Browsing by Subject "aviation weather"

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  • Leino, Henrik (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Low-level wind shear is a significant aviation hazard. A sudden reduction in the headwind along an aircraft flight path can induce a loss of lift, from which an aircraft may not be able to recover when it is close to the ground. Airports therefore use low-level wind shear alert systems to monitor wind velocities within the airport terminal area and alert of any detected hazardous wind shear. There exist three ground-based sensor systems capable of independently observing low-level wind shear: a Doppler weather radar-based, a Doppler wind lidar-based, and an anemometer-based system. However, as no single sensor system is capable of all-weather wind shear observations, multiple alert systems are used simultaneously, and observations from each system are integrated to produce one set of integrated wind shear alerts. Algorithms for integrating Doppler weather radar and anemometer wind shear observations were originally developed in the early 1990s. However, the addition of the Doppler wind lidar-based alert system in more recent years warrants updates to the existing radar/anemometer integration algorithms. This thesis presents four different replacement candidates for the original radar/anemometer integration algorithms. A grid-based integration approach, where observations from different sensor systems are mapped onto a common grid and integrated, is found to best accommodate central integration considerations, and is recommended as the replacement to the original radar/anemometer algorithms in operational use. The grid-based approach is discussed in further detail, and a first possible implementation of the algorithm is presented. In addition, ways of validating the algorithm and adopting it for operational use are outlined.
  • Nuottokari, Jaakko (Finnish Meteorological Institute, 2017)
    Finnish Meteorological Institute Contributions 137,
    Meteorological information and services supporting the various operations of air transport enable a safe, efficient and cost-effective operating environment for airspace users, air navigation service providers and air traffic management. The continuing pursuit towards an improved quality of observation, forecasting and decision support services is driven by an increasingly weather-sensitive society and growing impacts of hazardous weather events. This thesis provides an overview of the field of aeronautical meteorological research by introducing the organisations involved, global and regional strategies, impacts of weather on air transport, current state of the art in meteorological research and decision support systems serving air transport needs with a view of where the field should evolve next. This thesis is an attempt to highlight key findings and point the reader towards the direction of further research on the given topics. Research supporting air transport operations with the optimal use of weather information is a specialized field where advances are led by the needs of various airspace users. Research institutions for example in the United States have contributed greatly due to the severe weather impacts experienced by the National Airspace System (NAS), the ability of the Federal Aviation Aministration (FAA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to direct long-term funding to solve specific aviation-related research questions. The creation and maintenance of long-lived teams of scientists and engineers working together to produce end-toend solutions that meet the needs of the aviation industry is the key to improving meteorological information to aviation users while university research is typically shorter duration and typical does not result in operational systems. From a global perspective, research is yet to be organised in a way that would contribute to solving aviation issues beyond single research projects and/or programmes. There is a lot more the scientific community could do to develop tailored information to decision support systems used by the aviation sector, but it would require systematic investments and the establishment of research groups focusing on the applied science questions and technology transfer. This thesis provides an overview of recommended decision support system development topics with an outline of potential milestones.