Eemu-Samuli; Kuoppa, Pekka; Lipponen, Jukka A.; Hartikainen, Juha E. K.; Jäntti, Helena; Rissanen, Tuomas T; Kolk, Indrek; Pohjantähti-Maaroos, Hanna; Castrén, Maaret; Halonen, Jari; Tarvainen, Mika P.; Santala, Onni E.; Martikainen, Tero J. (2021)
    Atrial fibrillation is often asymptomatic and intermittent making its detection challenging. A photoplethysmography (PPG) provides a promising option for atrial fibrillation detection. However, the shapes of pulse waves vary in atrial fibrillation decreasing pulse and atrial fibrillation detection accuracy. This study evaluated ten robust photoplethysmography features for detection of atrial fibrillation. The study was a national multi-center clinical study in Finland and the data were combined from two broader research projects (NCT03721601, URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03721601 and NCT03753139, URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03753139). A photoplethysmography signal was recorded with a wrist band. Five pulse interval variability, four amplitude features and a novel autocorrelation-based morphology feature were calculated and evaluated independently as predictors of atrial fibrillation. A multivariate predictor model including only the most significant features was established. The models were 10-fold cross-validated. 359 patients were included in the study (atrial fibrillation n = 169, sinus rhythm n = 190). The autocorrelation univariate predictor model detected atrial fibrillation with the highest area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) value of 0.982 (sensitivity 95.1%, specificity 93.7%). Autocorrelation was also the most significant individual feature (p < 0.00001) in the multivariate predictor model, detecting atrial fibrillation with AUC of 0.993 (sensitivity 96.4%, specificity 96.3%). Our results demonstrated that the autocorrelation independently detects atrial fibrillation reliably without the need of pulse detection. Combining pulse wave morphology-based features such as autocorrelation with information from pulse-interval variability it is possible to detect atrial fibrillation with high accuracy with a commercial wrist band. Photoplethysmography wrist bands accompanied with atrial fibrillation detection algorithms utilizing autocorrelation could provide a computationally very effective and reliable wearable monitoring method in screening of atrial fibrillation.