Browsing by Subject "beta diversity"

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  • Linkens, Armand M. A.; van Best, Niels; Niessen, Petra M.; Wijckmans, Nicole E. G.; de Goei, Erica E. C.; Scheijen, Jean L. J. M.; van Dongen, Martien C. J. M.; van Gool, Christel C. J. A. W.; de Vos, Willem M.; Houben, Alfons J. H. M.; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Eussen, Simone J. M. P.; Penders, John; Schalkwijk, Casper G. (2022)
    Dietary advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), abundantly present in Westernized diets, are linked to negative health outcomes, but their impact on the gut microbiota has not yet been well investigated in humans. We investigated the effects of a 4-week isocaloric and macronutrient-matched diet low or high in AGEs on the gut microbial composition of 70 abdominally obese individuals in a double-blind parallel-design randomized controlled trial (NCT03866343). Additionally, we investigated the cross-sectional associations between the habitual intake of dietary dicarbonyls, reactive precursors to AGEs, and the gut microbial composition, as assessed by 16S rRNA amplicon-based sequencing. Despite a marked percentage difference in AGE intake, we observed no differences in microbial richness and the general community structure. Only the Anaerostipes spp. had a relative abundance >0.5% and showed differential abundance (0.5 versus 1.11%; p = 0.028, after low- or high-AGE diet, respectively). While the habitual intake of dicarbonyls was not associated with microbial richness or a general community structure, the intake of 3-deoxyglucosone was especially associated with an abundance of several genera. Thus, a 4-week diet low or high in AGEs has a limited impact on the gut microbial composition of abdominally obese humans, paralleling its previously observed limited biological consequences. The effects of dietary dicarbonyls on the gut microbiota composition deserve further investigation.
  • Agra, Janaina; Ligeiro, Raphael; Heino, Jani; Macedo, Diego R.; Castro, Diego M.P.; Linares, Marden S.; Callisto, Marcos (Elsevier Science Ireland, 2021)
    Ecological indicators 121, 107079
    The effects of anthropogenic disturbance on multiple facets of biodiversity are poorly understood. In this study, we worked with the hypothesis that anthropogenic disturbances affect the relationship between environmental heterogeneity (EH) and biodiversity. We used a model selection approach to test three predictions. P1: The greater the level of anthropogenic disturbance, the weaker will be the relationship between EH and both taxonomic and functional alpha diversities. P2: The sign and strength of correlations between EH metrics and both taxonomic and functional alpha diversities will depend on the level of anthropogenic disturbance. P3: Taxonomic and functional beta diversities will not respond to the EH gradient. We sampled 76 stream sites in the Brazilian Neotropical savanna and collected insect of the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera to measure taxonomic and functional alpha and beta diversities. For P1, we did not find a trend of decreasing strength of this relationship with increasing disturbance. Results confirmed P2. Spatial flow diversity was positively correlated to taxonomic and functional alpha diversities in least-disturbed sites. Bankfull height variation was negatively correlated to taxonomic and functional alpha diversities in moderately-disturbed sites. Thalweg depth variation was positively correlated to taxonomic and functional alpha diversities in most-disturbed sites. Results partially confirmed P3 because taxonomic and functional beta diversities correlated with EH metrics in most-disturbed sites. We conclude that the biodiversity-EH relationship is not the same at all levels of anthropogenic disturbance, a finding that has implications for biomonitoring and ecosystem management.
  • Langenheder, Silke; Wang, Jianjun; Karjalainen, Satu Maaria; Laamanen, Tiina M.; Tolonen, Kimmo T.; Vilmi, Annika; Heino, Jani (2017)
    The spatial structure and underlying assembly mechanisms of bacterial communities have been studied widely across aquatic systems, focusing primarily on isolated sites, such as different lakes, ponds and streams. Here, our main aim was to determine the underlying mechanisms for bacterial biofilm assembly within a large, highly connected lake system in Northern Finland using associative methods based on taxonomic and phylogenetic alpha-and beta-diversity and a large number of abiotic and biotic variables. Furthermore, null model approaches were used to quantify the relative importance of different community assembly processes. We found that spatial variation in bacterial communities within the lake was structured by different assembly processes, including stochasticity, species sorting and potentially even dispersal limitation. Species sorting by abiotic environmental conditions explained more of the taxonomic and particularly phylogenetic turnover in community composition compared with that by biotic variables. Finally, we observed clear differences in alpha diversity (species richness and phylogenetic diversity), which were to a stronger extent determined by abiotic compared with biotic factors, but also by dispersal effects. In summary, our study shows that the biodiversity of bacterial biofilm communities within a lake ecosystem is driven by within-habitat gradients in abiotic conditions and by stochastic and deterministic dispersal processes.
  • García-Girón, Jorge; Heino, Jani; García-Criado, Francisco; Fernández-Aláez, Camino; Alahuhta, Janne (Wiley Online Library, 2020)
    Ecography 43 8 (2020)
    Biotic interactions are fundamental drivers governing biodiversity locally, yet their effects on geographical variation in community composition (i.e. incidence-based) and community structure (i.e. abundance-based) at regional scales remain controversial. Ecologists have only recently started to integrate different types of biotic interactions into community assembly in a spatial context, a theme that merits further empirical quantification. Here, we applied partial correlation networks to infer the strength of spatial dependencies between pairs of organismal groups and mapped the imprints of biotic interactions on the assembly of pond metacommunities. To do this, we used a comprehensive empirical dataset from Mediterranean landscapes and adopted the perspective that community assembly is best represented as a network of interacting organismal groups. Our results revealed that the co-variation among the beta diversities of multiple organismal groups is primarily driven by biotic interactions and, to a lesser extent, by the abiotic environment. These results suggest that ignoring biotic interactions may undermine our understanding of assembly mechanisms in spatially extensive areas and decrease the accuracy and performance of predictive models. We further found strong spatial dependencies in our analyses which can be interpreted as functional relationships among several pairs of organismal groups (e.g. macrophytes–macroinvertebrates, fish–zooplankton). Perhaps more importantly, our results support the notion that biotic interactions make crucial contributions to the species sorting paradigm of metacommunity theory and raise the question of whether these biologically-driven signals have been equally underappreciated in other aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Although more research is still required to empirically capture the importance of biotic interactions across ecosystems and at different spatial resolutions and extents, our findings may allow decision makers to better foresee the main consequences of human-driven impacts on inland waters, particularly those associated with the addition or removal of key species.
  • Mammola, Stefano; Carmona, Carlos P.; Guillerme, Thomas; Cardoso, Pedro (2021)
    The use of functional diversity analyses in ecology has grown exponentially over the past two decades, broadening our understanding of biological diversity and its change across space and time. Virtually all ecological sub-disciplines recognise the critical value of looking at species and communities from a functional perspective, and this has led to a proliferation of methods for estimating contrasting dimensions of functional diversity. Differences between these methods and their development generated terminological inconsistencies and confusion about the selection of the most appropriate approach for addressing any particular ecological question, hampering the potential for comparative studies, simulation exercises and meta-analyses. Two general mathematical frameworks for estimating functional diversity are prevailing: those based on dissimilarity matrices (e.g. Rao entropy, functional dendrograms) and those relying on multidimensional spaces, constructed as either convex hulls or probabilistic hypervolumes. We review these frameworks, discuss their strengths and weaknesses and provide an overview of the main R packages performing these calculations. In parallel, we propose a way for organising functional diversity metrics in a unified scheme to quantify the richness, divergence and regularity of species or individuals under each framework. This overview offers a roadmap for confidently approaching functional diversity analyses both theoretically and practically.
  • Virta, Leena; Soininen, Janne; Norkko, Alf (2020)
    Aim Global biodiversity loss has raised interest in understanding variation in diversity at different scales. In particular, studies conducted across large spatial gradients are crucial, because they can increase perspectives on how ecological patterns change relative to environmental factors and facilitate predictions of possible responses to environmental change. We explored the full extent of a brackish sea to test the hypotheses that: (a) benthic communities are defined by the limited ranges of species, controlled by varying drivers along a large environmental gradient; (b) the responses of taxonomic and functional community composition and turnover to the environmental gradient are different, thus highlighting the need to include both measures in ecological studies; and (c) diversity reaches the minimum at intermediate salinities (Remane curve) owing to the low adaptation of freshwater and marine species. Location A large environmental and spatial gradient spanning the entire Swedish coastline (c. 2,300 km; salinity 1.2-27.6), the Baltic Sea. Time period August 2018. Major taxa studied Benthic diatoms. Methods We assessed environmental drivers for the communities and calculated the taxonomic and functional alpha and beta diversity along the gradient. We also compared the taxonomic and functional composition and diversity of communities among areas with different salinity. Results We found support for the hypothesis of limited species ranges, because taxonomic beta diversity, mainly induced by changes in salinity and climate, was high, whereas functional beta diversity remained considerably lower, and the composition and diversity of communities, in addition to environmental drivers controlling the communities, differed between regions with different salinity. The lowest taxonomic diversity was found at intermediate salinities of 5-6. Main conclusions These findings advance understanding of large-scale patterns of benthic diversity, emphasize the importance of large gradient studies for a better understanding of general ecological patterns and highlight the vulnerability of brackish water ecosystems as ecologically important tipping-point realms.
  • Gavioli, Anna; Milardi, Marco; Castaldelli, Giuseppe; Fano, Elisa Anna; Soininen, Janne (2019)
    Aim Exotic species are a major threat to biodiversity and have modified native communities worldwide. Invasion processes have been extensively studied, but studies on species richness and beta diversity patterns of exotic and native species are rare. We investigate such patterns among exotic and native fish communities in upland and lowland rivers to explore their relationship with environmental drivers. Location Northern Italy. Methods Exotic and native fish beta diversity patterns were investigated separately in lowland and upland sites using Local Contribution to Beta Diversity (LCBD) and Species Contribution to Beta Diversity (SCBD) analyses. To examine the main environmental variables affecting the LCBD, a Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) method was used. Community dispersion among and within stream orders was investigated with the PERMDISP test. Results In lowland sites, exotic species richness was higher than native species richness, especially in large rivers and drainage canals. An opposite trend was found in upland sites, where native species richness was higher than exotic species richness, especially in large rivers. No clear LCBD patterns were found along stream orders in the lowland, whereas higher stream orders in the upland showed the highest LCBD. Its patterns in upland and lowland sites were related to a number of factors, such as total suspended solids and total phosphorus. Community dispersion among stream orders did not show a relationship with environmental heterogeneity. SCBD values were positively correlated with species occupancy in the study area, and native species showed higher SCBD values than exotic species only in the uplands. Main conclusions Large rivers in the uplands are important in maintaining native fish diversity and should be protected against invasive fish. In contrast, most lowland rivers have suffered from biological homogenization. Some rare native species can show low contribution to beta diversity, but still need conservation actions due to their risk of local extinction.
  • Ordynets, Alexander; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob; Savchenko, Anton; Baessler, Claus; Volobuev, Sergey; Akulov, Olexander; Karadelev, Mitko; Kotiranta, Heikki; Saitta, Alessandro; Langer, Ewald; Abrego, Nerea (2018)
    Aim: Aphyllophoroid fungi are associated with plants, either using plants as a resource (as parasites or decomposers) or as symbionts (as mycorrhizal partners). In spite of their strong association with plants, it is unknown how much plant distributions determine their biogeographical patterns compared with environmental factors such as climate and human land use. In this study, our aims are to (1) describe the spatial diversity patterns of aphyllophoroid fungi in Europe and (2) identify the factors shaping these patterns. Location: Europe, as well as the adjacent Subarctic to Arctic islands (Greenland, Faroe Islands, Iceland, Svalbard), Palestine and the south-east coast of the Caspian Sea. Methods: We compiled a dataset consisting of 14,030 fruitbody occurrences of 1,491 aphyllophoroid fungal species from 39 geographical areas (17 countries) belonging to eight biogeographical regions. We assessed the differences in fungal species richness and overall diversity and its nestedness and turnover components across biogeographical regions of Europe, as well as between southern and northern Europe (based on geographical latitude of 50 degrees as threshold). We used cluster and ordination analyses to classify the European aphyllophoroid communities biogeographically and evaluated the importance of climate, host-tree species, topography and human land-use intensity in explaining biogeographical variation. Results: The importance of biogeographical regions in determining European aphyllophoroid fungal communities varies for different diversity components. Species richness and nestedness are best explained by plant-based biogeographical regions, whereas overall beta diversity and species turnover are driven mostly by variation in climate, and nestedness mostly by tree species occupancy. Beta-diversity patterns of aphyllophoroid fungi do not differ between southern and northern Europe. Main conclusions: At the continental scale, aphyllophoroid fungi are less shaped by historical legacies than vascular plant and animal communities, and trends of overall beta diversity in southern and northern Europe are similar to patterns found for bryophytes.
  • Brittain, John E.; Heino, Jani; Friberg, Nikolai; Aroviita, Jukka; Kahlert, Maria; Karjalainen, Satu‐Maaria; Keck, François; Lento, Jennifer; Liljaniemi, Petri; Mykrä, Heikki; Schneider, Susanne C.; Ylikörkkö, Jukka (Blackwell Scientific, 2022)
    Freshwater Biology
    1. Arctic freshwaters support biota adapted to the harsh conditions at these latitudes, but the climate is changing rapidly and so are the underlying environmental filters. Currently, we have limited understanding of broad-scale patterns of Arctic riverine biodiversity and the correlates of α- and β-diversity. 2. Using information from a database set up within the scope of the Arctic Council's Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Plan, we analysed patterns and correlates of α- and β-diversity in benthic diatom and macroinvertebrate communities across northern Norway, Sweden, and Finland. We analysed variation in total β-diversity and its replacement and richness difference components in relation to location of the river reach and its drainage basin (Baltic Sea in the south, the Barents Sea in the east and the north, and the Norwegian Sea in the west), in addition to climate and environmental variables. 3. In both macroinvertebrates and diatoms, the replacement and richness difference components showed wide variation. For macroinvertebrates, the richness difference component was the more important, whereas for diatoms, the replacement component was the more important in contributing to variation in β-diversity. There was no significant difference in β-diversity between the three main drainage basins, but species composition differed among the drainage basins. 4. Based on the richness difference component of β-diversity, climate variables were most strongly associated with community variation in macroinvertebrates. In diatoms, both environmental and climate variables were strongly correlated with community compositional variation. In both groups, there were also significant differences in α-diversity among the three main drainage basins, and several taxa were significant indicators of one of these drainage basins. Alpha diversity was greater in areas with a continental climate, while the oceanic areas in the west harboured greatly reduced flora and fauna. 5. The correlates of biodiversity were relatively similar in macroinvertebrates and diatoms. Climate variables, in particular temperature, were the most strongly associated with biodiversity patterns in the Arctic rivers of Fennoscandia. Sedimentary geology may be associated with increased productivity and, to a lesser extent, with sensitivity to acidification. There was considerable variation in community composition across Arctic Fennoscandia, indicating the necessity of protecting several stream reaches or even whole catchments within each region to conserve total riverine biodiversity. Furthermore, it is likely that the predicted changes in temperature in Arctic areas will influence riverine diversity patterns across Fennoscandia.
  • Teittinen, Anette; Virta, Leena (2021)
    Biodiversity has traditionally been quantified using taxonomic information but the importance of also considering its functional characteristics has recently gained an increasing attention among microorganisms. However, studies exploring multiple aspects of taxonomic and functional diversity and their temporal variations are scarce for diatoms, which is one of the most important microbial groups in aquatic ecosystems. Here, our aim was to examine the taxonomic and functional alpha and beta diversities of diatoms in a coastal rock pool system characterized by a naturally high environmental heterogeneity. We also investigated the temporal differences in the diversity patterns and drivers. The relationship between the species richness and functional dispersion was temporally coherent, such that species-poor communities tended to be functionally clustered. The trend between the species richness and taxonomic uniqueness of community composition was temporally inconsistent, changing from negative to non-significant over time. Conductivity or distance to the sea or both were key determinants of species richness, functional dispersion, and uniqueness of community composition. The increase of community dissimilarity with an increasing environmental distance was stronger for the taxonomic than the functional composition. Our results suggest that even minor decreases in the species richness may result in a lowered functional diversity and decreased ecosystem functioning. Species-poor ecosystems may, however, have unique species compositions and high contributions to regional biodiversity. Despite changing the species compositions along the environmental gradients, communities may remain to have a high functional similarity and robustness in the face of environmental changes. Our results highlight the advantage of considering multiple biodiversity metrics and incorporating a temporal component for a deeper understanding of the effects of environmental changes on microbial biodiversity.
  • Teittinen, Anette; Virta, Leena; Li, Mingjia; Wang, Jianjun (2021)
    Islands provide ideal model systems to examine the factors influencing biodiversity, yet knowledge of microbial biodiversity on islands remains scarce. We collected a dataset from 101 rock pools along a freshwater to brackish water transition on islands of the Baltic Sea and investigated the patterns and drivers of community composition and species richness of diatoms, cyanobacteria and non-cyanobacteria bacteria among islands. We also examined whether environmental heterogeneity increased beta diversity and species richness within islands. Among islands, the patterns in community composition were concordant among the microbial groups, with distinct changes along the freshwater-brackish gradient. The patterns in species richness were context-dependent for each microbial group. In general, richness patterns were most strongly associated with nutrient concentrations or the distances to potential sources of immigrants, whereas no positive relationships between ecosystem size and richness were found. Within islands, environmental heterogeneity was positively correlated with the beta diversity of each microbial group, but not species richness. Our findings provide novel insights into the factors influencing microbial biodiversity. The results suggest that island microbial biodiversity patterns are influenced by species sorting and dispersal-related mechanisms and highlight the importance of environmental heterogeneity for beta diversity.
  • Schartau, Ann Kristin; Mariash, Heather L.; Christoffersen, Kirsten S.; Bogan, Daniel; Dubovskaya, Olga P.; Fefilova, Elena B.; Hayden, Brian; Ingvason, Haraldur R.; Ivanova, Elena A.; Kononova, Olga N.; Kravchuk, Elena S.; Lento, Jennifer; Majaneva, Markus; Novichkova, Anna A.; Rautio, Milla; Ruhland, Kathleen M.; Shaftel, Rebecca; Smol, John P.; Vrede, Tobias; Kahilainen, Kimmo K. (2022)
    Arctic freshwaters are facing multiple environmental pressures, including rapid climate change and increasing land-use activities. Freshwater plankton assemblages are expected to reflect the effects of these stressors through shifts in species distributions and changes to biodiversity. These changes may occur rapidly due to the short generation times and high dispersal capabilities of both phyto- and zooplankton. Spatial patterns and contemporary trends in plankton diversity throughout the circumpolar region were assessed using data from more than 300 lakes in the U.S.A. (Alaska), Canada, Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia. The main objectives of this study were: (1) to assess spatial patterns of plankton diversity focusing on pelagic communities; (2) to assess dominant component of beta diversity (turnover or nestedness); (3) to identify which environmental factors best explain diversity; and (4) to provide recommendations for future monitoring and assessment of freshwater plankton communities across the Arctic region. Phytoplankton and crustacean zooplankton diversity varied substantially across the Arctic and was positively related to summer air temperature. However, for zooplankton, the positive correlation between summer temperature and species numbers decreased with increasing latitude. Taxonomic richness was lower in the high Arctic compared to the sub- and low Arctic for zooplankton but this pattern was less clear for phytoplankton. Fennoscandia and inland regions of Russia represented hotspots for, respectively, phytoplankton and zooplankton diversity, whereas isolated regions had lower taxonomic richness. Ecoregions with high alpha diversity generally also had high beta diversity, and turnover was the most important component of beta diversity in all ecoregions. For both phytoplankton and zooplankton, climatic variables were the most important environmental factors influencing diversity patterns, consistent with previous studies that examined shorter temperature gradients. However, barriers to dispersal may have also played a role in limiting diversity on islands. A better understanding of how diversity patterns are determined by colonisation history, environmental variables, and biotic interactions requires more monitoring data with locations dispersed evenly across the circumpolar Arctic. Furthermore, the importance of turnover in regional diversity patterns indicates that more extensive sampling is required to fully characterise the species pool of Arctic lakes.
  • Mammola, Stefano; Cardoso, Pedro (2020)
    The use ofn-dimensional hypervolumes in trait-based ecology is rapidly increasing. By representing the functional space of a species or community as a Hutchinsonian niche, the abstract Euclidean space defined by a set of independent axes corresponding to individuals or species traits, these multidimensional techniques show great potential for the advance of functional ecology theory. In the panorama of existing methods for delineating multidimensional spaces, therpackagehypervolume(Global Ecology and Biogeography, 23, 2014, 595-609) is currently the most used. However, functions for calculating the standard set of functional diversity (FD) indices-richness, divergence and regularity-have not been developed within thehypervolumeframework yet. This gap is delaying its full exploitation in functional ecology, meanwhile preventing the possibility to compare its performance with that of other methods. We develop a set of functions to calculate FD indices based onn-dimensional hypervolumes, including alpha (richness), beta (and respective components), dispersion, evenness, contribution and originality. Altogether, these indices provide a coherent framework to explore the primary mathematical components of FD within a multidimensional setting. These new functions can work either with hypervolume objects or with raw data (species presence or abundance and their traits) as input data, and are versatile in terms of input parameters and options. These functions are implemented withinbat(Biodiversity Assessment Tools), anrpackage for biodiversity assessments. As a coherent corpus of functional indices based on a common algorithm, it opens the possibility to fully explore the strengths of the Hutchinsonian niche concept in community ecology research.
  • Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Rigal, François; Girardello, Marco; Cardoso, Pedro; Crespo, Luís Carlos; Amorim, Isabel R.; Arnedo, Miquel; Boieiro, Mário; Carvalho, José Carlos; Carvalho, Rui; Gabriel, Rosalina; Lamelas-Lopez, Lucas; López, Heriberto; Paulo, Octávio S.; Pereira, Fernando; Pérez-Delgado, Antonio J.; Rego, Carla; Romeiras, Maria; Ros-Prieto, Alejandra; Oromí, Pedro; Vieira, Ana; Emerson, Brent C.; Borges, Paulo A. V. (2021)
    Aim: Habitat diversity has been linked to the diversity and structure of island communities, however, little is known about patterns and processes within habitats. Here we aim to determine the contributions of habitat type and inferred dispersal frequency to the differences in taxonomic structure between assemblages in the same island habitat. Location: The Macaronesian archipelagos (Azores, Madeira, the Canary Islands and Cabo Verde). Taxon: Spiders (Araneae). Methods: We established forest and dry habitat sites (each with five plots) on two islands per archipelago. We collected spiders using standardised sampling protocols. We tested the differences in beta diversity separately for each habitat and for each inferred category of ballooning (an aerial dispersal strategy) frequency across geographic scales through nested non-parametric permutational multivariate analyses of variance. We then tested whether ballooning and habitat influenced heterogeneity in species composition (dispersion in beta diversity) in the two habitat types. We analysed the effects of habitat and ballooning on species abundance distribution (SAD) and rarity by fitting Gambin models and evaluating the contribution of ballooning categories to SAD. Results: Communities of the same archipelago and habitat were taxonomically more similar, and beta diversity increased with geographic scale, being greater in dry habitats. There was greater species replacement among assemblages in dry habitats than in forests, with greater differences for rare ballooners. There were no differences in SAD between habitats although dry habitat sites seemed to harbour more species with low abundances (rare species) than forests. Main conclusions: Habitat type does not only condition the differences between spider assemblages of the same habitat but also the scale at which they occur. These differences may be determined by the heterogeneity in the physical structure of each habitat as well as how much this structure facilitates aerial dispersal (ballooning), and should be considered in theories/hypotheses on island community assembly as well as in conservation strategies.
  • Gladstone-Gallagher, Rebecca V.; Hewitt, Judi E.; Thrush, Simon F.; Brustolin, Marco C.; Villnäs, Anna; Valanko, Sebastian; Norkko, Alf (2021)
    Despite a long history of disturbance–recovery research, we still lack a generalizable understanding of the attributes that drive community recovery potential in seafloor ecosystems. Marine soft‐sediment ecosystems encompass a range of heterogeneity from simple low‐diversity habitats with limited biogenic structure, to species‐rich systems with complex biogenic habitat structure. These differences in biological heterogeneity are a product of natural conditions and disturbance regimes. To search for unifying attributes, we explore whether a set of simple traits can characterize community disturbance–recovery potential using seafloor patch‐disturbance experiments conducted in two different soft‐sediment landscapes. The two landscapes represent two ends of a spectrum of landscape biotic heterogeneity in order to consider multi‐scale disturbance–recovery processes. We consider traits at different levels of biological organization, from the biological traits of individual species, to the traits of species at the landscape scale associated with their occurrence across the landscape and their ability to be dominant. We show that in a biotically heterogeneous landscape (Kawau Bay, New Zealand), seafloor community recovery is stochastic, there is high species turnover, and the landscape‐scale traits are good predictors of recovery. In contrast, in a biotically homogeneous landscape (Baltic Sea), the options for recovery are constrained, the recovery pathway is thus more deterministic and the scale of recovery traits important for determining recovery switches to the individual species biological traits within the disturbed patch. Our results imply that these simple, yet sophisticated, traits can be effectively used to characterize community recovery potential and highlight the role of landscapes in providing resilience to patch‐scale disturbances.
  • Heino, Jani; Alahuhta, Janne (Royal Entomological Society / Wiley & Sons, 2019)
    Ecological Entomology 44: 413-424
    1. Ecogeographical rules refer to recurring patterns in nature, including the latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), Rapoport's rule and Bergmann's rule, amongst others. In the present study, the existence of these rules was examined for diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), a family of aquatic predatory beetles. 2. Assemblage-level data were analysed for diving beetles, focusing on species richness, local contribution to beta diversity (LCBD), mean range size and mean body size across the biogeographical provinces of Northern Europe. First, each of these variables was correlated with latitude, and then variation in each variable was modelled using actual environmental variables in boosted regression tree analysis. 3. Species richness was found to decrease with latitude, LCBD increased with latitude, mean range size did not show a significant relationship with latitude, and mean body size decreased with latitude. The latter finding was in contrast to Bergmann's rule. The actual environmental variables best predicting variation in these four response variables varied among the models, although they generally included temperature-related and land use variables as the most influential ones. 4. The results obtained in the present study suggest that diving beetles conformed to the LDG, did not follow Rapoport's rule, and showed a reversed latitudinal gradient in the context of Bergmann's rule. In addition, species-poor provinces harboured ecologically most unique faunas, suggesting that species richness and LCBD are complementary measures of biodiversity. 5. Even though general support was not found for most of the ecogeographical rules examined, the findings of the present study are interesting because they suggest that aquatic ectothermic invertebrates may show patterns different from those originally described for terrestrial endothermic vertebrates.
  • Teittinen, Anette; Wang, Jianjun; Stromgard, Simon; Soininen, Janne (2017)
    Aim: Elevational biodiversity patterns are understudied in high-latitude aquatic systems, even though these systems are important for detecting very early impacts of climatic changes on Earth. The aim of this study was to examine the elevational trends in species richness and local contribution to beta diversity (LCBD) of three biofilm microbial groups in freshwater ponds and to identify the key mechanisms underlying these patterns. Location: One hundred and forty-six ponds in subarctic Finland and Norway distributed across the tree line along an elevational gradient of 10-1,038 m a.s.l., spanning from forested landscape to barren boulder fields. Time period: July-August 2015. Major taxa studied: Diatoms, cyanobacteria and non-cyanobacteria. Methods: Generalized linear models were used to identify the most important pond variables explaining richness and LCBD. Structural equation models were used to explore the direct and indirect effects of multiscale drivers on richness and LCBD. Results: Diatom and cyanobacteria richness showed unimodal elevational patterns, whereas non-cyanobacteria richness decreased with increasing elevation. The LCBD-elevation relationship was U-shaped for all three microbial groups. Diatom and cyanobacteria richness and LCBD were best explained by local pond variables, especially by pH. Non-cyanobacteria richness and LCBD were related to pond variables, elevation as a proxy for climatic conditions, and normalized difference vegetation index as a proxy for terrestrial productivity. Main conclusions: Aquatic autotrophs were primarily controlled by environmental filtering, whereas heterotrophic bacteria were also affected by terrestrial productivity and elevation. All studied aspects of microbial diversity were directly or indirectly linked to elevation; therefore, climatic changes may greatly alter aquatic microbial assemblages.
  • Lindholm, Marja; Alahuhta, Janne; Heino, Jani; Toivonen, Heikki (Wiley Online Library, 2020)
    Ecography 43 2 (2020)
    It has been predicted that spatial beta diversity shows a decreasing trend in the Anthropocene due to increasing human impact, causing biotic homogenisation. We aimed to discover if vascular aquatic macrophyte communities show different spatial patterns in beta diversity in relation to land use and environmental characteristics in different decades from 1940s to 2010s. We aimed to discover if spatial structures differ between species-, phylogeny- and functional-based beta diversity. We used presence–absence data of aquatic macrophytes from five decades from small boreal lakes. We utilized generalised dissimilarity modelling to analyse spatial patterns in beta diversity in relation to environmental gradients. We found that lake elevation and pH were the most important variables in each decade, while land use was not particularly important in shaping beta diversity patterns. We did not find signs of a decreasing trend in spatial beta diversity in our study area during the past 70 yr. We did not find signs of either biotic homogenisation or biotic differentiation (taxonomic, phylogenetic or functional). Vascular aquatic macrophyte communities showed only slightly different beta diversity patterns in relation to human impact across decades. The patterns of different facets of beta diversity diverged only slightly from each other. Lake position in the landscape, reflecting both natural connectivity and lake characteristics, explained the patterns found in beta diversity, probably because our study area has faced only modest changes in land use from 1940s to 2010s when compared globally. Our study highlights the fact that biotic homogenisation is not an unambiguous process acting similarly at all spatial and temporal scales or in different environments and different organism groups.
  • Hewitt, Judi E.; Norkko, Joanna; Kauppi, Laura; Villnäs, Anna; Norkko, Alf (2016)
    While beta diversity has been implicated as a key factor in controlling resilience of communities to stressors, lack of long-term data sets has limited the study of temporal dynamics of beta diversity. With a time series at two sites in excess of 40yr, we investigated turnover of both species and functional traits in a system stressed by eutrophication and overfishing and undergoing climate change and invasion. The two sites, although located near to each other, differ in water depth (20 cf. 35m), but both sites have displayed increased abundances of an invasive polychaete since 1990. We tested two hypotheses related to the effect of an invasive species; that taxa richness and turnover would decrease, and trait richness would increase post invasion and that trait turnover would increase between arrival and establishment of the invasive. Generally, we observed different dynamics at the two sites and responses not consistent with our hypotheses. We detected an increase in taxa richness at both sites and an increase in taxa turnover and number of traits at one site only. Trait turnover was higher prior to the invasion, although again only at one site. Disjunctive responses between species and trait turnover occurred, with the invader contributing in a nonrandom fashion to trait turnover. The lack of strong, consistent responses to the arrival and establishment of the invasive, and the decrease in trait turnover, suggests that effects of invasives are not only system- and species-dependent, but also depend on community dynamics of the invaded site, in particular the assembly processes, and historical context.
  • Ge, Yihao; Meng, Xingliang; Heino, Jani; García‐Girón, Jorge; Liu, Yang; Li, Zhengfei; Xie, Zhicai (Ecological Society of America, 2021)
    Ecosphere 12 (7), e03675
    Deterministic and stochastic processes are two major factors shaping community dynamics, but their relative importance remains unknown for many aquatic systems, including those in the high-elevation Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. Here, we explored the causes of multidimensional beta diversity patterns (i.e., taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic) of a macroinvertebrate metacommunity in this large aquatic system by using multiple approaches (i.e., null models, phylogenetic signal testing, and ordination-based approaches). To obtain insights into community assembly mechanisms, we also analyzed beta diversity in two deconstructed sub-metacommunities (e.g., different tributaries and the main lake body). We found that most functional traits showed significant phylogenetic signals, indicating that the functional traits were profoundly influenced by evolutionary history. The null models showed randomness of functional and phylogenetic beta diversities for the whole basin and its tributaries, confirming the importance of stochasticity over deterministic processes in controlling community structure. However, both phylogenetic and functional community structures were clustered in the Qinghai Lake, probably reflecting the importance of environmental filtering. Ordination-based approaches also revealed that both environmental factors and spatial processes accounted for variation in taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic beta diversity. More specifically, environmental filtering was more important than spatial processes for the functional dimension, but the opposite was true for the taxonomic and phylogenetic dimensions. The paleogeographic history of the Qinghai Lake basin may have contributed substantially to the prevalence of stochastic processes. Overall, this study provides a better understanding of ecological patterns and assembly mechanisms of macroinvertebrate communities across this poorly known high-elevation aquatic system that is highly sensitive to climate warming.