Browsing by Subject "autismikirjo"

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  • Korhonen, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The purpose of the study is to find out how guardians of children with autism spectrum experience the implementation of support in early childhood education. In the past few years, the diagnosis of autism spectrum has become more common in children of early childhood age, so the number of children diagnosed has increased in early childhood education. Children have been placed in different kindergarten groups, taking into account support needs, but the educating community with know-how may be absent from the groups. In this case, the child’s personally directed support also suffers. In the past, the views of early childhood educators on the rehabilitation of children with autism spectrum disorder in early childhood education have been studied more, but the guardians’ thoughts on the implementation of support and early childhood education are few. The aim of the study is to find out whether the child’s personal support needs have been taken into account in the group and whether the child receives enough support in the opinion of the guardians. The study was conducted through individual interviews by remotely interviewing guardians of children with autism spectrum in early childhood education. The research was carried out using qualitative methods and the research material was analyzed on the basis of data by means of content analysis. The theoretical background of the study is based on the forms and arrangements of support for early childhood education, research data on the autism spectrum, laws, regulations and policies related to the early childhood education of children with autism spectrum and early childhood education in general. The results of the study on the experiences of guardians of autism spectrum children about the support received by the child in early childhood education or pre-school education were expressed by the guardians'views on gaps in support, reinforcing factors in support and guardians' wishes for good and adequate support. The guardians felt that the input of certain employees, the close co-operation between the kindergarten educators and the family, and the consideration of individual support needs were positive things. The guardians felt that the lack of information, insufficient resources and a lack of knowledge about the children were negative things in support. In addition, the guardians described that not enough children's special means of communication were used. In particular, carers wanted more resources, stronger staff training and the necessary support services to support early childhood education.
  • Wiklund, Mari; Laakso, Minna (2020)
    This paper analyses disfluencies and ungrammatical expressions in the speech of 11–13-year-old Finnish-speaking boys with ASD (N = 5) and with neurotypical development (N=6). The ASD data were from authentic group therapy sessions and neurotypical data from teacher-led group discussions. The proportion of disfluencies and ungrammatical expressions was greater in the speech of participants with ASD (26.4%) than in the control group (15.5%). Furthermore, a qualitative difference was noted: The ASD group produced long, complex disfluent turns with word searches, self-repairs, false starts, fillers, prolongations, inconsistent syntactic structures and grammatical errors, whereas in the control group, the disfluencies were mainly fillers and sound prolongations. The disfluencies and ungrammatical expressions occurring in the ASD participants’ interactions also caused comprehension problems.
  • Wiklund, Mari; Määttä, Simo K. (2021)
    The focus in this paper is on how two therapists orient a group of four French-speaking boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) towards achieving meaningful learning outcomes with regard to the topic of conversation. The analysis concentrates on the therapists’ output or response strategies when they orient the group discussion and assess speech produced by the children, either validating it or parts of it, or inviting them to provide more valid input. The material to be analysed comprises salient linguistic and interactional features in five examples representing the most frequent response categories. In terms of methodology, the study falls within the framework of conversation analysis, although insights from discourse analysis are also used to enhance the data interpretation. The results show that although a specific response category may have many functions, the aim in all of them is to maintain intersubjectivity among the participants. This is visible in the absence of overtly negative feedback, for example. The prosody gives strong clues concerning the additional meanings in the therapists’ response particles. Whereas the children maintain eye contact and show nuanced expressions such as smiling, the therapists’ attention is often directed towards notetaking and writing artefacts, behaviour that contradicts the ideal of “typical” communication.
  • Lahdelma, Minja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Goals. The aim of this study was to examine the challenges autistic university students face when searching for a job, and the supporting structures that universities offer. Research on autistic graduates’ transition between university and employment is scarce. The numbers of autistic students are on the rise in higher education. It is important to evaluate the structures that universities have in place to support their transition into employment. The autism spectrum condition manifests differently with every individual but there are some common characteristics: challenges in social interaction and communication, as well as repetitive and/or restricted behaviour. These characteristics can present challenges during job application. Research shows that especially job application and the processes involving it can create barriers for autistic graduates. Methods. The data is collected as a part of the IMAGE Project. Participants were Finnish autistic university students or recent graduates (n=7) and career advisors (n=5). Data was collected through semi-structured interviews during spring 2019. The interviews were transcribed and then analysed using grounded theory. Results and conclusions. This study shows that many autistic students didn’t use career services even though they recognized needs for support in searching for a job. Three aspects affected students seeking support from career services: 1) need for support and recognising it, 2) meeting the need for support and 3) accessibility of support. Many of the support needs expressed by autistic students were met by services offered by universities, but problems with accessibility of career services created barriers which hindered students from using the services. There were structures in place that guided students into career services but often getting help demanded that students actively seek it. This demand for self-directness may form a barrier for many autistic students. Based on this study universities should create systematic structures that guide students into services as effortlessly as possible.
  • Sahimaa, Mirjami (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The focus of the research in this Master´s thesis was in the personal views of the parents of the children with ASD about family-centered work in school, early childhood education and health care: how they are treated, how well they feel they are supported and what kind of wishes they have for meetings with professionals. The aim is to improve the competence of school and health care professionals and to improve their ability to work with parents of children with ASD. The parents of children with ASD cooperate closely together with different professionals and a successful cooperation has a positive effect on the parents' coping and daily survival. However, parents often face various challenges when collaborating with professionals in health care and in school. The data of this research consists of 28 responses from parents of children with ASD. A web questionnaire was used to collect the data and it was analyzed qualitatively with theory-guided approach. In the questionnaire parents were asked to share their experiences about how they have been met and taken into account in the meetings with the professionals in school, early childhood education and health care. The results showed that there were lots of variation between individual experiences on how the family-centered work has manifested and realized. Most of the experiences of the parents were quite negative while the positive experiences had a positive impact on the collaboration. Parents felt quite often that the responsibility was distributed unevenly and the load for the parents was too heavy. Collaboration was also hindered by the stiffness of the system, continuous replacement of the professionals and the underestimation of the parents experience. Also the lack of know-how and uncertainty of the professionals taking care of the childrens’ matters was frustrating for the parents. Parents also told that the families were supported in a more holistic way, that they were heard and care were individualized. The amount of help and support was felt insufficient and the parents also felt that they were blamed and they were given negative feedback. They also felt that they were informed quite poorly and they wished for more concrete advice and help for the search of the information. Family-centered work is a good basis for the collaboration. It is built of multiple little things, but one of the main things is that the professionals keep the whole family in the focus. Professionals with a sufficient know-how are able to take the responsibility needed so that the load for the families isn’t too heavy. That is also one key thing to build trust between the professionals and the parents. And for that reason it is important to always upgrade the knowledge and to ask help if needed. Also the ability to listen the needs of the families and to offer help and support spontaneously is important. It is always important to take care of the child, but also the whole family and make sure the parents are well. Even though there are always lack of time and resources for the professionals to deal with, it is important to understand that just by being present, listening and meeting the families with respect, it is possible to create a positive atmosphere for the meetings and enhance the family-centered work to be realized. Positive feedback, informing the families and investing in the first meetings with the new families will make it and will help the family-centered work to be realized.