Browsing by Subject "brain development"

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  • Putkinen, Vesa; Huotilainen, Minna; Tervaniemi, Mari (2019)
    Musical training in childhood has been linked to enhanced sound encoding at different stages of the auditory processing. In the current study, we used auditory event-related potentials to investigate cortical sound processing in 9- to 15-year-old children (N = 88) with and without musical training. Specifically, we recorded the mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a responses in an oddball paradigm consisting of standard tone pairs with ascending pitch and deviant tone pairs with descending pitch. A subsample of the children (N = 44) also completed a standardized test of reading ability. The musically trained children showed a larger P3a response to the deviant sound pairs. Furthermore, the amplitude of the P3a correlated with a pseudo-word reading test score. These results corroborate previous findings on enhanced sound encoding in musically trained children and are in line with studies suggesting that neural discrimination of spectrotemporal sound patterns is predictive of reading ability.
  • Acosta, H.; Kantojärvi, K.; Hashempour, N.; Pelto, J.; Scheinin, N. M.; Lehtola, S. J.; Lewis, J. D.; Fonov, V. S.; Collins, D. L.; Evans, A.; Parkkola, R.; Lahdesmaki, T.; Saunavaara, J.; Karlsson, L.; Merisaari, H.; Paunio, T.; Karlsson, H.; Tuulari, J. J. (2020)
    Psychiatric disease susceptibility partly originates prenatally and is shaped by an interplay of genetic and environmental risk factors. A recent study has provided preliminary evidence that an offspring polygenic risk score for major depressive disorder (PRS-MDD), based on European ancestry, interacts with prenatal maternal depressive symptoms (GxE) on neonatal right amygdalar (US and Asian cohort) and hippocampal volumes (Asian cohort). However, to date, this GxE interplay has only been addressed by one study and is yet unknown for a European ancestry sample. We investigated in 105 Finnish mother-infant dyads (44 female, 11-54 days old) how offspring PRS-MDD interacts with prenatal maternal depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, gestational weeks 14, 24, 34) on infant amygdalar and hippocampal volumes. We found a GxE effect on right amygdalar volumes, significant in the main analysis, but nonsignificant after multiple comparison correction and some of the control analyses, whose direction paralleled the US cohort findings. Additional exploratory analyses suggested a sex-specific GxE effect on right hippocampal volumes. Our study is the first to provide support, though statistically weak, for an interplay of offspring PRS-MDD and prenatal maternal depressive symptoms on infant limbic brain volumes in a cohort matched to the PRS-MDD discovery sample.
  • Tokariev, Anton; Stjerna, Susanna; Lano, Aulikki; Metsäranta, Marjo; Palva, J. Matias; Vanhatalo, Sampsa (2019)
    Preterm birth is the greatest risk factor for lifelong neurocognitive deficits, globally. The effect of prematurity on early cortical network function has, however, remained poorly understood. Here, we developed a novel methodology that allows reliable assessment of functional connectivity in neonatal brain activity at millisecond and multisecond scales in terms of cortical phase and amplitude correlations, respectively. We measured scalp electroencephalography at term-equivalent age in infants exposed to very early prematurity as well as in healthy controls. We found that newborn cortical activity organizes into multiplex networks that differ significantly between vigilance states. As compared with healthy control infants, prematurity was found to cause frequency-specific patterns of dysconnectivity in cortical network, changes that were distinct for networks of phase and amplitude correlations. Neuroanatomically, the most prominent markers of prematurity were found in connections involving the frontal regions. Phase synchrony in frontally connected networks was correlated with newborn neurological performance, suggesting the first measure of cortical functional coupling that correlates with neurological performance in human infant.
  • Acosta, Henriette; Kantojarvi, Katri; Tuulari, Jetro J.; Lewis, John D.; Hashempour, Niloofar; Scheinin, Noora M.; Lehtola, Satu J.; Fonov, Vladimir S.; Collins, D. Louis; Evans, Alan; Parkkola, Riitta; Lähdesmäki, Tuire; Saunavaara, Jani; Merisaari, Harri; Karlsson, Linnea; Paunio, Tiina; Karlsson, Hasse (2020)
    Polygenic risk scores for major depressive disorder (PRS-MDD) have been identified in large genome-wide association studies, and recent findings suggest that PRS-MDD might interact with environmental risk factors to shape human limbic brain development as early as in the prenatal period. Striatal structures are crucially involved in depression; however, the association of PRS-MDD with infant striatal volumes is yet unknown. In this study, 105 Finnish mother-infant dyads (44 female, 11-54 days old) were investigated to reveal how infant PRS-MDD is associated with infant dorsal striatal volumes (caudate, putamen) and whether PRS-MDD interacts with prenatal maternal depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, gestational weeks 14, 24, 34) on infant striatal volumes. A robust sex-specific main effect of PRS-MDD on bilateral infant caudate volumes was observed. PRS-MDD were more positively associated with caudate volumes in boys compared to girls. No significant interaction effects of genotype PRS-MDD with the environmental risk factor "prenatal maternal depressive symptoms" (genotype-by-environment interaction) nor significant interaction effects of genotype with prenatal maternal depressive symptoms and sex (genotype-by-environment-by-sex interaction) were found for infant dorsal striatal volumes. Our study showed that a higher PRS-MDD irrespective of prenatal exposure to maternal depressive symptoms is associated with smaller bilateral caudate volumes, an indicator of greater susceptibility to major depressive disorder, in female compared to male infants. This sex-specific polygenic effect might lay the ground for the higher prevalence of depression in women compared to men.