Browsing by Subject "autoantibodies"

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  • Vakkilainen, Svetlana; Mäkitie, Riikka; Klemetti, Paula; Valta, Helena; Taskinen, Mervi; Husebye, Eystein Sverre; Mäkitie, Outi (2018)
    Background: Mutations in RMRP, encoding a non-coding RNA molecule, underlie cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH), a syndromic immunodeficiency with multiple pathogenetic mechanisms and variable phenotype. Allergy and asthma have been reported in the CHH population and some patients suffer from autoimmune (AI) diseases. Objective: We explored AI and allergic manifestations in a large cohort of Finnish patients with CHH and correlated clinical features with laboratory parameters and autoantibodies. Methods: We collected clinical and laboratory data from patient interviews and hospital records. Serum samples were tested for a range of autoantibodies including celiac, anti-cytokine, and anti-21-hydroxylase antibodies. Nasal cytology samples were analyzed with microscopy. Results: The study cohort included 104 patients with genetically confirmed CHH; their median age was 39.2 years (range 0.6-73.6). Clinical autoimmunity was common (11/104, 10.6%) and included conditions previously undescribed in subjects with CHH (narcolepsy, psoriasis, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and multifocal motor axonal neuropathy). Patients with autoimmunity more often had recurrent pneumonia, sepsis, high immunoglobulin (Ig) E and/or undetectable IgA levels. The mortality rates were higher in subjects with AI diseases (X-(2)(2) = 14.056, p = 0.0002). Several patients demonstrated serum autoantibody positivity without compatible symptoms. We confirmed the high prevalence of asthma (23%) and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (39%). Gastrointestinal complaints, mostly persistent diarrhea, were also frequently reported (32/104, 31%). Despite the history of allergic rhinitis, no eosinophils were observed in nasal cytology in five tested patients. Conclusions: AI diseases are common in Finnish patients with CHH and are associated with higher mortality, recurrent pneumonia, sepsis, high IgE and/or undetectable IgA levels. Serum positivity for some autoantibodies was not associated with clinical autoimmunity. The high prevalence of persistent diarrhea, asthma, and symptoms of inflammation of nasal mucosa may indicate common pathways of immune dysregulation.
  • Fishman, Dmytro; Kisand, Kai; Hertel, Christina; Rothe, Mike; Remm, Anu; Pihlap, Maire; Adler, Priit; Vilo, Jaak; Peet, Aleksandr; Meloni, Antonella; Podkrajsek, Katarina Trebusak; Battelino, Tadej; Bruserud, Oyvind; Wolff, Anette S. B.; Husebye, Eystein S.; Kluger, Nicolas; Krohn, Kai; Ranki, Annamari; Peterson, Hedi; Hayday, Adrian; Peterson, Part (2017)
    High titer autoantibodies produced by B lymphocytes are clinically important features of many common autoimmune diseases. APECED patients with deficient autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene collectively display a broad repertoire of high titer autoantibodies, including some which are pathognomonic for major autoimmune diseases. AIRE deficiency severely reduces thymic expression of gene-products ordinarily restricted to discrete peripheral tissues, and developing T cells reactive to those gene-products are not inactivated during their development. However, the extent of the autoantibody repertoire in APECED and its relation to thymic expression of self-antigens are unclear. We here undertook a broad protein array approach to assess autoantibody repertoire in APECED patients. Our results show that in addition to shared autoantigen reactivities, APECED patients display high inter-individual variation in their autoantigen profiles, which collectively are enriched in evolutionarily conserved, cytosolic and nuclear phosphoproteins. The APECED autoantigens have two major origins; proteins expressed in thymic medullary epithelial cells and proteins expressed in lymphoid cells. These findings support the hypothesis that specific protein properties strongly contribute to the etiology of B cell autoimmunity.
  • Rosenback, Susanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Syftet med studien var att undersöka sambanden mellan de diabetesassocierade autoantikropparna ICA, IAA, GADA, IA-2A och klinisk manifestation, HLA-genotyp, släktanamnes samt demografiska faktorer såsom ålder och kön hos finländska barn under 15 år med nydiagnostiserad typ 1 diabetes. Analyserna baserades på ett utdrag ur det finländska pediatriska diabetesregistret (2257 barn). Antikroppsfrekvenserna fastställdes utgående från halterna i serum. Alla barn HLA-genotypades och indelades i DR3- och DR4-positiva. Småbarnen (< 5 år) hade ofta 3-4 positiva antikroppar. Äldre barn hade färre autoantikroppar men en allvarligare metabolisk dekompensering vid diagnostillfället. Diabetisk ketoacidos var vanligare hos flickor. I gruppen med endast en positiv autoantikropp var IA-2A-barnen oftare acidotiska, i övrigt påverkade inte antikroppsprofilen den kliniska bilden. Högriskgenotypen DR4/non-DR3 var associerad med IA-2A, som verkar fungera som en markör för betacelldestruktion. Det omfattande patientmaterialet gav stöd åt tidigare rapporter om samband mellan autoantikroppar och ålder, kön samt genotyp. Den allvarligare metaboliska dekompenseringen hos äldre barn tyder på att de inte diagnostiseras lika snabbt som småbarn.
  • Ekman, Ilse; Vuorinen, Tytti; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta; Toppari, Jorma; Hyöty, Heikki; Kinnunen, Tuure; Ilonen, Jorma; Lempainen, Johanna (2019)
    Aims/Hypothesis Evidence of the role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has remained inconclusive. Our aim was to elucidate the possible role of CMV infection in the initiation of islet autoimmunity and in the progression to clinical T1D among children with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-conferred T1D risk. Methods A total of 1402 children from the prospective Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) study were analyzed for CMV-specific IgG antibodies during early childhood. All the children carried HLA-DQ genotypes associated with increased risk for T1D. The effect of CMV infection on the appearance of T1D-associated autoantibodies (insulin autoantibodies [IAA], glutamic acid decarboxylase [GADA], and insulinoma antigen-2 [IA-2A], n = 356) and on the progression rate to clinical T1D (n = 233) were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Log-rank test. Results Early childhood CMV infection was inversely associated with the development of T1D during childhood. Cumulative progression to T1D was decreased in subjects with an early CMV infection (P = 0.035). In further analyses, the effect of early CMV infection on the initiation of islet autoimmunity and progression to clinical T1D were examined separately. Interestingly, early CMV infection did not affect the appearance of T1D-associated autoantibodies but a decelerating effect was observed on the progression rate from islet autoimmunity to clinical T1D (P = 0.015). Conclusion Our results suggest that an early childhood CMV infection may decelerate the progression from islet autoimmunity to clinical T1D among at-risk children and may thus protect these children from progressing to T1D during childhood.
  • Kondrashova, Anita; Nurminen, Noora; Lehtonen, Jussi; Hyöty, Marja; Toppari, Jorma; Ilonen, Jorma; Veijola, Riitta; Knip, Mikael; Hyöty, Heikki (2018)
    Objective: The function of the exocrine pancreas is decreased in patients with type 1 diabetes but it is not known when this defect develops. The current study set out to determine whether the reduced exocrine function becomes manifest after the initiation of islet autoimmunity. Methods: The study was nested in the prospective Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention study where children with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-conferred susceptibility are observed from birth. Elastase-1 levels were analyzed from stool samples collected at the time of seroconversion to islet autoantibody positivity and at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, as well as from samples taken from matched control children of similar age. Results: Elastase levels were lower in case children at the time of the diagnosis of diabetes when compared to the control children. However, elastase concentrations did not differ between cases and controls at the time when autoantibodies appeared. Conclusion: The results suggest that the defect in the exocrine function develops after the appearance of islet autoantibodies. Further studies are needed to assess whether reduced elastase levels predict rapid progression of islet autoimmunity to clinical disease.
  • Hetemäki, Iivo; Jian, Ching; Laakso, Saila Marita; Mäkitie, Outi; Pajari, Anne-Maria; Vos de, Willem Meindert; Arstila, Petteri; Salonen, Anne (2021)
    Backgrounds and Aims: APECED is a rare autoimmune disease caused by mutations in the Autoimmune Regulator gene. A significant proportion of patients also have gastrointestinal symptoms, including malabsorption, chronic diarrhea, and obstipation. The pathological background of the gastrointestinal symptoms remains incompletely understood and involves multiple factors, with autoimmunity being the most common underlying cause. Patients with APECED have increased immune responses against gut commensals. Our objective was to evaluate whether the intestinal microbiota composition, predicted functions or fungal abundance differ between Finnish patients with APECED and healthy controls, and whether these associate to the patients’ clinical phenotype and gastrointestinal symptoms. Methods: DNA was isolated from fecal samples from 15 patients with APECED (median age 46.4 years) together with 15 samples from body mass index matched healthy controls. DNA samples were subjected to analysis of the gut microbiota using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, imputed metagenomics using the PICRUSt2 algorithm, and quantitative PCR for fungi. Extensive correlations of the microbiota with patient characteristics were determined. Results: Analysis of gut microbiota indicated that both alpha- and beta-diversity were altered in patients with APECED compared to healthy controls. The fraction of Faecalibacterium was reduced in patients with APECED while that of Atopobium spp. and several gram-negative genera previously implicated in biofilm formation, e.g. Veillonella, Prevotella, Megasphaera and Heamophilus, were increased in parallel to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) synthesis in imputed metagenomics. The differences in gut microbiota were linked to patient characteristics, especially the presence of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) and severity of gastrointestinal symptoms. Conclusions: Gut microbiota of patients with APECED is altered and enriched with predominantly gram-negative bacterial taxa that may promote biofilm formation and lead to increased exposure to LPS in the patients. The most pronounced alterations in the microbiota were associated with more severe gastrointestinal symptoms.
  • TRIGR Investigators; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Cuthbertson, David; Becker, Dorothy J.; Knip, Mikael (2021)
    Objective: The beta-cell stress hypothesis suggests that increased insulin demand contributes to the development of type 1 diabetes. In the TRIGR trial we set out to assess the profile of plasma glucose and HbA1c before the diagnosis of clinical diabetes compared to nondiabetic children. Research Design and Methods: A cohort of children (N = 2159) with an affected first-degree relative and increased HLA risk were recruited 2002-2007 and followed until 2017. To study the relationship between plasma glucose/HbA1c and the development of autoantibodies or clinical disease Kaplan-Meir curves were developed. Mixed models were constructed for plasma glucose and HbA1c separately. Results: A family history of type 2 diabetes was related to an increase in plasma glucose (p < 0.001). An increase in glucose from the previous sample predicted clinical diabetes (p < 0.001) but not autoantibodies. An increase of HbA1c of 20% or 30% from the previous sample predicted the development of any autoantibody (p < 0.003 resp < 0.001) and the development of diabetes (p < 0.002 resp < 0.001. Participants without autoantibodies had lower HbA1c (mean 5.18%, STD 0.24; mean 33.08 mmol/mol, STD 2.85) than those who progressed to clinical disease (5.31%, 0.42; 34.46 mmol/mol, 4.68; p < 0.001) but higher than those who developed any autoantibody (5.10%, 0.30; 32.21 mmol/mol, 3.49; p < 0.001), or multiple autoantibodies (5.11%, 0.35; 32.26 mmol/mol, 3.92; p < 0.003). Conclusions: A pronounced increase in plasma glucose and HbA1c precedes development of clinical diabetes, while the association between plasma glucose or HbA1c and development of autoantibodies is complex. Increased insulin demand may contribute to development of type 1 diabetes.