Browsing by Subject "bipolar disorder"

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  • Hakulinen, Christian; Musliner, Katherine L.; Agerbo, Esben (2019)
    Background Mood disorders are known to be associated with poor socioeconomic outcomes, but no study has examined these associations across the entire worklife course. Our goal was to estimate the associations between bipolar disorder and depression in early adulthood and subsequent employment, income, and educational attainment. Methods We conducted a nationwide prospective cohort study including all individuals (n = 2,390,127; 49% female) born in Denmark between 1955 and 1990. Hospital-based diagnoses of depression and bipolar disorder before age 25 were obtained from the Danish psychiatric register. Yearly employment, earnings, and education status from ages 25 to 61 were obtained from the Danish labor market and education registers. We estimated both absolute and relative proportions. Results Population rates of hospital-diagnosed depression and bipolar between ages 15-25 were 1% and 0.12%, respectively. Compared to individuals without mood disorders, those with depression and particularly bipolar disorder had consistently poor socioeconomic outcomes across the entire work-life span. For example, at age 30, 62% of bipolar and 53% of depression cases were outside the workforce compared to 19% of the general population, and 52% of bipolar and 42% of depression cases had no higher education compared to 27% of the general population. Overall, individuals with bipolar disorder or depression earned around 36% and 51%, respectively, of the income earned by individuals without mood disorders. All associations were smaller for individuals not rehospitalized after age 25. Conclusions Severe mood disorders with onset before age 25, particularly bipolar disorder, are associated with persistent poor socioeconomic outcomes across the entire work-life course.
  • Söderholm, John J.; Socada, J. Lumikukka; Rosenström, Tom; Ekelund, Jesper; Isometsä, Erkki T. (2020)
    ObjectiveWe investigated risk factors for suicidal ideation and behavior among currently depressed patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), major depressive episode (MDE) in bipolar disorder (BD), or MDE with comorbid borderline personality disorder (MDE/BPD). We compared current and lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation and behavior, and investigated dimensional measures of BPD or mixed affective features of the MDE as indicators of risk.MethodsBased on screening of 1,655 referrals, we recruited 124 psychiatric secondary care outpatients with MDE and stratified them into three subcohorts (MDD, BD, and MDE/BPD) using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV I and II. We examined suicidal ideation and behavior with the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (CSSRS). In addition, we quantified the severity of BPD symptoms and BD mixed features both categorically/diagnostically and dimensionally (using instruments such as the Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index) in two time frames.ResultsThere were highly significant differences between the lifetime prevalences of suicide attempts between the subcohorts, with attempts reported by 16% of the MDD, 30% of the BD, and 60% of the BPD subcohort. Remarkably, the lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts in patients with comorbid BD and BPD exceeded 90%. The severity of BPD features was independently associated with risk of suicide attempts both lifetime and during the current MDE. It also associated in a dose-dependent manner with recent severity of ideation in both BPD and non-BPD patients. In multinominal logistic regression models, hopelessness was the most consistent independent risk factor for severe suicidal ideation in both time frames, whereas younger age and more severe BPD features were most consistently associated with suicide attempts.ConclusionsAmong patients with major depressive episodes, diagnosis of bipolar disorder, or presence of comorbid borderline personality features both imply remarkably high risk of suicide attempts. Risk factors for suicidal ideation and suicidal acts overlap, but may not be identical. The estimated severity of borderline personality features seems to associate with history of suicidal behavior and current severity of suicidal ideation in dose-dependent fashion among all mood disorder patients. Therefore, reliable assessment of borderline features may advance the evaluation of suicide risk.
  • Ouabbou, Sophie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tiivistelmä – Referat – Abstract Mental disorders are among the leading causes of global disease burden and years lived with disability. Their pathogenesis is poorly understood and there are enormous challenges in the development of biomarkers to aid in diagnosis and more effective therapeutic options. It has been documented that the microbiota-gut-brain axis shows alterations in mental disorders such as anxiety, depression, autism spectrum disorders, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Here we study the gut microbiota of individuals with axis I mental disorders and their unaffected siblings by 16S RNA gene amplicon sequencing. In the Central Valley of Costa Rica, a total of 37 participants were recruited and diagnosed using a Best Estimate Diagnosis protocol. For each of the individuals diagnosed with a mental disorder a healthy sibling was selected after matching by age and gender. A total of 13 pairs of 26 siblings, affected and unaffected, was used for the analysis. In a subsequent analysis, individuals were also divided into the three categories of “unaffected” (UA), “affected without psychosis” (AA) and “affected with psychosis” (AP). They underwent clinical assessments about their habits and diet and about resilience (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale), current status (SADS-C) and disability (WHODAS 2.0). Their fecal samples were collected freshly and stored at -80°C. DNA was extracted, libraries constructed by PCR and subjected for Illumina MiSeq 300 paired-end 16S RNA amplicon sequencing for analysis of the gut microbiota. The sequencing data were analyzed using the R packages mare and vegan for gut microbiota composition, diversity and richness, taking into account the identified confounders. All participants were of Hispanic ethnicity, residents of the San José Greater Metropolitan Area, adults and 69% of them were women. Affected individuals had major depression, bipolar affective disorder, psychosis non-otherwise specified or schizoaffective disorder. Based on beta-diversity analysis as a measure of the community-level microbiota variation, it was found that the use of levothyroxine (R2=0.08, p=0.005) and of irbesartan (R2=0.068 ,p=0.001) had a significant impact on the microbiota composition and hence the use of these drugs was included as confounder in further analyses. Several statistically significant differences in the relative abundance of intestinal bacteria were identified: Differences were found in the relative abundance of bacterial families Peptostreptococcaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, and in bacterial genera Pseudomonas, Barnesiella, Odoribacter, Paludibacter, Lactococcus, Clostridium, Acidaminococcus and Haemophilus. Our results indicate that affected individuals have more pro-inflammatory Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas) and less bacteria associated to healthy phenotype, such as Barnesiella and Ruminococcaceae, the former being dose-dependently depleted in AP and AA compared to UA. Furthermore, we documented decreased bacterial richness among affected participants while no significant differences were detected in alpha diversity. Our study identified significant differences in the microbiota of individuals affected by mental illness when comparing to their healthy siblings. The results may have important implications for the holistic understanding of mental health and its diagnosis and therapeutics. Larger studies to confirm these findings would be justified.
  • HUNT All-in Headache; Bahrami, Shahram; Hindley, Guy; Winsvold, Bendik Slagsvold; O'Connell, Kevin S.; Frei, Oleksandr; Shadrin, Alexey; Cheng, Weiqiu; Bettella, Francesco; Rodevand, Linn; Odegaard, Ketil J.; Fan, Chun C.; Pirinen, Matti J.; Hautakangas, Heidi M.; Dale, Anders M.; Djurovic, Srdjan; Smeland, Olav B.; Andreassen, Ole A. (2022)
    Migraine is three times more prevalent in people with bipolar disorder or depression. The relationship between schizophrenia and migraine is less certain although glutamatergic and serotonergic neurotransmission are implicated in both. A shared genetic basis to migraine and mental disorders has been suggested but previous studies have reported weak or non-significant genetic correlations and five shared risk loci. Using the largest samples to date and novel statistical tools, we aimed to determine the extent to which migraine's polygenic architecture overlaps with bipolar disorder, depression and schizophrenia beyond genetic correlation, and to identify shared genetic loci. Summary statistics from genome-wide association studies were acquired from large-scale consortia for migraine (n cases = 59 674; n controls = 316 078), bipolar disorder (n cases = 20 352; n controls = 31 358), depression (n cases = 170 756; n controls = 328 443) and schizophrenia (n cases = 40 675, n controls = 64 643). We applied the bivariate causal mixture model to estimate the number of disorder-influencing variants shared between migraine and each mental disorder, and the conditional/conjunctional false discovery rate method to identify shared loci. Loci were functionally characterized to provide biological insights. Univariate MiXeR analysis revealed that migraine was substantially less polygenic (2.8 K disorder-influencing variants) compared to mental disorders (8100-12 300 disorder-influencing variants). Bivariate analysis estimated that 800 (SD = 300), 2100 (SD = 100) and 2300 (SD = 300) variants were shared between bipolar disorder, depression and schizophrenia, respectively. There was also extensive overlap with intelligence (1800, SD = 300) and educational attainment (2100, SD = 300) but not height (1000, SD = 100). We next identified 14 loci jointly associated with migraine and depression and 36 loci jointly associated with migraine and schizophrenia, with evidence of consistent genetic effects in independent samples. No loci were associated with migraine and bipolar disorder. Functional annotation mapped 37 and 298 genes to migraine and each of depression and schizophrenia, respectively, including several novel putative migraine genes such as L3MBTL2, CACNB2 and SLC9B1. Gene-set analysis identified several putative gene sets enriched with mapped genes including transmembrane transport in migraine and schizophrenia. Most migraine-influencing variants were predicted to influence depression and schizophrenia, although a minority of mental disorder-influencing variants were shared with migraine due to the difference in polygenicity. Similar overlap with other brain-related phenotypes suggests this represents a pool of 'pleiotropic' variants that influence vulnerability to diverse brain-related disorders and traits. We also identified specific loci shared between migraine and each of depression and schizophrenia, implicating shared molecular mechanisms and highlighting candidate migraine genes for experimental validation.
  • Aaltonen, Kari I.; Rosenström, Tom; Jylhä, Pekka; Holma, Irina; Holma, Mikael; Pallaskorpi, Sanna; Riihimäki, Kirsi; Suominen, Kirsi; Vuorilehto, Maria; Isometsä, Erkki T. (2020)
    Background: Preceding suicide attempts strongly predict future suicidal acts. However, whether attempting suicide per se increases the risk remains undetermined. We longitudinally investigated among patients with mood disorders whether after a suicide attempt future attempts occur during milder depressive states, indicating a possible lowered threshold for acting. Methods: We used 5-year follow-up data from 581 patients of the Jorvi Bipolar Study, Vantaa Depression Study, and Vantaa Primary Care Depression Study cohorts. Lifetime suicide attempts were investigated at baseline and during the follow-up. At follow-up interviews, life-chart data on the course of the mood disorder were generated and suicide attempts timed. By using individual-level data and multilevel modeling, we investigated at each incident attempt the association between the lifetime ordinal number of the attempt and the major depressive episode (MDE) status (full MDE, partial remission, or remission). Results: A total of 197 suicide attempts occurred among 90 patients, most during MDEs. When the dependencies between observations and individual liabilities were modeled, no association was found between the number of past suicide attempts at the time of each attempt and partial remissions. No association between adjusted inter-suicide attempt times and the number of past attempts emerged during follow-up. No indication for direct risk-increasing effects was found. Conclusion: Among mood disorder patients, repeated suicide attempts do not tend to occur during milder depressive states than in the preceding attempts. Previous suicide attempts may indicate underlying diathesis, future risk being principally set by the course of the disorder itself.
  • Merikanto, Ilona; Partonen, Timo (2021)
    Background Epidemiological data show that having the eveningness associates with poor mental health. For preventive measures it is important to know which underlying factors mediate these associations and the burden posed to public health. This study examines at a population-based level, whether (1) circadian type and the sleep-wake behavior-based phase entrainment similarly associate with mental health problems, (2) there are differences in hospital treatments due to mental disorders between chronotypes, and (3) the association of chronotype with mental health is mediated by insufficient sleep. Methods The study sample (N = 18,039) consisted of population-based sample of Finnish adults, aged 25-74 years, with information on their circadian type and sleep patterns, mental health symptoms, and diagnosis as reported in a health examination survey, as well as hospital treatments as recorded on the national Hospital Discharge Register. Results All the mental health symptoms, diagnoses and hospital treatments were more pronounced among Evening-types, especially when assessed by circadian type. Insufficient sleep mediated most but not all of the associations between eveningness and mental health. Conclusions Eveningness does not increase mental health risks only on symptom or diagnosis level, but also on hospital admission level. A higher prevalence of insufficient sleep among the Evening-types elevates the risk and severity for many of the mental health outcomes. Improving the sleep among Evening-types could help to improve their mental health prospective and ease the health care burden.
  • Passos, Ives C.; Ballester, Pedro L.; Barros, Rodrigo C.; Librenza-Garcia, Diego; Mwangi, Benson; Birmaher, Boris; Brietzke, Elisa; Hajek, Tomas; Lopez Jaramillo, Carlos; Mansur, Rodrigo B.; Alda, Martin; Haarman, Bartholomeus C. M.; Isometsa, Erkki; Lam, Raymond W.; McIntyre, Roger S.; Minuzzi, Luciano; Kessing, Lars V.; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Duffy, Anne; Kapczinski, Flavio (2019)
    Objectives The International Society for Bipolar Disorders Big Data Task Force assembled leading researchers in the field of bipolar disorder (BD), machine learning, and big data with extensive experience to evaluate the rationale of machine learning and big data analytics strategies for BD. Method A task force was convened to examine and integrate findings from the scientific literature related to machine learning and big data based studies to clarify terminology and to describe challenges and potential applications in the field of BD. We also systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science for articles published up to January 2019 that used machine learning in BD. Results The results suggested that big data analytics has the potential to provide risk calculators to aid in treatment decisions and predict clinical prognosis, including suicidality, for individual patients. This approach can advance diagnosis by enabling discovery of more relevant data-driven phenotypes, as well as by predicting transition to the disorder in high-risk unaffected subjects. We also discuss the most frequent challenges that big data analytics applications can face, such as heterogeneity, lack of external validation and replication of some studies, cost and non-stationary distribution of the data, and lack of appropriate funding. Conclusion Machine learning-based studies, including atheoretical data-driven big data approaches, provide an opportunity to more accurately detect those who are at risk, parse-relevant phenotypes as well as inform treatment selection and prognosis. However, several methodological challenges need to be addressed in order to translate research findings to clinical settings.
  • Valtonen, Jussi; Karrasch, Mira (2020)
    Polypharmacy is common in patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Although polypharmacy is known to increase the risk of iatrogenic neurological conditions, the recovery of cognitive function after drug withdrawal has been rarely documented in psychiatric patients using standardized neuropsychological methods. We present a neuropsychological case report of patient SN, a 41-year-old woman who developed a socially and occupationally detrimental condition of cognitive dysfunction likely induced by long-term exposure to lithium and other psychiatric medications. To shed light on SN’s cognitive deficits and their recovery after drug withdrawal, neuropsychological assessments were conducted before, and approximately 2 years after, lithium and other psychiatric drugs were discontinued. Selective cognitive impairments were observed before drug discontinuation in visuomotor speed, visuoperceptual reasoning and delayed visual memory. Partial, but not complete, recovery of function was observed 2 years after drug withdrawal.
  • Mazumder, Atiqul Haq; Barnett, Jennifer; Isometsä, Erkki Tapio; Lindberg, Nina; Torniainen-Holm, Minna; Lähteenvuo, Markku; Lahdensuo, Kaisla; Kerkelä, Martta; Ahola-Olli, Ari; Hietala, Jarmo; Kampman, Olli; Kieseppä, Tuula; Jukuri, Tuomas; Häkkinen, Katja; Cederlöf, Erik; Haaki, Willehard; Kajanne, Risto; Wegelius, Asko; Männynsalo, Teemu; Niemi-Pynttäri, Jussi; Suokas, Kimmo; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Tiihonen, Jari; Paunio, Tiina; Vainio, Seppo Juhani; Palotie, Aarno; Niemelä, Solja; Suvisaari, Jaana; Veijola, Juha (2021)
    The purpose of this study was to explore the association of cognition with hazardous drinking and alcohol-related disorder in persons with bipolar disorder (BD). The study population included 1268 persons from Finland with bipolar disorder. Alcohol use was assessed through hazardous drinking and alcohol-related disorder including alcohol use disorder (AUD). Hazardous drinking was screened with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test for Consumption (AUDIT-C) screening tool. Alcohol-related disorder diagnoses were obtained from the national registrar data. Participants performed two computerized tasks from the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) on A tablet computer: the 5-choice serial reaction time task, or reaction time (RT) test and the Paired Associative Learning (PAL) test. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Mental Health Inventory with five items (MHI-5). However, no assessment of current manic symptoms was available. Association between RT-test and alcohol use was analyzed with log-linear regression, and e beta with 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. PAL first trial memory score was analyzed with linear regression, and beta with 95% CI are reported. PAL total errors adjusted was analyzed with logistic regression and odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI are reported. After adjustment of age, education, housing status and depression, hazardous drinking was associated with lower median and less variable RT in females while AUD was associated with a poorer PAL test performance in terms of the total errors adjusted scores in females. Our findings of positive associations between alcohol use and cognition in persons with bipolar disorder are difficult to explain because of the methodological flaw of not being able to separately assess only participants in euthymic phase.
  • Mazumder, Atiqul Haq; Barnett, Jennifer; Isometsä, Erkki Tapio; Lindberg, Nina; Torniainen-Holm, Minna; Lähteenvuo, Markku; Lahdensuo, Kaisla; Kerkelä, Martta; Ahola-Olli, Ari; Hietala, Jarmo; Kampman, Olli; Kieseppä, Tuula; Jukuri, Tuomas; Häkkinen, Katja; Cederlöf, Erik; Haaki, Willehard; Kajanne, Risto; Wegelius, Asko; Männynsalo, Teemu; Niemi-Pynttäri, Jussi; Suokas, Kimmo; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Tiihonen, Jari; Paunio, Tiina; Vainio, Seppo Juhani; Palotie, Aarno; Niemelä, Solja; Suvisaari, Jaana; Veijola, Juha (2021)
    The purpose of this study was to explore the association of cognition with hazardous drinking Polygenic Scores (PGS) in 2649 schizophrenia, 558 schizoaffective disorder, and 1125 bipolar disorder patients in Finland. Hazardous drinking PGS was computed using the LDPred program. Participants performed two computerized tasks from the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) on a tablet computer: the 5-choice serial reaction time task, or Reaction Time (RT) test, and the Paired Associative Learning (PAL) test. The association between hazardous drinking PGS and cognition was measured using four cognition variables. Log-linear regression was used in Reaction Time (RT) assessment, and logistic regression was used in PAL assessment. All analyses were conducted separately for males and females. After adjustment of age, age of onset, education, household pattern, and depressive symptoms, hazardous drinking PGS was not associated with reaction time or visual memory in male or female patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective, and bipolar disorder.
  • Gyllenberg, David; Ristikari, Tiina; Kelleher, Ian; Kääriälä, Antti; Gissler, Mika (2022)
    Objective: It is unclear whether there are differences between specific school subject performance and later psychiatric disorders. We examined whether mean grade point average (MGPA) and specific school subjects associated with diagnoses of nonaffective psychoses, bipolar disorder and depression. Methods: In this register-based study, we studied the Finnish population born in 1987 who had available MGPA and six specific school grades (age = 15.4–16.4 years; n = 50,508). Grades were analyzed with smoothing splines. Covariates included sex, urbanicity, parental education level and parental diagnosed psychiatric disorders. Outcomes were incident nonaffective psychosis, bipolar disorder and depression diagnosed in specialized services until year 2015 (age = 28.0–28.9 years). Results: During the follow-up, 727 individuals were diagnosed with nonaffective psychoses, 489 with bipolar disorder and 3492 with depression. MGPA was inversely associated with all outcomes. In multivariate models including specific school subjects and covariates, the school subject with largest risk ratios (RR) was Physical Education (RR and Bonferroni-corrected confidence interval [CI] at −1.5 SD: nonaffective psychoses 1.63, 1.36–1.95; bipolar disorder 1.64, 1.30–2.05; depression 1.72, 1.53–1.93). Higher grades in Art were associated with nonaffective psychoses and depression (RR and Bonferroni-corrected CI at +1.5 SD: nonaffective psychoses 1.48, 1.11–1.96; depression 1.22, 1.07–1.38). Conclusion: There was a robust association between poorer scores on Physical Education and risk for psychosis, bipolar disorder and depression. Higher grades in Art were also associated with risk for later disorders. Subject specific school performance may be more informative about mental disorder risk than overall school performance.
  • Isometsä, Erkki T. (2020)
    Objective Although risk factors for nonfatal suicidal behavior in mood disorders have been vastly investigated, rate and risk factors of suicide deaths are less well known. Extensive health care and other population registers in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) allow national-level studies of suicide rates and risk factors. This systematic review examined Nordic studies of suicide in mood disorders. Methods National Nordic studies published after 1.1.2000 reporting on suicide mortality or relative risk in diagnosed unipolar depression or bipolar disorder treated in psychiatric settings; temporal variations in suicide risk after discharge, or risk factors for suicide were systematically reviewed. Results Altogether 16 longitudinal studies reported on rate and risk of suicide in depression. They found 2%-8% of psychiatric inpatients with depression to have died by suicide. However, in Finland suicide risk among depressive inpatients halved since the early 1990s. Nine studies investigated suicide risk in bipolar disorder, finding 4%-long term. The relative risk of suicide was consistently found extremely high (SMR > 100) during the first weeks postdischarge, declining steeply over time to approximately SMR of five after five years. Male gender, preceding suicide attempts, high severity of depression and substance abuse were found risk factors for suicide in depression, with only minor gender differences in risk factors, but major differences in lethal methods. Three studies investigated risk factors for suicide in bipolar disorder, finding male gender, preceding suicide attempts, and depressive episodes and psychiatric comorbidity to be associated with risk. Conclusions Overall, of psychiatric inpatients with depressive of bipolar disorders in the Nordic countries, 2%-8% have died by suicide in the last few decades, but current rates may be lower. Suicide risk is approximately similar or somewhat higher among patients with bipolar disorder, risk factor studies of whom are fewer. Risk of suicide is remarkably high immediately after discharge, and higher among males than females, those with preceding suicide attempts, high severity of depression, or concurrent substance abuse. Generalizability of findings from these Nordic studies to other countries need to be investigated, and their methodological limitations understood.
  • Henriksson, Annamari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Introduction. According to previous studies, regulatory problems such as excessive crying and problems with eating and sleeping in infancy and toddlerhood are associated with behavioral problems in childhood. Especially multiple regulatory problems (2-3 regulatory problems at the same measurement point) and persistent regulatory problems (regulatory problems found at more than 1 measurement point) are strongly associated with externalizing behavioral problems but also with internalizing behavioral problems. The association between regulatory problems and mental disorders is not well understood yet. The aim of this study is to find out whether multiple or persistent regulatory problems at 5, 20 and 56 months of age are associated with mental disorders in young adulthood, whether there are specific associations with certain disorders and whether the possible associations persist when a number of key pre- and postnatal variables are controlled for. In addition, gender differences in the associations are analyzed. Methods. The data consisted of participants in the Arvo Ylppö longitudinal study born in 1985 to 1986. There were 718 participants in total, of whom 592 with regulatory problems at 5, 20 and/or 56 months of age. A structured psychiatric interview was administrated by using the computer based diagnostic interview program M-CIDI. The interview accounted for all DSM-IV (2000, 4th ed.) axis I mental disorders, and their combined prevalence is studied in the thesis. Also, mood-, anxiety- and substance use disorders are studied more specifically. Results and conclusions. On the basis of logistic regression analyses, multiple regulatory problems at 5 months of age were associated with mental disorders in young adulthood. After controlling for the key pre- and postnatal variables, the association between feeding and sleeping problems at 5 months of age and mood disorders in young adulthood was statistically significant (p<.05). More specifically, the risk (Odds Ratio, OR) of bipolar disorder diagnosis was 14.62 times higher for those who had feeding and sleeping problems at 5 months of age when compared with the participants without feeding and sleeping problems (p<.01). However, wide intervals indicate that the association between multiple regulatory problems and bipolar disorder should be interpreted cautiously. In addition, indications were found that multiple regulatory problems are associated with major depressive disorder and alcohol use disorder in young adulthood. Persistent regulatory problems were not associated with mental disorders in young adulthood. Also, the interaction between multiple or persistent regulatory problems and sex was not found. The results of this study increase knowledge of the association between regulatory problems and mental disorders and underline the importance to target the early preventions and interventions in a more effective manner among those with regulatory problems.
  • Middeldorp, C. M.; de Moor, M. H. M.; McGrath, L. M.; Gordon, S. D.; Blackwood, D. H.; Costa, P. T.; Terracciano, A.; Krueger, R. F.; de Geus, E. J. C.; Nyholt, D. R.; Tanaka, T.; Esko, T.; Madden, P. A. F.; Derringer, J.; Amin, N.; Willemsen, G.; Hottenga, J-J; Distel, M. A.; Uda, M.; Sanna, S.; Spinhoven, P.; Hartman, C. A.; Ripke, S.; Sullivan, P. F.; Realo, A.; Allik, J.; Heath, A. C.; Pergadia, M. L.; Agrawal, A.; Lin, P.; Grucza, R. A.; Widen, E.; Cousminer, D. L.; Eriksson, J. G.; Palotie, A.; Barnett, J. H.; Lee, P. H.; Luciano, M.; Tenesa, A.; Davies, G.; Lopez, L. M.; Hansell, N. K.; Medland, S. E.; Ferrucci, L.; Schlessinger, D.; Montgomery, G. W.; Wright, M. J.; Aulchenko, Y. S.; Janssens, A. C. J. W.; Oostra, B. A.; Metspalu, A.; Abecasis, G. R.; Deary, I. J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Bierut, L. J.; Martin, N. G.; Wray, N. R.; van Duijn, C. M.; Smoller, J. W.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Boomsma, D. I. (2011)
  • Hautamaki, Lotta (2018)
    In psychiatric clinical practice, professionals pursue risk management alongside various uncertainties concerning diagnoses and treatment decisions. In this article, I draw on an ethnographic study of understandings of bipolar disorder in Finland to argue that risk management in psychiatry is better characterised as practical uncertainty work. I show how both the clinicians and the patients coordinate the uncertainties of bipolar disorder symptoms, risks and treatment decisions, into something that can be managed. I examine the ways in which temporality structures this uncertainty work and I explore two different modes of framing time. Clinical time stems from the current psychiatric thinking committed to the standardised diagnosis and the ideals of evidence-based medicine. Through this, professionals frame a task-oriented and linear treatment path from diagnosis and treatment to a managed life with bipolar disorder. Experienced time, in contrast, relates to the logics of care and self-care amid the embodied experiences of different actors. This framing of time involves a cyclical process where the patient, the clinician and the treatment interventions each need to adjust to changing situations.