Browsing by Subject "awake bruxism"

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  • Ahlberg, Jari; Piirtola, Maarit; Lobbezoo, Frank; Manfredini, Daniele; Korhonen, Tellervo; Aarab, Ghizlane; Hublin, Christer; Kaprio, Jaakko (2020)
    Background Sleep bruxism (SB) and awake bruxism (AB) have been considered different entities, although co-occurrence between them has been shown. While genetic factors have a marked influence on phenotypic variance in liability to SB, this remains unclear for AB. Aim To examine the degree of co-occurrence of SB and AB, and whether they have common correlates and also twin similarity of SB and AB bruxism traits by zygosity and sex. Methods A questionnaire was mailed to all twins born 1945-1957 in Finland in 2012 (n = 11 766). Age and sex adjusted logistic regression models were used. Twin similarity was assessed using polychoric correlations, and crosstwin-crosstrait correlations were computed. Results The response rate was 72% (n = 8410). Any SB was reported by 14.8% and >= 3 nights weekly by 5.0%. Percentages for any AB were 18.4% and 6.3%, respectively. There was substantial co-occurrence (29.5%) between SB and AB, and several shared correlates were found. For SB, the polychoric intra-class correlation was 0.366 in monozygotic (MZ) and 0.200 in dizygotic (DZ) pairs, without gender difference. A twofold crosstwin-crosstrait correlation was observed in MZ twins compared to DZ twins. Conclusions The risk factor profiles of SB and AB were largely but not entirely similar. The higher correlation in MZ than in DZ pairs suggests the influence of genetic factors on both SB and AB. The higher crosstwin-crosstrait correlation in MZ than in DZ pairs suggests some degree of genetic influences shared by SB and AB.
  • Zani, Alessandra; Lobbezoo, Frank; Bracci, Alessandro; Ahlberg, Jari; Manfredini, Daniele (2019)
    Background: Awake bruxism (AB) is an oral condition that has some uncertainties concerning the epidemiology, also due to the different diagnostic strategies that have been adopted to address it in the research setting. The recent new definition of AB suggests that an ecological momentary assessment (EMA), which enables real-time reporting of the condition under study, can implement knowledge on the topic. Objectives: This article will discuss the general principles of EMA and EMI (Ecological Momentary Intervention) and comment on a preliminary dataset gathered with a smartphone application in a population of Italian young adults. Materials and Methods: A dedicated smartphone application has been used (BruxApp (R)) on a sample of 30 University students (mean age 24 +/- 3.5 years) to record real time report on five specific oral conditions (relaxed jaw muscles, tooth contact, teeth clenching, teeth grinding, mandible bracing) that are related with the spectrum of AB activities. Data were recorded over a 7-day period for two times, with a 1-month interval between the two observation periods. The purpose of collecting data over a second week, 1-month later, was to monitor AB behaviors over time, and test for potential "EMI" effects. Results: Over the first 7 days (T1), the average frequency of relaxed jaw muscles reports at the population level was 62%. Teeth contact (20%) and mandible bracing (14%) were the most frequent AB behaviors. No significant gender differences were detected. One month later, during the second week of data collection (T2), the frequency of the conditions was as follows: relaxed jaw muscles 74%, teeth contact 11% and mandible bracing 13%. Conclusions: These data recorded do not allow any generalization due the unrepresentativeness of the study population. On the other hand, they can be used as templates for future comparisons to get deeper into the study of natural fluctuations of AB behaviors as well as into the potential biofeedback effect of an ecological momentary assessment/intervention. It is important to recognize that the use of smartphone technology may help to set range of values for AB frequency in otherwise healthy individuals, in order to stand as comparisons for selected populations with risk or associated factors.
  • Osiewicz, Magdalena A.; Lobbezoo, Frank; Bracci, Alessandro; Ahlberg, Jari; Pytko-Polonczyk, Jolanta; Manfredini, Daniele (2019)
    Objectives: The aim is to describe the process of translating the smartphone application BruxApp into Polish within the context of an ongoing multicenter project on awake bruxism (AB) epidemiology. Material and Methods: An ongoing cooperation involving 11 universities is based on the adoption of the smartphone-based EMA protocol to collect real time report of AB behaviors in the natural environment. The English version of BruxApp is adopted as a template for the multi-language translation, according to a step-by-step procedure led by mother-tongue experts in the field. A dedicated web platform for translation (viz., POEditor) is used. The process of translation into Polish is here described as an example. Results: There are two software versions available, viz., BruxApp and BruxApp Research. For both versions, back translation from Polish to English was performed to verify the accuracy of the translation procedure. The validity of the translation has been confirmed by the perfect agreement between the original and back-translated English versions, and the Polish version of BruxApp can thus be introduced in the clinical and research setting to get deeper into the study of AB epidemiology in Poland. Conclusions: As far as clinical studies are concerned, the described strategy to record data can be very useful -patients can acknowledge their habits, monitor changes over time, and implement remedial measures. In the field of research, BruxApp makes possible to collect and store a huge amount of data about the epidemiology of different forms of awake bruxism, both at the individual level and at the population level.
  • Nykänen, Laura; Manfredini, Daniele; Lobbezoo, Frank; Kämppi, Antti; Colonna, Anna; Zani, Alessandra; Almeida, Andre Mariz; Emodi-Perlman, Alona; Savolainen, Aslak; Bracci, Alessandro; Ahlberg, Jari (2022)
    The prevalence of awake bruxism (AB) has been reported as being 30%, with sleep bruxism (SB) at 9-15%. Most studies have focused on SB, emphasizing the importance of AB research. For epidemiological evaluations of AB, a smartphone application based on ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was introduced. The aims of this multi-center study were: (1) to investigate how well lay subjects comprehend the AB terminology used in the smartphone application, and (2) to find out whether professional instruction improved their comprehension. The study population consisted of lay subjects from Italy, Portugal, and Finland comprising 307 individuals (156 men, 151 women; 18-86 years). Subjects first completed a five-item questionnaire about the meanings of the five AB terms used in the smartphone application. Each question offered four answer options, with one being correct. Immediately afterwards, the meanings of the terms were instructed. Lastly, the subjects were re-tested with the same questionnaire. In Finland and Italy, the re-tested correct answer scores for the single terms were at 89-97% per term. Improved comprehension was seen across sex, education, and age groups. In the Portuguese data, no improvement was found. Significant differences were found between countries in the improved scores for all terms that were correct following the instruction (Finland, 16.3% to 72.1%; Italy, 32.3% to 83.8%; Portugal, 23.1% to 33.7%) (p < 0.001). In conclusion, standardized instruction on AB terminology prior to EMA is recommended to improve the reliability of collected data.
  • Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, J.; Raphael, K. G.; Wetselaar, P.; Glaros, A. G.; Kato, T.; Santiago, V.; Winocur, E.; De Laat, A.; De Leeuw, R.; Koyano, K.; Lavigne, G. J.; Svensson, P.; Manfredini, D. (2018)
    In 2013, consensus was obtained on a definition of bruxism as repetitive masticatory muscle activity characterised by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible and specified as either sleep bruxism or awake bruxism. In addition, a grading system was proposed to determine the likelihood that a certain assessment of bruxism actually yields a valid outcome. This study discusses the need for an updated consensus and has the following aims: (i) to further clarify the 2013 definition and to develop separate definitions for sleep and awake bruxism; (ii) to determine whether bruxism is a disorder rather than a behaviour that can be a risk factor for certain clinical conditions; (iii) to re-examine the 2013 grading system; and (iv) to develop a research agenda. It was concluded that: (i) sleep and awake bruxism are masticatory muscle activities that occur during sleep (characterised as rhythmic or non-rhythmic) and wakefulness (characterised by repetitive or sustained tooth contact and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible), respectively; (ii) in otherwise healthy individuals, bruxism should not be considered as a disorder, but rather as a behaviour that can be a risk (and/or protective) factor for certain clinical consequences; (iii) both non-instrumental approaches (notably self-report) and instrumental approaches (notably electromyography) can be employed to assess bruxism; and (iv) standard cut-off points for establishing the presence or absence of bruxism should not be used in otherwise healthy individuals; rather, bruxism-related masticatory muscle activities should be assessed in the behaviour's continuum.