Browsing by Subject "authenticity"

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  • Tian, Yun (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This thesis explores how national identification is represented in nineteenth-century Finnish artworks. More specifically, it focuses on the paintings of Akseli Gallén-Kallela. Akseli Gallén-Kallela was an active artist who devoted himself to constructing and disseminating the notions of a “Finnish” and “Finnish nation”. The main objective of this study is to understand how Gallén-Kallela managed to construct and circulate the ideas of nation and national identification in his paintings. My theoretical framework is based on Anthony D. Smith’s ethno-symbolistic approach and W.J.T. Mitchell’s notion of “landscape as a cultural medium”. The former insists that each nation has an ethnic core that not only provides cultural conformity but also a lasting sense of continuity. It advocates a study of ethnie and nation from a visual analytic perspective. The latter claims that landscape also serves as a cultural practice that helps the formation of social subjects. The main finding of this study is that Gallén-Kallela managed to create a Finnish ethnoscape, that is, a landscape attached with Finnish physical characters and spiritual qualities. Moreover, by authenticating his experience of nature and rural life, Gallén-Kallela attempted to represent and promote what he believed to be nationally unique and valuable for Finnish people. He attempted to translate the abstract notion of nation and identity into something tangible and accessible to common people. Gallén-Kallela’s love for his homeland and his rural friends became the initial inspiration of his artistry. His work is a complex of ethnos and wilderness. They contain power to raise one’s sentiment and sympathy. The artist himself, as an artist and cultural communicator, managed to paint down and promote Finnish ethnic distinctiveness with his profound love and loyalty to his homeland.
  • Veteli, Peitsa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Opetus- ja tutkimusmaailmojen välillä koetaan olevan rako, jota voidaan pitää osasyynä yleisesti havaittuun opiskelijoiden matalaan motivaatioon luonnontieteellisiä aloja kohtaan. Samassa yhteydessä esiin nousevat autenttisuuden ja relevanssin käsitteet, joilla voidaan kuvata eri tavoilla tapahtuvan toiminnan ”aitoutta” tai mielekkyyttä. Tässä työssä esitellään Fysiikan tutkimuslaitos HIP:in (Helsinki Institute of Physics) Avoin data opetuksessa -projektin myötä kehitettyjä merkityksellisen ohjelmoinnin työkaluja, joissa hyödynnetään muun muassa CERNissä toimivan CMS-kokeen (Compact Muon Solenoid) avoimia hiukkastutkimuksen aineistoja. Näiden materiaalien siirtymistä opettajakunnan avuksi tuetaan koulutuksilla, joista kerättyä palautetta analysoidaan tässä tutkielmassa laajemman tiedeopetuksen autenttisuuteen ja avoimen datan hyödyntämiseen liittyvän keskustelun yhteydessä. Avoimen datan hyödyntäminen ja opetuksellinen tutkiminen ovat hyvin nuoria aloja, joiden eturintamaan tämäkin työ asettuu. Aineistoa on kerätty sekä suomalaisilta (n = 64) että kansainvälisiltä (n = 12) toisen asteen opettajilta, minkä lisäksi vertailukohtana käytetään opiskelijatyöpajoista nousseita kommentteja (n = 62). Menetelmänä toimii temaattinen analyysi, jonka tulokset ovat vertailukelpoisia muuhun luonnontieteen opetuksen tutkimuskirjallisuuteen. Tutkimuskysymyksenä on: Miten autenttisuus esiintyy opettajien palautteessa hiukkasfysiikan avoimen datan opetuskäytön kursseilta ja kuinka se vertautuu tiedeopetuksen tutkimuskirjallisuuteen? Tuloksista havaitaan opettajien näkemysten asettuvan hyvin saman suuntaisesti kuin verrokkikirjallisuuden pohjalta olisi voinut olettaakin, yleisimpien autenttisuuden yhteyksien painottuessa tutkijoiden toimintaan verrattaviin työskentelytapoihin ja ”oikean maailman” haasteisiin. Palautteen lähes yksimielinen positiivisuus antaa vahvaa indikaatiota projektin tarjoamien mahdollisuuksien hyödyllisyydestä ja tukee alalla kaivattavien jatkotutkimusten kannattavuutta.
  • Katajamäki, Waltteri (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    The objective of this pro gradu thesis is to examine how the Fair Tourism Project of the Association of Small-Scale Banana Producers of El Guabo (Asoguabo) has been constructed. This study examines the construction of the project from two different angles: First, how and why Asoguabo has diversified from banana production to tourism; and second, what kind of image has been constructed of the project through marketing, and how have the imageries used in fair trade marketing been adopted in the construction of fair tourism. The theoretical framework for the research consists of the ideas of nueva ruralidad, new rurality, which deal with changes in rural areas. Tourism has changed over the last few decades, and tourists are increasingly looking for real and authentic travel experiences. Simultaneously, tourism has been commodified by emphasising certain features of sustainable development, and especially in the developing world, tourism is often marketed under the brand of alternative, community-based, or ecotourism. As a new concept, fair tourism has joined this wide variety of different brands, and this thesis discusses the project of Asoguabo from the point of view of fair tourism. This thesis is a case study on the Fair Tourism Project of Asoguabo, and it is based on fieldwork of one month in Ecuador in January 2010, as well as on the author's previous experiences from Asoguabo. The data consists of 21 semi-structured qualitative interviews with sixteen informants, most of who were closely related to the Fair Tourism Project. Apart from the interviews, data were collected through participant observation and content analysis of the promotion materials of the project. This thesis shows how the Fair Tourism Project faces a number of challenges before it can achieve its objective of creating additional income for Asoguabo. The research shows how the project mainly benefitted those few members of the association, who work in the project as guides. These guides profit directly from the project by obtaining small additional income, by growing their social capital, and by getting an opportunity to learn through participating in different courses, for example. The results of the research also show how communication problems between the different actors in the project exacerbate the information flow and consequently activities of the Fair Tourism Project. These problems also increase the levels of uncertainty about the project among the farmers of Asoguabo. In addition, the thesis shows that, to some extent, similar imageries are being used in the marketing of the Fair Tourism Project as in the marketing of agricultural fair trade commodities. However there are surprisingly few producers portrayed in the promotion material and pictures of European tourists are often at the centre stage.
  • Stamer, Insa; Pönicke, Hanno; Tirre, Frederike; Laherto, Antti; Höffler, Tim; Schwarzer, Stefan; Parchmann, Ilka (2020)
    Background: Many students have incomplete or incorrect perceptions of science and scientists. These simplified images, mediated by media or influential agents of socialisation, result in common stereotypes. Especially for occupational choices it is important to convey an authentic image about science and scientists. Purpose: One manner to convey an authentic image and thus the aim of this study is the development and validation of scientific videos including collected activities of scientists. Program description: Professors were interviewed regarding their typical scientific activities. This was followed by the development of a questionnaire which was answered by junior scientists. Authentic scientific videos were developed and finally validated in a science lab for school-students based on qualitative and quantitative results. Sample: 92 junior scientists answered the questionnaire and eight professors and 96 students (31 girls and 65 boys; grade 10 to 13) were interviewed. Design and methods: The scientists were surveyed before the development of the videos. The RIASEC+N model was used to categorise the collected activities of scientists. Finally, students were interviewed for the video validation. Results: A number of different scientific activities of each RIASEC+N dimension could be detected, which were then integrated into four videos. The interviewed students who watched those videos successfully identified all of the activities. Conclusion: The working day of scientists contains more than stereotypical aspects and well-considered/planned videos are one suitable option to promote an authentic overview about science and scientists.
  • Kapon, Shulamit; Laherto, Antti; Levrini, Olivia (2018)
    Pursuing both disciplinary authenticity and personal relevance in the teaching and learning of science in school generates tensions that should be acknowledged and resolved. This paper problematizes and explores the conceptualizations of these tensions by considering personal relevance, disciplinary authenticity, and common school science as three perspectives that entail different educational goals. Based on an analysis of the literature, we identify five facets of the tensions: content fidelity, content coverage, language and discursive norms, epistemic structure and standards, and significance. We then explore the manifestations of these facets in two different examples of the instruction and learning of physics at the advanced high school level in Israel and Italy. Our analysis suggests that (1) the manifestations of these tensions and their resolution are highly contextual. (2) While maintaining personal relevance and disciplinary authenticity requires some negotiation, the main tension that needs to be resolved is between personal relevance and common school science. (3) Disciplinary authenticity, when considered in terms of its full depth and scope, can be equipped to resolve this tension within the discipline. (4) To achieve resolution, teachers’ expertise should include not only pedagogical expertise but also a deep and broad disciplinary understanding.
  • Airaskorpi, Aurora (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    In the second millennium, the number of blogs, alongside with other user-generated content has grown explosively all over the globe. In Finland, blogs have a strong foothold in the genre of lifestyle media. Bloggers have become independent media entrepreneurs and they have also been employed by media companies. Lifestyle blogs and women’s magazines intersect in many respects. One of the most important intersections is their readership. Many magazine readers read blogs and some have also replaced magazine reading with blog reading. The aim of this study was to find out why the reader’s relationship with lifestyle blogs is different from her relationship with women’s magazines and what implications this may have for the future of lifestyle media. The field of lifestyle blogs has thus far not been widely researched and very little is still known about the reading practices of blogs. In this thesis I compare the reading of blogs with the reading of women’s magazines. I study the role of the blogosphere by examining previous literature about women’s magazines, user-generated content and blogging as a phenomenon. I examine the reader-relationship of blogs from the point of view of journalistic professionalism, in the sense that it applies to women’s magazines; as well as authenticity, a concept previously associated with representations of ordinary people in the media. For my empirical analysis I have conducted a reader-study of the readers of the Finnish Costume magazine. The participants of my study were females from 16 to 32 of age. I employed a set of mixed methods to study the relationship that these readers had with blogs and magazines. My main findings in this study were that the reading of women’s magazines is motivated by the professionalism of magazine journalists whereas lifestyle blog reading is motivated by the perceived authenticity of the blogger. As such, blogs and magazines appear to fulfil two different functions. I also discovered that some of the reading practices previously associated with magazines have been transferred as such to blogs but some of them have been highlighted or reshaped by the reading of blogs. A key implication of this study is that blogs and magazines remediate each other and reshape the expectations that readers have of the lifestyle media genre.
  • Suomi, Kirsi Marja-Leena (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Tourism is one of important livelihoods in Lapland. Christmas tourism was launched in the early 1980s and it became a success story - being labelled as the most epochal tourism product in Finland. Hence, today Christmas tourists are one of the most significant foreign groups arriving to Lapland during the winter season and contributing considerably to the economics of the northeastern periphery of the EU. Christmas tourism concentrates around Father Christmas who uses reindeer for transportation. The Sâmi are the only indigenous people in the EU. They are all stereotypically perceived to be reindeer herders. Somehow these three, that is, Santa Claus, reindeer and the Sâmi, have been incorporated into same fairytale dominion. In practice, this has happened by using the most visible cultural but also significant identity marker of the Sämi, the Sâmi costume. This, in turn, has created controversy over authenticity due to manners in which the costume is used in tourism - often in imitational, mismatched forms by non-Sâmi. In this thesis, after relevant literature review I intend to establish how the Sâmi are represented in Christmas tourism through visual data consisting of ten images from three foreign sources. Then I clarify why and to whom it matters of how the Sâmi are represented in Christmas tourism with the aid of 65 questionnaires and nineteen expert interviews collected mainly in the Finnish Sâmi Home Region in October 2009. Through the multiplicity of the voices of various interest and ethnic groups and by using critical discourse analysis I attempt to give an overview of the respondents opinions and look at some preliminary solutions to the controversy. Based on my data, the non-Sâmi appear to accept the Sâmi costume usage in Christmas tourism most readily. Consequently, respect and attitudinal changes have become the respondents propositions in addition to common set of rules of how the Sâmi image could be appropriated without violating the integrity of the Sâmi people, or a similar system of Sámi Duodji trademark guaranteeing the authenticity of the tourism products. Additionally, though half of the interviewees explicate Sami presence in Christmas tourism by adding local flavour to otherwise commercial enterprise, the other half see no rationale to connect facts with fiction, that is, the Sâmi with Santa Claus.
  • Särkkä-Tirkkonen, Anne Marjo Kaarina; Mynttinen, Sinikka; Logrén, Johanna; Rautiainen, Teija (Association for Tourism and Leisure Education and Research, 2015)
    Russians are the largest national group among tourists visiting Finland, even after the recent downturn caused by the economic situation/devaluation of the Ruble. Russian tourists in Finland spend money mainly on food, household goods, sweets and children's clothing. Thus, food is a fundamental element of the holiday experience. Finnish food products are highly valued by Russians, and, therefore, Russian tourists are an interesting target group in order to understand the perceptions of authenticity better in relation to local food as a tourism experience. Moreover, the research focused on this topic has been quite scarce so far. Foods and drinks engage all the senses and have strong connections with place, because we have personal, sensory memories of consuming them in a certain setting. It can be argued that food has an ability to recall emotions and that is why tourists often search for authentic experiences via food products. Furthermore, they buy food e.g. as souvenirs in order to relive the holiday events with family and friends at home. Among Russian tourists also cross-border food tourism is common based on perceptions of high-quality foodstuffs and authenticity of the products in their original environment. The process of forming the perception of an authentic food experience is very sensitive. An essential element in this process is trust, which is founded upon past experiences and knowledge and, at the same time, upon expectations for the future. Further, it is proposed that together with pre-contractual trust, trust in individuals and collective entities plays a role in the process of creating predictability. Thus, tourists’ perceptions of authenticity of local food are argued to relate to their trust in the food chain as a whole as well as in its actors: farmers, processors of food, restaurants, retail and the control system. This study applies qualitative methods to reach a more in-depth understanding of Russian tourists’ relations to local food during their visit to Finland, especially, their trust in its authenticity. The results show that there is an interaction between the three forms of trust and perceived authenticity of local food among Russian tourists. The perceived authenticity and trust, accordingly, seem to be based on a positive image of Finnish food throughout the post-soviet period, the institutional performance of the Finnish food system as well as one’s own and other’s experiences.
  • Laherto, Antti; Tirre, Frederike; Parchmann, Ilka; Kampschulte, Lorenz; Schwarzer, Stefan (2018)
    Some level of understanding of and about nanoscience and nanotechnology (NST) has been suggested as being relevant in up-to-date scientific literacy for all. Research scientists working in these fields are central in current efforts to inform and engage the public in NST. Earlier research has shown that scientists can contribute to authentic science learning, but communication always entails roles that affect the choice of content. This study investigated NST researchers’ views on the nature of their research and their preferences in NST communication. Eight experienced professors working in various fields of NST were interviewed. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews focused on the scientists’ views on 1) the nature of their research, and 2) aspects of NST that should be communicated to the public. Qualitative content analysis of the interviews revealed that the themes the interviewees highlighted when describing their research (interdisciplinarity, size scale, methods, objects, nature of NST in general) were somewhat different from the ones they considered as important for communication to the public (applications and products, risks and benefits, visualizations). The results problematize the simplistic notion that exposure to real scientists would unquestionably enhance the authenticity of science learning. This study gives insight for research and development of science communication, especially scientists’ role and training in it.
  • Martela, Frank; Pessi, Anne B. (2018)
    Research on meaningful work has proliferated in recent years, with an increasing understanding of the centrality of meaningfulness for work-related motivation, commitment, and well-being. However, ambiguity around the main construct, "meaningful work," has hindered this progress as various researchers have used partly overlapping, partly differing conceptualizations. To bring clarity to this issue, we examine a broad range of various definitions of meaningful work and come to argue that meaningfulness in the broadest sense is about work significance as an overall evaluation of work as regards whether it is intrinsically valuable and worth doing. Furthermore, we argue that there are two key sub-dimensions to this work significance: Broader purpose as work serving some greater good or prosocial goals (the intrinsic value of work beyond the person in question). And self-realization as a sense of autonomy, authenticity and self-expression at work (the intrinsic value of work for the person in question). Previous definitions of meaningful work feature typically one or two of these elements-significance, broader purpose, self-realization -, but in the future it would be beneficial to clearly acknowledge all three elements in both definitions and operationalizations of meaningful work.
  • Valjanen, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This thesis is an ethnographic study about rap, rock, and metal scenes in today’s Tehran. The study takes off from hip-hop scholars Pennycook’s and Mitchell’s proposition of hip-hop as “dusty foot philosophy” which is rooted at local dusty ground while articulating philosophies of global significance. This study aims to examine what kind of spaces are these dusty streets in Tehran and how does Tehran’s urban landscape inform music making and music aesthetics. This study focuses on how notions of belonging, space, and place have been expressed by rappers and rockers both in their music making and their embodied use of urban spaces. Followingly it will observe how urban realities, urban space, and geographical segregation are perceived, challenged, and reclaimed through their craft. The study asks how underground musicians are debating questions of authenticity that have risen along music’s localization, and how musicians strive for artistic legitimacy which would verify their street credibility both within their local music scenes and wider society, as well as within global music community. The study is based on an ethnographic fieldwork carried out in Tehran between 2012 and 2014. This is a multi-sited ethnographic research and employs phenomenological approach to analyse subjective and embodied experiences in the urban space. Methodologically it is based on participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and email interviews. The study includes dozens of rappers, rockers, and metalheads, most of whom are young male between 19 and 35 both from lower-class and middle-class backgrounds. Few of the musicians are young female as well. This thesis is a contribution to Iranian popular music studies and to our understanding of everyday realities of Tehrani rappers and rockers and music life in the city. It aims to shed some light to the ongoing democratization of music production which is rapidly changing the demographics of Tehran’s underground music scene. The study aims to underline that Tehran’s underground music scene is a heterogeneous space consisting of musicians from different socioeconomic backgrounds and genres having diverse and contradictory aspirations, music aesthetics, and styles. Accordingly, it applies intersectional approach which helps to grasp multiple experiences within the same and shared social space. The study aims to problematize the persistent understanding of underground music scene as inherently subversive and emancipatory space, and argues that individual musicians don’t have an equal access to these allegedly “emancipatory” spaces nor equal opportunities to make a professional career out of music. Furthermore, it is argued that this highly politicized understanding might do more harm than good for underground musicians who are considered defiant against their own aspirations. The study argues that the spatial surroundings of rap and rock scenes look very different. While rock and metal musicians mainly gather, rehearse, and record indoors, rappers have more visibly taken over public spaces by gathering and battling at different urban locations around the city. The study concludes that socioeconomic background and gender affects to a great extent in how musicians experience public sphere and musical spaces and how they move in them. Simultaneously, the study aims to show that global hip-hop discourse that privileges “ghetto life” and hardships in life can be self-empowering narrative for rappers from lower-class families, mainly from south Tehran which has been historically perceived as poor, traditional, conservative, and backward. The study argues that the democratization is gradually going beyond rap music as well, and there exists increasingly more rock and metal musicians from low-income and religious families. The study concludes that music is a powerful tool for constructing self-identity and demanding social and cultural change. Ultimately, the study aims to show how conscious Tehrani musicians are pushing for wider cultural and global change by telling local philosophies of global significance.