Browsing by Subject "bioavailability"

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  • Ahkola, Heidi; Lindholm-Lehto, Petra; Perkola, Noora; Välitalo, Pia; Meriläinen, Päivi; Mäenpää, Kimmo; Alegre Stelzer, Julio Alberto; Heiskanen, llse; Järvistö, Johanna; Nuutinen, Jari; Leppänen, Matti T. (Elsevier, 2020)
    Science of the Total Environment 758 (2021), 143700
    Sewage sludge is an inevitable byproduct produced in wastewater treatment. Reusing nutrient-rich sludge will diminish the amount of waste ending in soil dumping areas and will promote circular economy. However, during sewage treatment process, several potentially harmful organic chemicals are retained in sludge, but proving the safety of processed sludge will promote its more extensive use in agriculture and landscaping. Environmental risk assessment of sludge requires new methods of characterizing its suitability for various circu lar economy applications. Bioavailable and bioaccessible fractions are key variables indicating leaching, transport, and bioaccumulation capacity. Also, sludge treatments have a significant effect on chemical status and resulting environmental risks. In this study, the concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), triclosan (TCS), triclocarban (TCC), methyl triclosan (mTCS), and selected active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) were deter mined in different sludge treatments and fractions. Passive samplers were used to characterize the bioavailable and bioaccessible fractions, and the sampler extracts along the sludge and filtrate samples were utilized in the bioassays. The TCS and PAH concentrations did not decrease as the sludge was digested, but the contents diminished after composting. Also, mTCS concentration decreased after composting. The API concentrations were lower in digested sludge than in secondary sludge. Digested sludge was toxic for Aliivibrio fischeri, but after composting, toxicity was not observed. However, for Daphnia magna, passive sampler extracts of all sludge treatments were either acutely (immobility) or chronically (reproduction) toxic. Secondary and digested sludge sampler extracts were cytotoxic, and secondary sludge ex tract was also genotoxic. The measured chemical concentration levels did not explain the toxicity of the samples based on the reported toxicity thresholds. Bioassays and sampler extracts detecting bioavailable and bioaccessible contaminants in sludge are complementing tools for chemical analyses. Harmonization of these methodswill help establish scientifically sound regulative thresholds for the use of sludge in circular economy applications.
  • Martínez Meyer, Marcela Raquel (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Protein-energy malnutrition and mineral deficiencies are two of the three forms of nutritional deficiencies that affect most developing countries due to inadequate access to food and diets based on a sole crop. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the staple crop of Nicaragua and it has the potential to improve the nutritional status of the poorest group of the nation. Its high content of both protein and nonhaem iron provides many nutrients, but inhibitors also may prevent absorption of iron and zinc by the human consumer. A proper production chain must be followed to ensure the best grain quality for the consumer. To achieve food security, both production and high nutritional content must be maintained. Four nationally important accessions of common bean, with different harvesting dates, were selected to be submitted to two treatments: to evaluate the impact of storage conditions on the end quality of the grain. The duration of the study was six months with sampling every six weeks, and the two treatments were controlled one stored at 40°C and 75 RH %, and the other was stored in in-situ conditions. Proximate and mineral composition was evaluated as well as tannin, phytate and bioavailability. Significant differences among different accessions were found, being the most significant in protein, Fe and Zn content, tannins and phytate. Protein values ranged from 21-23%. Iron content was 61-81 mg/kg but only 3-4% was bioavailable. Zinc content was 21-25 mg/kg and 10-12% was bioavailable. The concentration of phytate ranged from 8.6-9.6 mg/g while tannin values ranged within 37.7-43.8 mg/g. Storage at high temperatures was demonstrated to have an impact on certain nutritional compounds and proved detrimental to final grain quality. Soluble sugar content and tannin content decreased after six months in both storage conditions, IDF decreased in the in-situ and SDF in the stress. The iron content and bioavailability in INTA Biofortificado were not as outstanding as expected, so experiments should be conducted to compare its iron uptake and delivery with other cultivars.
  • Keltto, Katri (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Ketoprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) widely used for the treatment of pain in sheep and swine. Information of correct ketoprofen doses in different animal species is limited. The correct dose cannot be reliably extrapolated based on other species or human. The problem in cases of suspected overdose is knowing whether the given dose was toxic. The objective of the study with sheep was to figure out if the kinetics of ketoprofen is altered by a tenfold overdose, study the effect of the overdose to kidneys and find out a way to diagnose overdose by a simple urine test. The objective of the study with swine was to figure out the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen after oral, intramuscular and intravenous administration. The most important variables were AUC0-_, Cmax and Tmax. Bioavailability was calculated based on intravascular administration. 30 mg/kg ketoprofen was administered intravenously to six sheep. The concentration of ketoprofen in sheep plasma was followed for 24 hours. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated afterwards. Blood and urine samples were analysed to detect enzyme markers indicating possible renal failure. The sheep were finished off 24 hours after the administration and the possible damage to kidneys was evaluated from histological samples. Ketoprofen was also administered to eight swine. The doses were 3 mg/kg of oral, intramuscular and intravascular, and 6 mg/kg of oral ketoprofen. The study was performed as a randomized, cross-over study. The concentration of ketoprofen in swine plasma was followed for 48 hours after administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and bioequivalence evaluated afterwards. The in vivo -studies of both of the studies as well as the histological study of the kidneys, and the urine and blood analysis except for the analysis of ketoprofen concentration, were carried out by the researchers of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Plasma ketoprofen concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Drug concentration and pharmacokinetic analysis were carried out in the Faculty of Pharmacy. The tenfold dose of ketoprofen was toxic in sheep. Serum concentrations of urea and creatinine increased. Histological samples revealed acute tubular damage. Many urine enzyme concentrations increased. The rise of urine lactate dehydrogenase (LD) concentration was most significant and earliest. LD appears to be a potential marker of a toxic ketoprofen dose. Compared with the therapeutic dose, overdose did not affect ketoprofen elimination rate from plasma, so the kinetics of ketoprofen was not altered. AUC- and Cmax -values were over tenfold compared to the therapeutic dose, so the values did not rise linearly as the dose reached a toxic level. Bioequivalence of ketoprofen in swine was not observed between different routes of administration. The bioavailability was excellent in all routes of administration. Tmax was slightly over one hour after administration. Cmax and AUC were 5,1 mg/l and 32 mg l-1 h after oral 3 mg/kg dose and 7,6 mg/l and 37 mg l-1 h after intramuscular dose. The increases in AUC and Cmax were linear between the different dosages of oral ketoprofen. The difference of the elimination rates between oral and intravascular administration was statistically significant. Ketoprofen distribution volume and clearance did not differ significantly between different routes of administration.
  • Tamene, Aynadis; Baye, Kaleab; Kariluoto, Susanna; Edelmann, Minnamari; Bationo, Fabrice; Leconte, Nicolas; Humblot, Christele (2019)
    Folate deficiencies are widespread around the world. Promoting consumption of folate-rich foods could be a sustainable option to alleviate this problem. However, these foods are not always available. Cereals, being a staple food, could contribute to folate intake. They are fermented prior to consumption in many African countries, and fermentation can modify the folate content. In Ethiopia, injera is a widely consumed fermented flat bread. The main drivers of its fermentation are lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The aim of this work was to isolate and identify folate-producing LAB from injera fermented dough and to evaluate their ability to increase folate status after depletion in a rat model. Among the 162 strains isolated from 60 different fermentations, 19 were able to grow on a folate-free culture medium and produced 1 to 43 mu g/L (24 h, 30 degrees C incubation). The four highest folate producers belonged to the Lactobacillus plantarum species. The most productive strain was able to enhance folate status after depletion in a rat model, despite the relatively low folate content of the feed supplemented with the strain. Folate-producing L. plantarum strain has potential use as a commercial starter in injera production.