Browsing by Subject "biosecurity"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-3 of 3
  • Bicout, Dominique; Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW (2017)
  • Sali, Virpi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Antimicrobial use (AMU) has led to a development of antimicrobial resistant bacteria that complicate treatment of infectious diseases in animals and humans. Majority of veterinary AMU occurs in pigs, which is known to contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Especially in large pork producing countries, the majority of antimicrobials are administered as group treatments for pigs that enhances AMR development. Biosecurity means measures that prevent pathogen transmission to a herd (external biosecurity) and within a herd (internal biosecurity). Consequently, when there is a global demand to decrease AMU, biosecurity has been introduced as an alternative to that. In Finland, veterinary AMU is one of the lowest level in the EU and group treatments are not preferred. However, Finnish pig herds have been small-sized in general and disease situation has been relatively good thorough the country thus there has been no need to invest in biosecurity. Herd size is increasing and therefore farmers must adopt alternative methods to decrease the need to use antimicrobials. This study aimed to investigate current biosecurity status of Finnish pig herds and their AMU, and study associations between them. Study population consisted of ten farrow-to-finish herds whose biosecurity status was evaluated by using an international Biocheck.UGent scoring system. AMU of individual herds was collected from national Sikava register covering around 90 % of Finnish pig herds. It is therefore the best available source for AMU data and makes comparison between herds possible. Furthermore, detailed calculation of AMU at different production stages was done. The biosecurity scores of study herds varied considerably. Mean external biosecurity score was higher than internal biosecurity score (Mean ± SD; 69 ± 1.2 vs. 44 ± 5.3, P < 0.001) and better in large herds compared to small herds (LSmeans ± SE; 72 ± 1.3 vs. 66 ± 1.3, P < 0.05). AMU tended to increase with decreasing biosecurity according to the study hypothesis. AMU was highest in suckling piglets but there were no significant correlations between the total biosecurity scores and AMU at any age groups studied. Regardless of the small sample size of this study, current findings support other studies indicating the potential to improve biosecurity of Finnish herds in order to avoid increase in AMU.
  • Douglas, Kirk Osmond; Samuels, Thelma Alafia; Iheozor-Ejiofor, Rommel; Vapalahti, Olli; Sironen, Tarja; Gittens-St. Hilaire, Marquita (2021)
    Background: Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is well-known in South and North America; however, not enough data exist for the Caribbean. The first report of clinical orthohantavirus infection was obtained in Barbados, but no other evidence of clinical orthohantavirus infections among adults in the Caribbean has been documented. Methods: Using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests followed by confirmatory testing with immunofluorescent assays (IFA), immunochromatographic (ICG) tests, and pseudotype focus reduction neutralization tests (pFRNT), we retrospectively and prospectively detected orthohantavirus-specific antibodies among patients with febrile illness in Barbados. Results: The orthohantavirus prevalence rate varied from 5.8 to 102.6 cases per 100,000 persons among febrile patients who sought medical attention annually between 2008 and 2016. Two major orthohantavirus epidemics occurred in Barbados during 2010 and 2016. Peak orthohantavis infections were observed observed during the rainy season (August) and prevalence rates were significantly higher in females than males and in patients from urban parishes than rural parishes. Conclusions: Orthohantavirus infections are still occurring in Barbados and in some patients along with multiple pathogen infections (CHIKV, ZIKV, DENV and Leptospira). Orthohantavirus infections are more prevalent during periods of high rainfall (rainy season) with peak transmission in August; females are more likely to be infected than males and infections are more likely among patients from urban rather than rural parishes in Barbados.