Browsing by Subject "big five -teoria"

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  • Kytölä, Aino (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Objectives. This master's thesis aims to examine motivation, personality and career decision making. The theory is based on Ryan and Deci's (2002) Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and Goldberg's Big Five theory. The theory also includes the concept of career decision making. In SDT, motivation is divided into three parts; intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, as well as amotivation. The central idea of the theory is a continuum between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, instead of juxtaposing them. The Big Five theory includes the idea of Big Five Personality traits; extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness. The theory emphasizes the connection between motivation, personality and career decision making. Nevertheless, there is a lack of specific evidence and previous studies to support these connections. Thus further investigation is required. Development of the motivation and personality indicators came to be a significant part of the research. These indicators are used to examine the quality of teacher student's motivation, personality and career decision making, as well as the correlation between motivation and personality. Methods. The study is a quantitative study. The data was collected via electronic questionnaire and send to a group of teacher students in the University of Helsinki during fall 2014. The questionnaire contains a motivation scale, personality scale and claims related to career decision making. 120 students answered the questionnaire. The questionnaires were analyzed by using SPSS-program. The analysis methods used include factor analysis, test that compare means, t-tests, analysis of variance and correlations. Results and conclusions. The study shows that the motivation and personality scales need further developing, since the scales don't function as presumed. The highest mean of motivation was found in a part of extrinsic motivation named "regulation through identification". This was followed by intrinsic motivation variables which indicate that the teacher students are mostly intrinsically motivated. Student teacher's personality traits are split evenly among all traits mentioned. Nevertheless, agreeableness has the highest mean and neutoticism the lowest. Based on the study the teacher students are thoughtful, social, dutiful and systematic. There was only a weak linear correlation between motivation and personality. The certainty of teacher student's career decision making is high.
  • Lindgren, Sofia (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Goals. Bullying is a fairly common phenomenon and is known to cause major psychological distress on its victims. The negative effects of bullying are often long lasting, which is why early interventions are important. Understanding the factors behind bullying can help us learn more about it and thus find better ways of intervening. One factor that is known to affect bullying is personality. The goal of this study is to examine the link between Big Five personality traits and becoming the victim of bullying. On basis of previous research, it was assumed that lower conscientiousness, agreeableness and extraversion and higher neuroticism would lead to a higher risk of being bullied. The role of openness was ambiguous. Also the effect of parental supervision, school performance and time spent with friends were examined. Methods. This study employs the data from the nationwide survey on youth crime and victimization conducted by the national research institute of legal policy in 2012. The sample frame of the survey was Finnish-speaking primary and secondary schools. A total of 8914 sixth and ninth grade students completed a self-report survey questionnaire in school. 14.9 % of the students reported being bullied at least once during the previous year. Multinomial regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between personality traits, parental supervision, time spent with friends, school performance and bullying. Interaction analyses between personality traits and the moderators were also conducted. Results and conclusions. The result of this study suggest that students who score lower on extroversion, conscientiousness, parental supervision and school performance and higher on openness and neuroticism are more likely than other students to be bullied. There was no statistically significant relation between bullying and openness or time spent with friends. The risk between bullying and extroversion was especially high when combined with lower parental supervision, school performance and a higher level of time spent with friends. The risk between bullying and neuroticism was higher when combined with lower school performance and a higher level of time spent with friends. Openness was a risk factor especially when combined with lower levels of parental supervision and school performance. The results show that personality traits as well as other, more social factors such as parental supervision, can have a significant impact on bullying. Parental supervision is something that, unlike personality traits, can be more easily altered, which is why giving parents more information about the effects of parental supervision on bullying is important. Although this study focused on the victim's traits, it is important to stress that the idea is not to blame the victim. The goal of this study was to get a better understanding of the factors that increase a child's risk for victimization and use this knowledge to design better interventions for bullying and perhaps peer victimization in general.
  • Mrena, Maria Kristiina (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Objectives – The objective of this study was to examine whether there is a connection between the Big Five personality traits and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Finnish adults. The MetS is a rapidly increasing syndrome among the Finnish population, which predisposes to type 2 diabetes and cardiac diseases. Previous research suggests that single personality traits may be connected to the MetS and its risk factors. However, only a few studies have examined theoretically well based personality models in relation to the MetS. Identifying the psychosocial risk factors for the MetS is important in predicting and preventing its occurrence. The following hypotheses were made based on previous research: (1) high neuroticism and (2) low agreeableness are positively associated with the MetS. Methods – This is a cross-sectional study of The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study from the year 2007. There were 1 580 Finnish adults aged 30–45 participating in the study, of which 919 were women and 661 were men. The participants answered a personality questionnaire, the Finnish version of the NEO-FFI (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Five-Factor Inventory), which measured the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness). The MetS is diagnosed when at least three of the following five factors are present: (1) central obesity, (2) raised fasting glucose, (3) raised triglycerides, (4) lowered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and (5) hypertension. The associations between personality traits and the MetS were examined using logistic regression analyses. Results and Conclusions – In men, low agreeableness was statistically significantly associated with higher risk of having the MetS (OR=.70, 95 % CI=.57–.87, p=.001), adjusting for age and level of education. There were no statistically significant associations found between any of the personality traits and the MetS in women. On the basis of these results, it can be proposed that men with low agreeableness, that is, men low in cooperation, empathy, and kindness, might comprise a risk group for the MetS. This study was cross-sectional by design, which precludes conclusions about cause and effect relationships. Mechanisms linking personality to the MetS were not examined in the current study, and thus, future research should examine the direction of the associations and the mechanisms linking such associations.
  • Jussila, Pauliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study is a cross-validation of a hierarchical theory-based model of personality trait factors that comprises hypotheses regarding which personality constructs predict specific job performance criteria. The personality measures include the Big Five dimensions together with the Need for Achievement factor. The predictor variables have been conceptually aligned with specific criterion variables that are clusters of competencies. The model consists of six one-to-one predictor-criterion relationships that are paired up into three higher-order relationships which in turn are aggregated into a single score of General Factor of Personality (GFP) on the predictor side and overall work performance on the criterion side. The original study conducted in 2015 (N=929) was based on an international sample of participants from various organisations, whereas this sample consists of employees from a single global company (N=109). The aim was to explore the similarities and differences in the results in comparison to the original data. All the participants completed the same online personality self-assessment with 31 psychometric scales and a 360-feedback tool measuring 22 competencies. At least one external reviewer nominated by the participant completed a review rating on those competencies. Principal Components were extracted to investigate how well the model fits this data and the results compared to the results from the original study. Correlations between the first-order and second-order (composite) variables were also checked. Finally, regression analyses were conducted to test nine hypotheses derived from the theoretical model. The results of this study show that there is a clear relationship between the GFP and the overall performance as the observed validity is r = .39 which is even higher than in the original study were this value was r = .23. Out of the six personality factors, Extraversion and Conscientiousness are the only significant predictors of various job performance outcome in this data and, all in all, three hypotheses out of nine are fully confirmed and a fourth one partially. The results are also discussed with view to what kind of a role a specific company culture or expected behaviours of people working in certain job roles might play on the results.
  • Laine, Saana (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Objectives: Youth violence is a phenomenon that can have long-lasting and serious consequences for its victims as well as the perpetrators themselves. It is important to try and recognize factors that can have an effect on violent behaviour. The purpose of this study was to find out if there are links between exposure to media violence, the Big Five -personality traits and youth violence. In addition to studying these factors separately, it was also studied if some of the personality traits increase vulnerability to the negative effects of media violence exposure. Based on earlier research it was hypothesized that exposure to violent games and violent movies is associated with violent behaviour. With regards to personality it was hypothesized, based on earlier research, that low agreeableness, low conscientiousness and high neuroticism are associated with violent behaviour. In addition it was hypothesized that these same personality traits increase vulnerability to the negative effects of media violence exposure. Methods: This study employs data from survey on youth crime collected by the Institute of criminology and legal policy. The data was collected in 2012. 8941 Finnish sixth- and ninth-graders took the survey. Participants with answers that were assessed unreliable were excluded from the data. The final sample size used in this study was 8791. The main analyses of the study were performed with logistic regression. Results and conclusions: Consistent with the hypotheses, media violence exposure was associated with violent behaviour. With regards to personality, it was found that low agreeableness and low conscientiousness each were associated with all forms of violent behaviour studied. High extraversion was associated with bullying, participating in a fight and committing an assault. Low neuroticism was associated with committing an assault, and low openness to experience was associated with robbery with threatening behaviour. Conscientiousness and extraversion had statistically significant interactions with media violence exposure with regards to violent behaviour. Extraverted people seem to be more vulnerable to the negative effects of media violence exposure. Conscientiousness doesn't seem to be associated with violent behaviour when the exposure to media violence is high. Parents and schools should be made aware of the negative effects of media violence exposure, so they can monitor and limit the media use of the youth. In the future it would also be important to gain more information about the factors that increase vulnerability to media violence exposure.
  • Vartiainen, Hanna-Leena (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Because personality can be defined as a relatively permanent and individual way of thinking, feeling, and acting, and because personal values can be used to explain our motives and attitudes, both personality and personal values may be considered to influence mate selection. The similarity of couples has been observed to be linked to relationship satisfaction and a smaller divorce risk, which makes the consistent study of couple similarity important. The purpose of this study was to investigate couple similarity in Big Five personality traits, as well as in the 10 and 19 personal values defined by Schwartz. Based on these theories and earlier research, three hypotheses could be set, according to which couples are similar (1) in the personality traits of openness, conscientiousness, and extraversion, (2) on the motivational dimensions of personal values, and in hedonism, self-direction, universalism, benevolence, tradition, conformity, and security from the 10 value types, and (3) in hedonism and tradition, as well as in all the specified value types of self-direction, universalism, benevolence, conformity, and security from the 19 value types. The sample of this study was a part of a larger project, and it consisted of 261 18-55-year-old heterosexual couples, all of which were either parents of small children, expecting their first child, or university students and their spouses. The results of this study principally corresponded to the hypotheses. The couples were observed to be similar in all Big five personality traits, on the motivational value dimensions, in universalism, tradition, conformity, hedonism, self-direction, security, benevolence, achievement, and power from the 10 value types, in all of the specified value types of universalism, self-direction, conformity, and power, as well as in the specified value types of benevolence-dependability, security-societal, humility, and face from the 19 value types. According to these results, it seems that men and women do not end up in relationships completely arbitrarily, but that personality traits and personal values guide couple formation at least to some extent.
  • Junni, Jussi (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Background: Depression is one of the most prevalent disabling mental disorders worldwide. Its relation to the personality of the patient has been a topic of interest both in history and modern research. Understanding the relationship between personality traits and depression will help to develop suitable models of treatment for depression. The Five-Factor Personality Model (FFM, a.k.a. Big Five) is one of the most established scientific personality models, with its traits, namely neuroticism, extraversion, openness, conscientiousness and agreeableness. Connection between neuroticism and depression as well as between extraversion and depression is well known in modern scholarship, but no unambiguous results of connections between other traits and depression exist. High neuroticism seems to function as a risk factor that has a strong connection with Major Depression Episodes, but the moderating effects of the other personality traits are to be studied more deeply. In addition, there have been diverse results whether sex/gender has or has not a trait-independent role in predicting the severity of depression. Aims: Thus, the present study strives for answering the following questions: 1. What is the correlation between individual five-factor personality traits and depression? 2. How does neuroticism trait function as a risk factor for depression? 3. How does sex/gender covariate with the depression? Methods: The data of the present study has been obtained from The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study (Lasten Sepelvaltimotautien Riskitekijät, LASERI). The project has begun in 1980 and its 27-year follow-up was performed in 2007, when five-factor personality traits and depression score were measured as well. Personality traits and the depression score from 1,714 of the original 3,596 subjects were measured with NEO-FFI-M and BDI II. The participants were divided into four groups on the basis of the median values of neuroticism and extraversion traits. Results and conclusions: High neuroticism has a strong connection with depression, but high extraversion has a moderate opposite influence. No connection between the other traits and depression was found. Women tend to have higher scores of depression than men, but the sex influence is mediated by higher neuroticism among women. Further research is needed on possible trait-independent gender influence. Cross-sectional studies based on population data bring forth valuable information about links between gender, personality and depression, but they do not permit possible changes in personality or causal relations to be studied. Therefore, more profound research in longitudinal paradigm is needed.
  • Salmiaitta, Pentti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Objectives: Juvenile delinquency and substance use are significant social problems. Delinquency and substance use started in adolescence often lead to lifetime persistent behavior patterns. According to previous research the most important individual factor in relation to juvenile delinquency and substance use is personality and one of the most important environmental factors in relation to these behaviors is parental monitoring. In this study I tried to replicate earlier results on the links of personality and parental monitoring with juvenile delinquency and substance use. Moreover I examined the quality of interactions between the Big Five personality traits and parental monitoring in relation to juvenile delinquency and substance use; these interactions have not been studied comprehensively before. Methods: Data for this study was taken from the Finnish national delinquency survey from 2012 collected by the National Research Institute of Legal Policy. The sample consisted of 8914 Finnish 6th and 9th grade pupils (age range 12–17). I analyzed the amount of self-reported criminal acts from the previous year in three classes of crime: aggressive and non-aggressive criminal acts as well as substance use (incl. alcohol use). I used multinomial logistic regression to examine the links of the Big Five personality dimensions, parental monitoring and their interactions to different classes of criminal acts. In each class of crime I compared separately occasional and repetitive offenders to those who reported minimal amounts of criminal acts. Results and conclusions: Parental monitoring had strong positive links to all classes of crime independent of the amount of criminal acts. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had negative relationships with all criminal behavior following previous research. Extraversion in turn had positive relations to all crime contrary to many previous results. Personality traits and parental monitoring had two separate kinds of interactions: in many occasions when parental monitoring was lower some personality trait was reduced in its power to predict criminal acts; contrary to this the positive relationship of extraversion to repetitive aggressive crime raised as parental monitoring decreased in amount. The significance of parental monitoring in relation to juvenile delinquency and substance use is highlighted in my results. According to my results it will be profitable to put effort in reinforcing parental monitoring to fight juvenile delinquency and substance use.
  • Rönnberg, Minna (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Various studies have established that juvenile delinqency is often characterized by group nature. Although co-offending is the most common criminal style during adolescence, solo offenders exists too. Previous studies have shown differences in terms of criminal style, including age and typical offenses. The aim of this study is to explore if there can be found differences regarding the personality structure. We expected to find a more criminal personality profile in solo offenders compared to co-offenders, since co-offending delinquency has been considered in the literature even as a normal phenomenon in adolescence. Furthermore, we expected youths with mixed criminal style to differ the most from other groups in terms of neuroticism, conscientiousness and agreeableness. The data is drawn from the national Finnish Youth Crime Survey 2012 (N = 4855). Personality was assessed with the shortened Big Five Inventory (BFI-S) and delinquency was measured by involvement in five different types of criminal behavior. Criminal style was assessed by asking the youths if they did the offense in question alone or in company of one or more offenders. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) and logistic regression were used to examine the personality profiles and differences between youths representing different criminal styles. Contrary to the hypothesis, solo offenders and co-offenders differed only regarding extraversion. However, when analyzing the results at the offense type level, the results showed preliminary differences concerning other traits. In line with previous studies, the most common offenses for co-offenders were crimes against property, while for solo offenders crime against persons was the most typical offense. As hypothesized, youths with mixed criminal style differed most strongly from the other groups in terms of personality traits. The findings of the study suggest, that to understand why some youths choose to act on their own in the matter of delinquency, we need to study other factors in addition to personality traits.
  • Elonsalo, Tiia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Objectives. Self-talk is an essential part of an athlete's mental training. It has an influence on sport performance, which makes self-talk an interesting subject to study. With Automatic Self-Talk Questionnaire for Sports (ASTQS) it is possible to evaluate the content of athletes' self-talk during performance. In this study the ASTQS questionnaire was translated into Finnish and the aim was to study construct validity of the instrument and also to evaluate Finns' self-talk use. In addition, the aim of this study was to examine associations between self-talk and the Big Five personality traits because clarifying the role of personality can help identify individual differences in self-talk. Differences between individual sport athletes and team sport athletes in self-talk and personality traits were also examined. Methods. The data in this study was a sample of over 15-year-old athletes who compete at relatively high level in their own sport in Finland (N = 383). Included sports were football, ice-hockey, floorball, orienteering, and athletics. The mean age of the participants was 19 years. The participants filled a web-based form, which consisted of ASTQS measuring self-talk and Big Five Inventory measuring personality. The construct validity of ASTQS was examined with factor analysis and associations between self-talk and performance with canonical correlation analysis. Results and conclusions. The structure of the Finnish ASTQS corresponded to the original eight-factor solution quite well. All of the eight self-talk dimensions were found, but a few connections outside the original model were also allowed. On average, the athletes reported using self-talk a little less frequently than sometimes. They also reported using more positive than negative self-talk. Individual sport athletes used more instruction, psych up, and anxiety control related self-talk than team sport athletes. Team sport athletes had were more agreeable than individual sport athletes. Associations between self-talk and personality were ambiguous, but there seemed to be a positive relationship between neuroticism and worry and between the other traits and positive self-talk. This study produced the first Finnish version of ASTQS that can be used to evaluate Finnish athletes' content of self-talk during performance. Using a systematic self-talk measure can help identify and modify athletes' self-talk. Knowing the role of personality can in turn direct self-talk interventions to athletes who could benefit from them the most.