Browsing by Subject "biogeokemia"

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  • Forsius, Martin; Posch, Maximilian; Holmberg, Maria; Vuorenmaa, Jussi; Kleemola, Sirpa; Augustaitis, Algirdas; Beudert, Burkhard; Bochenek, Witold; Clarke, Nicholas; de Wit, Heleen A.; Dirnböck, Thomas; Frey, Jane; Grandin, Ulf; Hakola, Hannele; Kobler, Johannes; Krám, Pavel; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Löfgren, Stefan; Pecka, Tomasz; Rönnback, Pernilla; Skotak, Krzysztof; Szpikowski, Józef; Ukonmaanaho, Liisa; Valinia, Salar; Váňa, Milan (Elsevier, 2021)
    Science of The Total Environment 753 (2021), 141791
    Anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) compounds and their long-range transport have caused widespread negative impacts on different ecosystems. Critical loads (CLs) are deposition thresholds used to describe the sensitivity of ecosystems to atmospheric deposition. The CL methodology has been a key science-based tool for assessing the environmental consequences of air pollution. We computed CLs for eutrophication and acidification using a European long-term dataset of intensively studied forested ecosystem sites (n = 17) in northern and central Europe. The sites belong to the ICP IM and eLTER networks. The link between the site-specific calculations and time-series of CL exceedances and measured site data was evaluated using long-term measurements (1990–2017) for bulk deposition, throughfall and runoff water chemistry. Novel techniques for presenting exceedances of CLs and their temporal development were also developed. Concentrations and fluxes of sulphate, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) and acidity in deposition substantially decreased at the sites. Decreases in S deposition resulted in statistically significant decreased concentrations and fluxes of sulphate in runoff and decreasing trends of TIN in runoff were more common than increasing trends. The temporal developments of the exceedance of the CLs indicated the more effective reductions of S deposition compared to N at the sites. There was a relation between calculated exceedance of the CLs and measured runoff water concentrations and fluxes, and most sites with higher CL exceedances showed larger decreases in both TIN and H+ concentrations and fluxes. Sites with higher cumulative exceedance of eutrophication CLs (averaged over 3 and 30 years) generally showed higher TIN concentrations in runoff. The results provided evidence on the link between CL exceedances and empirical impacts, increasing confidence in the methodology used for the European-scale CL calculations. The results also confirm that emission abatement actions are having their intended effects on CL exceedances and ecosystem impacts.
  • Kettunen, Ilkka Henrikki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Aim of this study is to develop biogeochemical exploration methods for cobalt. Several different samples were collected from study area, analyzed, and compared to each other. This study took place at Rautio village at North Ostrobothnia and more accurately over the Jouhineva mineralization. Jouhineva is well-known high-grade cobalt-copper-gold mineralization. Elements examined in this study are cobalt, copper, arsenic, zinc, selenium, and cadmium. Samples were collected from three different study profiles from the area. From these three profiles samples collected are: soil, pine, lingonberry, birch, rowan, and juniper. Water samples were collected around the study area from every location possible. Soil samples were analyzed with four different methods: Ionic leaching, aqua regia, weak leaching and pXRF. Ionic leaching and aqua regia had both elevated concentrations of cobalt, but in different locations depending on study profile. Ionic leaching detects rising ions from the ore and therefore elevated concentrations are found at different locations compared to aqua regia. Aqua regia results proved how different orientation of study profile, direction of the ore and glacial flow can affect to the anomalies of elemental concentration. Profile-2 was oriented differently to ore and glacial flow than Profile-1, and therefore elevated concentrations of cobalt and copper were not drifted away from the ore on Profile-2 like they were on Profile-1. Aqua regia and pXRF have very similar copper, arsenic and zinc results. Pine and lingonberry turn out to be the most promising plant species applied for cobalt exploration, and rowan appears to be most suitable for copper exploration. Lower detection limit could significantly improve pine analyses as exploration method and more extensive sampling could remove some of the uncertainties about the method. Lingonberry samples have elevated concentration of copper and arsenic. Birch and juniper produced somewhat unclear results. Despite this, cobalt and copper concentrations in birch leaves were elevated when compared to concentrations found in other studies. In addition to this birch is suitable for arsenic exploration. Juniper had elevated copper concentration in the study area compared to other studies. Water samples collected from the Jouhineva area yielded concentrations of cobalt, copper and arsenic that were above the average concentration in the Kalajoki area waters. Copper and arsenic were above the average concentration of the Kalajoki area in every sample collected from the study area. Cobalt was above the average concentration in all samples that were not collected directly from the pond formed in the old test mine. Zinc concentration was below the average limit in all samples collected from the area. Zinc concentration in the water samples collected from the pond is significantly lower compared to the other samples collected from the area.
  • Goncalves-Araujo, Rafael; Roettgers, Ruediger; Haraguchi, Lumi; Brandini, Frederico Pereira (Frontiers Media S.A., 2019)
    Frontiers in Marine Science 6: 716
    The South Brazilian Bight (SBB) is a hydrographically dynamic environment with strong seasonality that sustains a diverse planktonic community involved in diverse biogeochemical processes. The inherent optical properties (IOPs; e.g., absorption and scattering coefficients) of optically actives constituents of water (OACs; phytoplankton, non-algal particles–NAP, and colored dissolved organic matter–CDOM) have been widely employed to retrieve information on biogeochemical parameters in the water. In this study conducted in the SBB, a cross-shelf transect was performed for biogeochemistry and hydrographic sampling during a summer expedition. Our research aimed to determine the distribution and amount of the OACs based on their spectral signature, in relation to the distribution of water masses in the region. That allows us to get insights into the biogeochemical processes within each water mass and in the boundaries between them. We observed a strong intrusion of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) over the shelf, mainly driven by the wind action. With that, phytoplankton development was fueled by the input of nutrients, and increased chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations were observed within the shallowest stations. Colored dissolved organic matter did not follow the distribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Both CDOM and DOC presented high values at the low salinity Coastal Water (CW), as an indication of the continental influence over the shelf. However, CDOM was inversely correlated with salinity and lowest values were observed within Tropical Water (TW), whereas DOC values within TW were as high as within CW, indicating an autochthonous DOM source. Additionally, a deep Chl-a maximum (DCM) was noticed in the boundary between the TW and SACW. Along with the DCM, we observed the production of fresh, non-colored DOM attributed to the microbial community. Finally, our results suggest that CDOM is photodegraded at the surface of CW. This is mainly due to the Ekman transport effect over the region that traps CW at the surface, making it longer exposed to solar radiation.
  • Heikkinen, Kaisa; Saari, Markus; Heino, Jani; Ronkanen , Anna-Kaisa; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Joensuu, Samuli; Vilmi, Annika; Karjalainen, Satu Maaria; Hellsten, Seppo; Visuri, Mika; Marttila, Hannu (Elsevier, 2022)
    Science of the Total Environment
    Iron (Fe) is an important element in aquatic ecosystems worldwide because it is intimately tied with multiple abiotic and biotic phenomena. Here, we give a survey of manifold influences of Fe, and the key factors affecting it in the boreal catchments and their waters. It includes the perspectives of biogeochemistry, hydrology, ecology, and river basin management. We emphasize views on the dynamics and impacts of different forms of Fe in riverine environments, including organic colloids and particles, as well as inorganic fractions. We also provide perspectives for land use management in boreal catchments and suggest guidelines for decision making and water management. Based on our survey, the main emphases of water protection and management programs should be (i) prevention of Fe mobilization from soil layers by avoiding unnecessary land-use activities and minimizing soil disturbance in high-risk areas; (ii) disconnecting Fe-rich ground water discharge from directly reaching watercourses; and (iii) decreasing transport of Fe to watercourses by applying efficient water pollution control approaches. These approaches may require specific methods that should be given attention depending on catchment conditions in different areas. Finally, we highlight issues requiring additional research on boreal catchments. A key issue is to increase our understanding of the role of Fe in the utilization of DOM in riverine food webs, which are typically highly heterotrophic. More knowledge is needed on the metabolic and behavioral resistance mechanisms that aquatic organisms, such as algae, invertebrates, and fish, have developed to counter the harmful impacts of Fe in rivers with naturally high Fe and DOM concentrations. It is also emphasized that to fulfil the needs presented above, as well as to develop effective methods for decreasing the harmful impacts of Fe in water management, the biogeochemical processes contributing to Fe transport from catchments via rivers to estuaries should be better understood.
  • Campbell, Karley; Matero, Ilkka; Bellas, Christopher; Turpin-Jelfs, Thomas; Anhaus, Philipp; Graeve, Martin; Fripiat, Francois; Tranter, Martyn; Landy, Jack Christopher; Sanchez-Baracaldo, Patricia; Leu, Eva; Katlein, Christian; Mundy, C. J; Rysgaard, Søren; Tedesco, Letizia; Haas, Christian; Nicolaus, Marcel (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 2022)
    Sea ice continues to decline across many regions of the Arctic, with remaining ice becoming increasingly younger and more dynamic. These changes alter the habitats of microbial life that live within the sea ice, which support healthy functioning of the marine ecosystem and provision of resources for human-consumption, in addition to influencing biogeochemical cycles (e.g. air–sea CO2 exchange). With the susceptibility of sea ice ecosystems to climate change, there is a pressing need to fill knowledge gaps surrounding sea ice habitats and their microbial communities. Of fundamental importance to this goal is the development of new methodologies that permit effective study of them. Based on outcomes from the DiatomARCTIC project, this paper integrates existing knowledge with case studies to provide insight on how to best document sea ice microbial communities, which contributes to the sustainable use and protection of Arctic marine and coastal ecosystems in a time of environmental change.
  • Vainio, Elisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Methane (CH4) is a strong greenhouse gas, and its ecosystematmosphere exchange depends on the consumption and production rates. The boreal zone includes nearly one third of the world’s forests, and boreal forest soil is the largest carbon stock among different ecosystem types. Upland soils are a globally important sink of CH4 due to microbes oxidizing atmospheric CH4. During the last decades, the understanding of the CH4 dynamics of forests has been reshaped and increased substantially, as the trees have been shown to contribute to the CH4 exchange. The newly-found aerobic CH4 emissions from plants have also revealed the existence of previously unknown processes. Meanwhile, the ecosystem-scale studies on CH4 exchange have shown that forests may occasionally be net sources of CH4. In this thesis, the objective was to quantify the CH4 exchange in a boreal pine forest, regarding the contributions of soil, ground vegetation and trees. The effects of soil water conditions and the CH4-consuming and -producing microbes were also studied. The research included the most abundant boreal tree species: Scots pine, downy birch and Norway spruce. The effect of ground vegetation on the forest floor CH4 flux was studied by classifying the vegetation into four groups, and by measuring the CH4 fluxes of three common shrubs (bilberry, lingonberry, and heather) in the laboratory. The forest floor CH4 flux was upscaled to the whole research site from topography-modelled soil moisture. The results demonstrated that the CH4 flux of the forest floor is strongly dependent on the soil moisture. All the studied tree species emitted CH4 from the stems and the branches, and the stem-emissions were significantly higher from trees growing at wet soil compared to drier soil. The ground vegetation species and soil moisture are strongly connected, and based on the results, both affect the CH4 flux. In the laboratory, heather shoots resulted in mean CH4 emissions, while bilberry and lingonberry shoots indicated uptake. Thus, the studied shrub species seem to have different CH4 dynamics. In addition, the shrubs increased the amount of CH4-consuming microbes and thus CH4 uptake in the soil. While the forest floor at the site was on average a sink of CH4 throughout the growing season, the upscaled forest floor CH4 flux revealed high spatial variation and CH4-emission patches at the area. The size and CH4 flux of these patches was related to temporal variation in the soil moisture.