Browsing by Subject "behaviour"

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  • Pääkkö, Henna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Animal personality is described as consistent behavioural variation between individuals over long periods of time. Behaviours often connected to animal personality are such as boldness, aggressiveness, and anxiety. In this thesis, the focus was on the behaviours along the shy-bold axis, containing various degrees of boldness expressing behaviour. The study was conducted by using long-term data from the past 30 years on the banded mongoose (Mungos mungo) population in the Mweya Peninsula in the Queen Elizabeth National Park in Uganda. In particular, I used the data on regular weighing events done within the population. As the weighing is not forced on these individuals, the participation percentage on these events can be used to describe an individual’s boldness. I used the participation percentage as a boldness index (values between 0 and 1) for each individual to describe their position on the shy-bold axis. This index was then used to analyse the differences between sexes, and the fitness effects boldness had on the individuals of this population by using proxies of survival, weight at sexual maturity and lifetime reproductive success (LRS). To determine long-term consistency between individuals, I analysed the repeatability of the boldness index. The repeatability of these values showed we can consider this behaviour as an animal personality. From the fitness analyses, it was concluded that boldness had significant positive effects on the fitness proxies used, proposing that bold individuals have higher fitness in this population. While sex did not affect an individual’s boldness, it had significant interactions with boldness, affecting the strength of fitness effects on individuals in weight at sexual maturity and LRS.
  • Järveläinen, Veli-Pekka (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1981)
  • Goel, Rahul; Goodman, Anna; Aldred, Rachel; Nakamura, Ryota; Tatah, Lambed; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro; Zapata-Diomedi, Belen; de Sa, Thiago Herick; Tiwari, Geetam; de Nazelle, Audrey; Tainio, Marko; Buehler, Ralph; Götschi, Thomas; Woodcock, James (Informa UK Limited, 2022)
    Transport Reviews, 42:1, 58-81
    International comparisons of cycling behaviour have typically been limited to high-income countries and often limited to the prevalence of cycling, with lack of discussions on demographic and trip characteristics. We used a combination of city, regional, and national travel surveys from 17 countries across the six continents, ranging from years 2009 through 2019. We present a descriptive analysis of cycling behaviour including level of cycling, trip purpose and distance, and user demographics, at the city-level for 35 major cities (>1 million population) and in urbanised areas nationwide for 11 countries. The Netherlands, Japan and Germany are among the highest cycling countries and their cities among the highest cycling cities. In cities and countries with high cycling levels, cycling rates tend to be more equal between work and non-work trips, whereas in geographies with low cycling levels, cycling to work is higher than cycling for other trips. In terms of cycling distance, patterns in high- and low-cycling geographies are more similar. We found a strong positive association between the level of cycling and women’s representation among cyclists. In almost all geographies with cycling mode share greater than 7% women made as many cycle trips as men, and sometimes even greater. The share of cycling trips by women is much lower in geographies with cycling mode shares less than 7%. Among the geographies with higher levels of cycling, children (<16 years) are often overrepresented. Older adults (>60 years) remain underrepresented in all geographies but have relatively better representation where levels of cycling are high. In low-cycling settings, females are underrepresented across all the age groups, and more so when older than 16 years. With increasing level of cycling, representation of females improves across all the age groups, and most significantly among children and older adults. Clustering the cities and countries into homogeneous cycling typologies reveals that high cycling levels always coincide with high representation of females and good representations of all age groups. In low-cycling settings, it is the reverse. We recommend that evaluations of cycling policies include usage by gender and age groups as benchmarks in addition to overall use. To achieve representation across different age and gender groups, making neighbourhoods cycling friendly and developing safer routes to school, should be equally high on the agenda as cycling corridors that often cater to commuting traffic.
  • van den Berg, Nicole J.; Hof, Andries F.; van der Wijst, Kaj-Ivar; Akenji, Lewis; Daioglou, Vassilis; Edelenbosch, Oreane Y.; van Sluisveld, Mariesse A. E.; Timmer, Vanessa J.; van Vuuren, Detlef P. (2021)
    Recent studies show that behaviour changes can provide an essential contribution to achieving the Paris climate targets. Existing climate change mitigation scenarios primarily focus on technological change and underrepresent the possible contribution of behaviour change. This paper presents and applies a methodology to decompose the factors contributing to changes in per capita emissions in scenarios. With this approach, we determine the relative contribution to total emissions from changes in activity, the way activities are carried out, the intensity of activities, as well as fuel choice. The decomposition tool breaks down per capita emissions loosely following the Kaya Identity, allowing a comparison between the contributions of technology and consumption changes among regions and between various scenarios. We illustrate the use of the tool by applying it to three previously-published scenarios; a baseline scenario, a scenario with a selection of behaviour changes, and a 2 degrees C scenario with the same selection of behaviour changes. Within these scenarios, we explore the contribution of technology and consumption changes to total emission changes in the transport and residential sector, for a selection of both developed and developing regions. In doing so, the tool helps identify where specifically (i.e. via consumption or technology factors) different measures play a role in mitigating emissions and expose opportunities for improved representation of behaviour changes in integrated assessment models. This research shows the value of the decomposition tool and how the approach could be flexibly replicated for different global models based on available variables and aims. The application of the tool to previously-published scenarios shows substantial differences in consumption and technology changes from CO2 price and behaviour changes, in transport and residential per capita emissions and between developing and developed regions. Furthermore, the tool's application can highlight opportunities for future scenario development of a more nuanced and heterogeneous representation of behaviour and lifestyle changes in global models.
  • Schuster, Romina; Strehse, Jennifer S.; Ahvo, Aino; Turja, Raisa; Maser, Edmund; Bickmeyer, Ulf; Lehtonen, Kari K.; Brenner, Matthias (Elsevier, 2021)
    Marine Environmental Research 167 (2021), 105264
    Baltic mussels (Mytilus spp.) were exposed to the explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT) for 96 h (0.31–10.0 mg/L) and 21 d (0.31–2.5 mg/L). Bioaccumulation of TNT and its degradation products (2- and 4-ADNT) as well as biological effects ranging from the gene and cellular levels to behaviour were investigated. Although no mortality occurred in the concentration range tested, uptake and metabolism of TNT and responses in antioxidant enzymes and histochemical biomarkers were observed already at the lowest concentrations. The characteristic shell closure behaviour of bivalves at trigger concentrations led to complex exposure patterns and non-linear responses to the exposure concentrations. Conclusively, exposure to TNT exerts biomarker reponses in mussels already at 0.31 mg/L while effects are recorded also after a prolonged exposure although no mortality occurs. Finally, more attention should be paid on shell closure of bivalves in exposure studies since it plays a marked role in definining toxicity threshold levels.
  • Hinkkanen, Tero; Kurhila, Jaakko; Pasanen, Tomi A. (2008)
    Department of Computer Science Series of publications C
    We present a framework for evaluating believability of characters in first-person shooter (FPS) games and look into the development of non-player character’s user-perceived believability. The used framework is composed of two aspects: firstly, character movement and animation, secondly, behavior. Examination of three different FPS games yields that the newer the game was, the better the believability of characters in the game. Moreover, the results from both the aspects of the framework were mutually balanced through all games examined.
  • Rissanen, Jason (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Ants are among the most successful organisms in the world. They can be found almost anywhere on the planet and due to their high degree of sociality and complex societies they have become some of the most abundant creatures in most terrestrial ecosystems. Although sociality has benefits in the form of more efficient foraging, brood care, reproduction and protection from predators, it has costs too. Ants live in high densities in their nests and have frequent contact between them which can facilitate an efficient transmission of pathogens within the nest. Ants have become highly successful in spite of their potentially high susceptibility to pathogens. They share the same innate immune responses of other arthropods and have unique adaptations for coping with pathogens. In extension to physiological strategies for coping with pathogens, ants engage in behavioural strategies as well. Ants and other eusocial insects can also harness the structure and behaviour of the colony to prevent and cope with pathogen infections through social immunity. Ants can also engage in self-medication behaviour to combat disease. Self-medication is a behavioural strategy where individuals respond to pathogen infections by seeking out and using biologically active compounds to alleviate the effects of pathogens in a way that would be detrimental for uninfected individuals. The behaviour can be either therapeutic of prophylactic depending on when the compounds are used in relation to encountering the pathogen, and it can be extended beyond the self to other kin. While ants have been proven to medicate themselves with reactive oxygen species (ROS) in laboratory conditions, it remains unknown how they do it in the wild. In my thesis, I studied how the ant Lasius platythorax self-medicate in a natural setting by developing a multi-trophic system of ant – pathogen – aphid – plant interactions. In this system, the ants infected with a fungal pathogen (Beauveria bassiana) had the opportunity to forage on the nectar produced by the extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of a broad bean plant (Vicia faba) infested by vetch aphids (Megoura viciae). Plants that are stressed by aphids react with a systemic production of ROS, which ants are known to use for self-medication, and ROS could therefore be present in the EFN nectar as well, along with other potentially medicinal compounds. The aphids themselves could present the ants with both ROS, if it accumulates in the aphids due to the immune responses of the plant, and protein if eaten. In my thesis I found out that infected ants increase their foraging on EFN nectar during the first three days after infection compared to healthy ants. This immediate response to a pathogen infection shown by the infected ants fits in a self-medication context as well as the infection cycle of the pathogen, making this a strong case for self-medication. The change in foraging by the infected ants did not reflect on the changes in ROS content in the ants, possibly due to a lack of ROS in the nectar, but instead were likely to be caused by self-generation of ROS in the infected ants. The aphids feeding on the plant contained a higher ROS content compared to the ants, but I found no evidence of ants preying on the aphids, possibly due to the M. viciae being unpalatable for the ants or the ants finding medicinal compounds in the EFN nectar. The result of my thesis is a first step in to identifying natural ways for ants to obtain and use medicinal compounds from their environments and opens up new avenues of research in the topic of self-medication. The result also highlights the importance of biodiversity for the conservation efforts for ants and other insects. Insects are facing a drastic decline in both abundance and diversity due to human impact on their environments, including the prevalence in pathogens. By understanding the full extent of the immune strategies that insects use, including self-medication, we can develop more efficient methods of conservation to help them.
  • Virtanen, Katri (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The aim of this study was to examine how immunocastration effects on pigs growth rate, feed efficiency and carcass traits and how high amounts of ileal digestible amino acids can pigs utilize. Another aim of this study was to examine if immunocastrating causes pain or stress to pigs in short period of time. This experiment was carried out in research piggery of MTT Hyvinkää. Pigs were splitted in six test groups by their gender (immunocastrated and surgically castrated males) and the level of standardized ileal digestible amino acids (low level, recommended level and high level). Growth and feed efficiency were measured by weighting pigs in the beginning of first growing phase, during growing weeks 6 and 9 and at the end of the trial. Carcass traits and meat quality were measured immediately after slaughter by Autofom-equipment. Pigs were videotaped for three days during each injection and their behavior was recorded. Statistical analysis of growth features and carcass traits were accomplished by SAS 9.3 GLM-procedure and behavioral changes by SPSS-software. The level of ileal digestible amino acids improved average daily gain (ADG) on both genders. Surgically castrated males achieved their best ADG during growing weeks 6-8 while immunocas trated males achieved their best results between growing week 9 and slaughter and at that time their results were best of all test groups. Increase of ileal digestible amino acids improved feed efficiency in all test groups. Stress indicating behavioral changes like standing, being alone and changes in activity, was noticed especially during first injection at the same day the injection was given. Second injection increased behavioral changes more the day after injection. Based on these results it seems that immunocastrating causes stress to pigs but it lasts only for a short time.
  • Piirtola, Maarit; Kaprio, Jaakko; Waller, Katja; Heikkila, Kauko; Koskenvuo, Markku; Svedberg, Pia; Silventoinen, Karri; Kujala, Urho M.; Ropponen, Annina (2017)
    Background: We investigated the stability and change of leisure-time physical inactivity in adult men and women during a 35-year follow-up. We also analysed the impact of long-term physical inactivity on the development of body mass index (BMI). Methods: In this population-based cohort study, 5254 Finnish twin individuals (59% women) participated in four surveys in 1975, 1981, 1990 and 2011. Mean age at baseline was 23.9 years. Individual long-term leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) was categorized into seven classes varying from 'persistently inactive' to 'persistently active'. We used the multivariate multilevel mixed-effects linear regression model and paired-sample t-test in the analyses. Co-twin control design was used for examining within-pair associations. Results: Of men 11%, and of women 8%, were persistently inactive. Among both sexes, the mean BMI slope trajectories were steeper among the persistently inactive and those who became inactive than among those who were persistently active. Overall, the inactive participants gained 1.4 kg/m(2) [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2 to 1.7] more in weight than did the active participants from 1975 to 2011. Among twin pairs discordant for LTPA, the corresponding difference was 1.4 kg/m(2) (95% CI 0.83 to 2.0) in dizygotic pairs and 0.68 kg/m(2) (95% CI 0.05 to1.3) in monozygotic pairs. Conclusions: Over a 35-year time span from young adulthood, persistently inactive participants and those who had become inactive had greater weight increases than those who were persistently active. This association was also found in twin-pair analyses, although attenuated in monozygotic pairs. This may support the importance of LTPA in weight management, although further causal inference is required.
  • Mäkikärki, Maissi (University of Helsinki, 1927)
  • Candolin, Ulrika; Jensen, Irene (2021)
    When environments change rapidly, evolutionary processes may be too slow to rescue populations from decline. Persistence then hinges on plastic adjustments of critical traits to the altered conditions. However, the degree to which species harbour the necessary plasticity and the degree to which the plasticity is exposed to selection in human-disturbed environments are poorly known. We show that a population of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) harbours variation in plasticity in male courtship behaviour, which is exposed to selection when visibility deteriorates because of enhanced algal growth. Females in clear water show no preference for plastic males, while females in algal-rich, turbid water switch their mate preference towards males with adaptive plasticity. Thus, while the plasticity is not selected for in the original clear water environment, it comes under selection in turbid water. However, much maladaptive plasticity is present in the population, probably because larger turbidity fluctuations have been rare in the past. Thus, the probability that the plasticity will improve the ability of the population to cope with human-induced increases in turbidity-and possibly facilitate genetic adaptation-depends on its prevalence and genetic basis. In conclusion, our results show that rapid human-induced environmental change can expose phenotypic plasticity to selection, but that much of the plasticity can be maladaptive, also when the altered conditions represent extremes of earlier encountered conditions. Thus, whether the plasticity will improve population viability remains questionable.
  • Riihinen, Päiviö (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1982)
  • Duckworth, James; O'Brien, Sue; Petersen, Ib Krag; Petersen, Aevar; Benediktsson, G.; Johnson, Logan; Lehikoinen, Petteri; Okill, David; Väisänen, Roni; Williams, Jim; Williams, Stuart; Daunt, Francis; Green, Jonathan A. (2021)
    Differing environmental conditions can have profound effects on many behaviours in animals, especially where species have large geographic ranges. Seasonal changes or progression through life history stages impose differential constraints, leading to changes in behaviours. Furthermore, species which show flexibility in behaviours, may have a higher capacity to adapt to anthropogenic-induced changes to their environment. The red-throated diver (RTD) is an aquatic bird, that is able to forage in both freshwater and marine environments, though little else is known about its behaviours and its capacity to adapt to different environmental conditions. Here, we use time-depth recorders and saltwater immersion loggers to examine the foraging behaviour of RTDs from three regions across northwest Europe. We found that in the breeding season, birds from two regions (Iceland and Scotland) foraged in the marine environment, while birds from Finland, foraged predominantly in freshwater. Most of the differences in diving characteristics were at least partly explained by differences in foraging habitat. Additionally, while time spent foraging did not change through the breeding season, dives generally became more pelagic and less benthic over the season, suggesting RTDs either switched prey or followed vertical prey movements, rather than increasing foraging effort. There was a preference for foraging in daylight over crepuscular hours, with a stronger effect at two of the three sites. Overall, we provide the first investigation of RTD foraging and diving behaviour from multiple geographic regions and demonstrate variation in foraging strategies in this generalist aquatic predator, most likely due to differences in their local environment.
  • Yovanovich, Carola A. M.; Koskela, Sanna M.; Nevala, Noora; Kondrashev, Sergei L.; Kelber, Almut; Donner, Kristian (2017)
    The presence of two spectrally different kinds of rod photoreceptors in amphibians has been hypothesized to enable purely rod-based colour vision at very low light levels. The hypothesis has never been properly tested, so we performed three behavioural experiments at different light intensities with toads (Bufo) and frogs (Rana) to determine the thresholds for colour discrimination. The thresholds of toads were different in mate choice and prey-catching tasks, suggesting that the differential sensitivities of different spectral cone types as well as task-specific factors set limits for the use of colour in these behavioural contexts. In neither task was there any indication of rod-based colour discrimination. By contrast, frogs performing phototactic jumping were able to distinguish blue from green light down to the absolute visual threshold, where vision relies only on rod signals. The remarkable sensitivity of this mechanism comparing signals from the two spectrally different rod types approaches theoretical limits set by photon fluctuations and intrinsic noise. Together, the results indicate that different pathways are involved in processing colour cues depending on the ecological relevance of this information for each task. This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'.
  • Yovanovich, Carola A. M.; Koskela, Sanna M.; Nevala, Noora; Kondrashev, Sergei L.; Kelber, Almut; Donner, Kristian (The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2017)
    The presence of two spectrally different kinds of rod photoreceptors in amphibians has been hypothesized to enable purely rod-based colour vision at very low light levels. The hypothesis has never been properly tested, so we performed three behavioural experiments at different light intensities with toads (Bufo) and frogs (Rana) to determine the thresholds for colour discrimination. The thresholds of toads were different in mate choice and prey-catching tasks, suggesting that the differential sensitivities of different spectral cone types as well as task-specific factors set limits for the use of colour in these behavioural contexts. In neither task was there any indication of rod-based colour discrimination. By contrast, frogs performing phototactic jumping were able to distinguish blue from green light down to the absolute visual threshold, where vision relies only on rod signals. The remarkable sensitivity of this mechanism comparing signals from the two spectrally different rod types approaches theoretical limits set by photon fluctuations and intrinsic noise. Together, the results indicate that different pathways are involved in processing colour cues depending on the ecological relevance of this information for each task. This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'.
  • Jokinen, Olli (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Koirien käytösongelmat ovat länsimaissa yleisiä ja ovat yleinen syy koirien uudelleensijoittamiseen tai eutanasiaan. Koiran kontrolloimaton aggressiivinen käyttäytyminen on hyvinvointiongelma, joka voi aiheuttaa suoran vaaran koiran omistajalle, muille eläimille sekä koiralle itselleen. Yleisin käytösongelma, jonka takia koiranomistajat hakeutuvat käytösneuvojalle Yhdysvalloissa ja Isossa-Britanniassa on aggressio vieraita ihmisiä kohtaan. Koirien luovuttaminen uuteen kotiin alle kahdeksan viikon iässä, sekä sosiaalisilta ominaisuuksiltaan monipuoliset kasvatusolosuhteet elinviikkojen 4-12 aikana ovat ulkomaisissa tutkimuksissa yhdistetty vähentyneeseen aggressio- ja pelkokäyttäytymiseen aikuisena. Suomessa koirien luovutusiän jakaumaa ja sen yhteyttä aggressio- ja pelkokäyttäytymiseen ei ole tutkittu, eikä kartoitusta kasvatusolosuhteiden ominaisuuksista ole aiemmin tehty. Suomen Kennelliiton sääntöjen mukaan koiraa ei tule luovuttaa alle seitsemänviikkoisena, mutta luovutuksen ylärajaa ei ole määritetty. Tästä huolimatta sosiaalisessa mediassa on ollut paljon keskustelua luovutusikäsuosituksen myöhäistämisestä 10-12 viikkoon. Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli tutkia suomalaisella koira-aineistolla, nouseeko aggressio- ja pelkokäyttäytymisen todennäköisyys luovutusiän noustessa sekä onko mahdollista määrittää luovutusikä, joka olisi ihanteellisin mahdollisimman vähäisen aggressio- ja pelkokäyttäytymisen kannalta. Aineisto kerättiin internet-kyselystä, jonka tuloksena tutkimukseen kelpuutettiin 5067 koiraa. 30,9 % koirista oli luovutettu uuteen kotiin alle kahdeksanviikkoisina, 37,6 % kahdeksanviikkoisina ja 31,5 % yli kahdeksanviikkoisina. Tutkimukseen kelpuutetuista koirista 77,7 % oli kasvatettu ennen luovutustaan kasvattajan kotona, 14,7 % kasvattajan kotona erillisessä tilassa ja 7,6 % kenneleissä. Eri sosiaalisissa tilanteissa esiintyneiden ongelmakäytösten yhteys luovutusikään selvitettiin käyttämällä khi-neliö -testejä ja ristiintaulukointia. Tutkimuksessa havaittiin, että luovutusiällä on yhteys seuraaviin ongelmakäytöksiin: tuttujen ihmisten vältteleminen ja heille muriseminen, koiran kodin ulkopuolella kohdattujen vieraiden ihmisten vältteleminen, pureminen tai sen yrittäminen ja heille muriseminen, kotona vierailevien vieraiden ihmisten vältteleminen, pureminen tai sen yrittäminen sekä heille muriseminen ja haukkuminen sekä eläinlääkärin vältteleminen. Kaikissa edellämainituissa ongelmakäytöksissä > 8 viikkoisina luovutetut koirat olivat edustettuna odotusarvoa enemmän, kun taas 8 ja < 8 viikon iässä luovutetut osoittivat ongelmakäytöksiä odotusarvoa vähemmän. Luovutusiällä oli yhteys myös vieraille koirille haukkumiseen kodin ulkopuolella. Tätä käytöstä osoittivat odotusarvoa enemmän > 8 viikkoisina luovutetut ja vähiten < 8 viikkoisina luovutetut. Lisäksi tutkimuksessa havaittiin, ette kaikkien tutkittujen ongelmakäytöksien määrä nousi heti 9-12 viikkoisena luovutettujen ryhmässä aikaisemman luovutusiän ryhmiin verrattuna. Saatujen tulosten perusteella osoitettiin hypoteesin mukaisesti, että kotioloissa kasvatetun koiran ihanteellinen luovutusikä aikuisiän aggressio- ja pelkokäyttäytymisen kannalta on kahdeksan viikkoa, jonka jälkeen aggressio- ja pelkokäyttäytymisen esiintymisen todennäköisyys nousee luovutusiän noustessa. Lisäksi tutkimuksen perusteella voitiin todeta kotikasvatuksen olevan Suomessa kennelkasvatusta yleisempää.
  • Chalas, Petros (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Histamine and hypocretin/orexin are neuromodulators important for regulation of alertness and wakefulness. These systems project to major areas of the brain, are highly conserved among vertebrates and they significantly innervate each other. Different studies have indicated an interaction between the histaminergic and orexin systems, however the role of histamine in this interaction is still not well-established. The goal of this study was to examine possible changes in orexin neurons development and larvae behaviour, after genetic loss of histamine decarboxylase (hdc), the histamine-synthesizing enzyme. Using whole-mount in-situ hybridization and immunofluorescence staining we observed a significant reduction in the expression of the hcrt mRNA and the orexin A peptide in 6 dpf hdcKO zebrafish larvae. However, KO of hdc had no effect on startle response, dark flash response and sleeping behaviour of 6 dpf larvae. To further investigate the regulatory role of the histaminergic system, we employed treatment of hdcWT and KO larvae with ciproxifan, a histamine H3 receptor inverse agonist. Ciproxifan treatment increased darkness habituation in 7 dpf hdcWT and KO larvae but reduced the intensity of the dark flash response only on hdcWT larvae. Furthermore, ciproxifan treatment differentially affected the expression of the orexin A peptide in 7 dpf hdcWT and KO larvae but had no effect on the expression levels of the hcrt mRNA. Collectively, these findings suggest the significance of histaminergic signaling for normal development of orexin neurons and the implication of histamine in the execution of the dark flash response. Lastly, this study indicates the complex role of the histamine H3 receptor and the requirement of further studies for better characterization of its function.
  • Schneider, Lauriina; Ollila, Sari; Mutanen, Marja (2022)
    Improvements in community health workers' (CHWs) knowledge and practices in low-income countries increasingly involve mobile phones and videos. However, little data exists on CHWs' and mothers' experiences of using such phones and videos. In this study, educational videos on nutrition, health and hygiene were downloaded onto mobile phones, which were given to 12 CHWs in rural Uganda. In 2018, these CHWs used the videos for a period of 3 months to support their work during their visits with families. We subsequently conducted individual interviews with eight CHWs and held four focus group discussions with 16 mothers. From the inductively analysed data, we identified four key themes: impact, competence, meaningfulness and choice, which are also dimensions of the Intrinsic Task Motivation Model. The model describes the motivation of workers and has previously been used in connection with CHWs. In our study, CHWs and mothers considered that the videos had more strongly impacted their learning than traditional teaching methods, and they felt the videos improved the child feeding and caring competence of both CHWs and mothers. Furthermore, the CHWs found that the videos enhanced the meaningfulness of their work, as they felt more greatly appreciated and necessary. In addition, they experienced more freedom of choice in their ability to influence their working routines. This study shows that educational videos are well received among CHWs and mothers. Educational videos are a promising method to maintain and improve the motivation of voluntary CHWs and influence correct child feeding and hygiene practices in Uganda.
  • Ylivuori, Soile (Routledge, 2018)
    This first in-depth study of women’s politeness examines the complex relationship individuals had with the discursive ideals of polite femininity. Contextualising women’s autobiographical writings (journals and letters) with a wide range of eighteenth-century printed didactic material, it analyses the tensions between politeness discourse which aimed to regulate acceptable feminine identities and women’s possibilities to resist this disciplinary regime. Ylivuori focuses on the central role the female body played as both the means through which individuals actively fashioned themselves as polite and feminine, and the supposedly truthful expression of their inner status of polite femininity.