Browsing by Subject "barley"

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  • Mascher, Martin; Muehlbauer, Gary J.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Chapman, Jarrod; Schmutz, Jeremy; Barry, Kerrie; Munoz-Amatriain, Maria; Close, Timothy J.; Wise, Roger P.; Schulman, Alan H.; Himmelbach, Axel; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Scholz, Uwe; Poland, Jesse A.; Stein, Nils; Waugh, Robbie (2013)
  • Laurila, Heikki Arvid; Karjalainen, Mika; Kleemola, Jouko; Hyyppa, Juha (2010)
  • Selmer, Ilka; Karnetzke, Julia; Kleemann, Christian; Lehtonen, Mari; Mikkonen, Kirsi S.; Kulozik, Ulrich; Smirnova, Irina (2019)
  • Räfså, Tomas (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    More than half of the agricultural land in Finland is cultivated with cereals, and on many farms, cereals are also grown in monoculture. Studies have shown that crop rotation can decrease the need of inputs and also increase crop yields. At the same time more knowledge is needed about qualities and benefits of different crops. The aim of this study was to investigate the qualities of white lupin as a one year green manure crop, and to investigate its impact and nitrogen effect on barley yield formation and yield quality during the subsequent growth period. The aim was furthermore to investigate if white lupin affected soil mineral nitrogen content. A two year long field experiment was established during the growth season of 2010 at Viikki research farm in Helsinki. In year 2010 white lupin, barley and fallow was cultivated as precrops for the following growth period. In year 2011 only barley was cultivated and different nitrogen treatments were included in the experiment to be able to evaluate precrop nitrogen effect. In year 2011 cultivation of white lupin and barley was also repeated in a second field experiment. In the experiments, white lupin lenght development, ground coverage and biomass accumulation were recorded and compared with barley. The total amount of nitrogen that white lupin accumulated was also determined. In year 2011 precrop and nitrogen treatment effects on barley yield formation and yield quality was determined. Precrop and nitrogen treatment effects on soil mineral nitrogen was investigated from fall 2010 to fall 2011. White lupin was successfully cultivated without any input of fertilizers. White lupin showed less ground coverage in early summer, and therefore showed inferior weed competition compared with barley. White lupin achieved the same plant lenght and total biomass as barley, but accumulated over 200 N kg/ha. In the precrop and nitrogen treatments, barley grain yield did not indicate any need of nitrogen fertilizer, where white lupin had been used as precrop. Grain protein content, however, showed that even with white lupin as precrop, a 20 kg/ha nitrogen starter was not sufficient. Soil mineral nitrogen content was clearly increased by white lupin only before sowing in year 2011.
  • Rantanen, Ville (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Tillage and sowing methods impact on the nutrient balances which is an interest of researchers and farmers. An aim of the research is to compare nutrient balances of tillage and sowing. During the years 2000 – 2010 in Jokioinen, studies have been conducted concerning how different tillage and sowing methods affect spring cereal nitrogen and phosphorus balances in heavy clay soil. The compared tillage systems were autumn mouldboard (25 cm) plough, stubble cultivation (10 cm) and no-till. The sowing systems under comparison were combined rotovator and shoe coulter seeder and single and double coulters disk seeders. The measurement thinks were yield (seed and straw), nitrogen and phosphorus content. From the measured values were calculated N and P balances which included seed, nutrient and natural deposition. The range of nutrient balances was large during the experiment period. Average nitrogen balance of different tillage methods were: plough 41,3 kg/ha stubble cultivation (S) 40,1 kg/ha and no-till (N) 44,0 kg/ha. Average phosphorus balance were P -0,5, S -0,3 and N 0,1 kg/ha. Average nitrogen balance of different sowing methods were combined rotovator, single disk coulter (R) 43,7 kg/ha and double disk coulter (SK) 44,9 kg/ha. Average phosphorus balance were JK -1,1, R 0,2 and SK 0,3 kg/ha. The weather conditions, especially precipitation, effects strongly on nutrient balances of tillage methods. In dry conditions no-till reached better nutrient balances than the other tillage methods. In other hand, in wet conditions mouldboard plough were better than an average. The weather conditions did not affect nutrient balances of the sowing methods. Furthermore combined rotovator and shoe coulter seeder achieved almost without exception better nutrient balances than others sowing methods regardless of the growing season precipitation.
  • Meskanen, Marko (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Most barley is used for animal feed or malting. However, barley contains technologically and nutritionally valuable components. The compositions of different barley cultivars as well as the factors affecting the concentrations of different nutrients (beta-glucan, protein, starch and ash) were surveyed in the literature part of this Master’s thesis. Special attention was paid to beta-glucan as it has attained significant interest in the food industry due to its positive health effects. In addition, the effect of grain composition on the pearling, milling and air classification properties of barley were surveyed. The nutrient composition and milling properties of ten different barley varieties were examined in the experimental part of the thesis. The varieties were divided into four subgroups based on their potential end usage: 1) speciality barley, 2) feed barley, and 3) starch barley, and 4) malting barley. The milling properties were analysed by sieve analysis and volumetric particle size distribution from the whole grain barley flours. In addition, coarse fractions were separated from the whole grain flour by air classification. These fractions were also analysed by the abovementioned particle analyses. Beta-glucan, protein and ash concentrations were usually higher in the speciality barley varieties and their coarse fractions. Starch concentrations were lower in these varieties and fractions. Feed and starch barleys had somewhat higher beta-glucan concentration compared to malting barleys, which respectively had the highest starch concentrations. Zero to 25 % of the grain’s outer layers was removed by pearling. Compositional analyses revealed that pearling decreased the amount of ash and increased the concentration of starch and betaglucan until about 15 % of the grain was pearled off. Starch and beta-glucan concentrations did not change significantly after this pearling level. Pearled barley flour was manufactured by pearling off 15–20 % of the grain’s outer layers, and milling the remaining pearled grains with a fine impact mill. Flour was then air classified to give fine and coarse fractions. The coarse fractions contained enriched concentrations of beta-glucan, protein and ash. However, their concentrations and yields were dependent on the speed of the classifier wheel. By contrast, starch was enriched in the fine fractions. The highest beta-glucan concentration was obtained with the beta-glucan-rich speciality variety D, which initially had 9.4 % beta-glucan. The beta-glucan concentration was enriched up to 11.4 % by pearling. Air classification of whole grain flour resulted maximally in 13.5 % and air classification of pearled grain flour in 15.5 % beta-glucan concentration. Based on the results, the beta-glucan concentration of the raw material seems to play the most important role in the enrichment. However, proper milling technology and air classifier settings are of utmost importance.
  • Perkiö, Pasi (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The aim of the literature review was to examine barley’s (Hordeum vulgare) alcohol-soluble proteins – hordeins and their technological attributes. Additionally, applicability of flow field flow fractionation (FFF) separation method as well as spectrophotometric and light scattering methods for protein characterization was under investigation. The objective of the experimental research was to determine a suitable extraction method for hordeins and subsequent analysis of their molecular weight distribution, size and conformation by the use of AF4 (asymmetric flow field flow fractionation) in combination with MALS-, UV- and RI-detectors. 40 % 1 propanol combined with mild sonication treatment proved to be the most efficient method to extract hordeins from barley flour. In order to prevent deterioration of the FFF channels the solvent had to be diluted to 20 %. Same dilution was used to measure hordeins’ extinction coefficient and to calculate ?n/?c theoretically. Berry plot was found to be the most suitable fit for the data analysis. Extracted hordeins were analysed with SDS PAGE. Extracts contained monomeric C, B and ? hordeins and polymeric B, D and ? hordeins. Also, small amounts of albumins, globulins and hydrolysed proteins were present. Extracts’ fractograms had five distinctive peaks. All of the peaks’ mass fractals and polydispersity indices were above 1, which means analysed aggregates were polydisperse and shaped as complex rods. This can be explained by 1 propanol influenced protein aggregation. Some inference in light scattering was identified in the MALS detector signal. This and the use of measured extinction coefficient and calculated index of refraction caused some errors in the data. The low sample yield (19–26 %) can be explained by the hordeins’ adhering to a syringe filter and adsorbing to the surface of AF4’s ultrafiltration membrane. Also, the use of over simplifying mathematical model to calculate the results and yield could cause some errors in the results. This study showed that it is possible to study Mw, size and conformation of polymeric hordeins with AF4 combined with MALS/UV-detectors and that hordeins form big aggregates in 20 % 1 propanol. For MALS proteins should be extracted in a solvent that will not interfere with subsequent analysis and proteins net charge, which creates a challenge to find proper solvent for hordeins. Nevertheless AF4 proved to be useful and delicate tool for characterizing cereal polymeric proteins.
  • Arte, Elisa (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The literature review focused on the composition of the barley hordeins and the known extraction methods. The metal-catalysed oxidation of proteins and amino acids was also reviewed. The aim of the experimental part was to develop a simple selective extraction method for the B and C hordeins and to study how metal-catalysed oxidation affects these hordeins. Hulles barley cf. Jorma was selected as test material since milling of this cultivar was simple with a Brabender Junior mill. From the milled barley, water and salt-soluble material were removed and the rest was freeze-dried. The freeze-dried sample flour was studied by gel separation, precipitation and extraction with aqueous alcohols. The aqueous alcohol extracted the C hordeins completely although there was some B hordeins present. Two-dimensional electrophoresis showed that the isoelectric point of C hordeins was between the pH 5–7. Aqueous alcohols, extraction temperatures and pH were studied for hordein extraction. None of the studied methods improved the extraction of B and C hordeins. The hordein sample used in further experiments was extracted with 55% 2-propanol at 50 ºC. The metal-catalysed oxidation of the extracted hordeins was studied by using copper or iron as a catalyst and hydrogen peroxide or ascorbic acid as an oxidant. The reactions were analysed with SDS-PAGE and SE-HPLC. The results showed that the most effective reaction was with copper and hydrogen peroxide where the B and C hordeins were degraded efficiently after 24 hours of incubation. The results from SE-HPLC showed aggregated B hordeins in the extracted sample, which were partly degraded after two hours of incubation with hydrogen peroxide and copper. The results of this study indicated that the biggest groups of hordeins, the B and C hordeins, cannot be selectively separated with extraction. The barley hordeins efficiently degraded in the metal-catalysed oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and copper.
  • Lius, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Finding new plant-based protein sources is important from a sustainable development perspective. Ethanol and starch production from barley results in fiber and protein side-stream fractions that are currently utilized for animal feed. Nonetheless, it would be more profitable if the barley protein side-stream was used as a human food ingredient. The main storage proteins in barley are known as hordeins. They are polymeric proteins and have low solubility, due to their inter-chain and inter-molecular disulfide bridges and hydrophobic side-chains. In food technology applications protein solubility is an important property for emulsifying and foaming functionality. Proteins are sensitive to the surrounding environment, especially to pH, which could be used to alter the solubility. In this thesis the literature review examined barley (Hordeum vulgare) proteins, especially the hordeins, functionality and effect on food materials. The review includes previous studies concerning cereal proteins functionality in general and their effect on food materials and a discussion on protein stabilized emulsions. The aim of the study was to determine the protein composition of two barley protein concentrates, OP1 and OP2, and to evaluate protein solubility and emulsifying properties. Furthermore, the aim of the study was to compare the functionality of the concentrates. According to SDS gel electrophoresis the protein concentrates consisted mostly of hordeins, especially C-hordein and some B-hordein. Minor amounts of other proteins where also identified. The protein solubility was determined by Lowry’s method. The proteins were more soluble in sodium phosphate buffer than in deionized water. In sodium phosphate buffer at pH 3,8 the solubility of OP1 proteins was 100 mg/g ± 11 mg/g and in deionized water at pH 3,9 the solubility was 45 mg/g ± 1,1 mg/g. The solubility of the OP2 proteins in sodium phosphate buffer at pH 3,8 was 47 mg/g ± 1,5 mg/g and in deionized water at pH 3,7 the solubility was 45 mg/g ± 1,1 mg/g. In both samples the proteins solubility increased as the pH increased. Most proteins were solubilized at pH 11: the solubility for OP1 and OP2 proteins were 240 mg/g ± 11 mg/g and 140 mg/g ± 12 mg/g respectively, which is problematic regarding food products, but could be used as a treatment to improve solubility. The smallest oil droplets were formed in emulsions were the pH was adjusted to 7 with sodium phosphate buffer. The stability of emulsions was however poor in all samples because of phase separation, which was already significant after one day of storage. The phase separation was considered to be flocculation which finally resulted in creaming or sedimentation. The flocculation may have occurred due to hydrophobic interactions between the proteins on the oil/water interface. However, shaking of the emulsion causes the flocculated oil droplets to separate, forming an even emulsion. No coalescence was observed in all samples, except for OP1-emulsions with 1 % (w/v) dry matter. These results confirm that these protein concentrates can be used in food products, especially in milk type drinks that need to be shaken before usage.
  • Rahikainen, Antti (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The aim of the literature review was to research barley proteins, metal-catalyzed oxidation and subjects related to it, like antioxidants and oxidation reactions in beer. In addition ACE inhibition was looked into. The object of the experimental part was to find out if the proteins of a barley-based industrial side product can be modified by metal-catalyzed oxidation or enzymatic hydrolysis, and how these treatments affect the different proteins in the sample material. In addition, the possible ACE inhibition activity of the reaction products was determined. The sample material was a protein-rich side-product of barley starch production. Two protein fractions were extracted from the material; an alcohol soluble fraction and a reduced fraction. The modification of the proteins in the sample fractions by oxidation and hydrolysis was determined with gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography. The ACE inhibitory activity of the small peptides from these reactions was determined with UV-VIS spectroscopy. Three protein groups were identified from the sample material; polymeric B hordein, monomeric B hordein and C hordein. Contrary to expectations metal-catalyzed oxidation did not break down any of the proteins in the sample; instead it aggregated the proteins into bigger units. The enzyme treatment hydrolyzed the proteins effectively. Small peptides from the enzyme hydrolysis had an ACE inhibition IC50 of 246 µg/ml, which is similar to gluten hydrolysates IC50 of 29 µg/ml. IC50 is the inhibitor concentration where 50% of enzyme activity is inhibited. Instead of breaking down the subject proteins metal-catalyzed oxidation aggregated them, and thus it could not be used to make ACE inhibitory peptides. Enzyme hydrolysis was found to be a valid method of inhibitor peptide production. The peptides produced had an ACE inhibition capacity similar to previously known ACE inhibitory food hydrolysates.
  • Ketonen, Krista (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Variation of the protein and amino acid content of barley, wheat and oats were studied. Diets based on grain samples of different protein content were optimized for pigs and poultry.The study went on to optimize diets for pigs and poultry with grains of different protein contents. The amino acid and raw protein analysis was undertaken on 38 grain samples. Correlations were calculated between different variables in grain samples and linear regression analysis was conducted between the protein and amino acid composition. The best estimate for amino acid concentrations of cereals was the protein content. The relative content of amino acids decreases as protein content increases and especially so in barley and wheat. Most reliable regression equations between amino acid and protein content were made for barley and wheat samples. For oat reliable regression equations could not be made. Oats also differed by other features from barley and wheat as it correlated with different variables compared to barley and wheat. Amount of needed protein concentrate levels decreased when barley and wheat protein and amino acid contents were considered in optimization. Protein concentrate levels did not decrease when used oat sample with highest protein content.
  • Rasimus-Sahari, Stiina; Mikkola, Raimo Olavi; Andersson, Aino Maria Alice; Jestoi, Marika; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja Sinikka (2015)
    Reasons for mammalian cell toxicity observed in barley and spring wheat grains were sought. Streptomyces sp. isolates from wheat and barley produced heat-stable methanol-soluble substances which inhibited the motility of exposed porcine spermatozoa used as a toxicity indicator. Several barley isolates produced antimycin A (2 to 5 ng/mg wet wt of biomass), a macrolide antibiotic known to block oxygen utilization in mitochondria. The antimycinproducing isolates were members of the Streptomyces albidoflavus group. In in vitro assays with porcine kidney tubular epithelial cells, the specific toxicity of antimycin A towards mitochondria was higher than that of the mycotoxin enniatin B but lower than that of the mitochondriotoxins cereulide and paenilide, produced by food-related Bacillus cereus and Paenibacillus tundrae, respectively. The toxic wheat isolates, related to Streptomyces sedi, did not produce antimycin A and or any other known toxin. Our results suggest that the presence of toxin-producing streptomycetes in stored cereal grains may pose a thus far unrecognized threat for food and feed safety.
  • Runeberg-Roos, Pia (University of Helsinki, 1995)
  • Ohralahti, Kalle (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Barley is the most cultivated cereal in acreage in Finland. Barley has many plant diseases that cause yield reductions like net blotch, scald and mildew. The weather conditions and the disease resistance of the cultivar are affecting the appearance of the plant diseases. Plant diseases can be controlled by certified seed, seed treatment, crop rotation, fungicide treatment and by cultivating resistant cultivars. Net blotch causes reduction in green leaf area, thousand grain weight and thereby it reduces yield. The aim of this study was to study what is the yield response of barley to fungicide treatment when cultivars are either susceptible or tolerant to net blotch. The data of this study was based on The profitability of plant protection -trial series. The field trials were conducted at three locations in Finland during 2006–2009. The cultivars in the trials were divided based on their net blotch resistance to susceptible and tolerant groups. Fungicide treatment was made with Acanto Prima as a single treatment at the flag leaf stage. Tolerant and susceptible groups differed significantly in the amount of the net blotch. Fungicide treatment decreased the appearance of net blotch more in the susceptible group although the amount of net blotch was significantly less in the tolerant group. In the tolerant group the disease level was low even before the fungicide treatment. The conclusions of this study were, that tolerant cultivar group had better yield, but susceptible cultivar group had better yield response to the fungicide treatment. The yield response was in average 400 kg/ha in the susceptible and about 200 kg/ha in the resistant cultivar group. The yield response was due to the higher thousand grain weight. The yield security of disease resistant cultivar is better also in higher disease pressure. Resistant cultivar is one way to reduce the usage of plant protection products in IPM farming. Breeding of resistant cultivars is needed because the plant diseases are altering in their disease infection capability.
  • Härkönen, Aino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Biochars are soil amendment materials produced via pyrolysis of biomass. They are resistant to degradation and can be used as a way to sequester carbon from the atmosphere. Biochars can improve soil structure and water and nutrient retention capacity, and significant positive effects on soil aggregate stability, water retention capacity and nutrient availability have been observed in acidic soils with low carbon content. The positive effects of biochar on soil properties can also increase crop yields. However, most studies on the effects of biochar have been conducted in tropical or temperate climates, and currently very little is known on its effects on the yield formation of cereals, and more specifically, barley. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of softwood biochar on field soil moisture and nutrient contents, as well as its effects on yield components of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) 8 years after its application (0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 t ha-1) to boreal soil. In addition, the effects of organic and mineral fertilizers, alone and together with biochar, on soil moisture, nutrient contents and barley yield components were studied. Biochar did not have significant effects on soil moisture or nutrient contents or on barley yield components. Fertilization had significant effects on contents of soil moisture and nutrients, electrical conductivity, pH and the biomass, leaf chlorophyll content, number and weight of seeds and the final yield of barley. The non-significant effects of biochar can be due to the high amount of carbon already present in the soil, and similar results have been observed on the research site in previous years. The added biochar may also have been misplaced by soil management or degraded by weathering. The growing season of 2018 was drier and warmer than the long-term average and drought during the beginning of the growing season combined with issues with weeds negatively affected crop development and yield components.