Browsing by Subject "breeding"

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  • Nummi, Petri; Väänänen, Veli-Matti; Pekkarinen, Antti-Juhani; Eronen, Visa; Mikkola-Roos, Markku; Nurmi, Jarkko; Rautiainen, Antti; Rusanen, Pekka (Baltic Forestry, 2019)
    Baltic Forestry, 25(2), 228-237
    Alien predators are known to potentially strongly affect their prey populations. We studied the impact of raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) on waterbird breeding success in eight semi-urban wetlands in Finland. We manipulated raccoon dog density in two wetlands by removing individuals (2002 protection year, 2003 and 2004 removal years). We additionally performed nest predation experiments. We monitored raccoon dog density, estimated hunting bag size and observed waterbird breeding success. Our hypothesis predicts that the omnivorous raccoon dog plays a role in waterbird breeding success by depredating nests. Our experiments shown that the raccoon dog hunting bag in eutrophic wetlands may be large, as we removed 8.6–20.0 animals per km2. Both our nest predation experiment and field data indicated that raccoon dogs affect the breeding success of waterbirds. We found a significant relationship between raccoon dog density index and predation rate of the artificial nests, but not between red fox (Vulpes vulpes) density and predation on artificial nests. We did not find an association between raccoon dog abundance and the breeding success of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and great crested grebes (Podiceps cristatus). However, our study shows that birds species with different breeding strategies – e.g. great crested grebe, mute swan (Cygnus olor), mallard, Eurasian wigeon (Mareca penelope), coot (Fulica atra), lapwing (Vanellus vanellus) and marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus) – when considered together showed higher breeding success both in 2003 and 2004 when compared to breeding success before removal. There was, however, variation in how strongly the species responded to raccoon dog removal. Our results indicate that the removal of alien raccoon dogs can be an important tool in wetland management.
  • Michel, Matthieu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Hybrid wheat has been the focus of much research for its potential high yield, high protein content and better resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Nowadays, only CHA (Chemical Hybridizing Agent) method is used to induce male sterility at a commercial scale. However, this technique is hard to implement on a large production scale and other methods have been investigated for several years. CMS (Cytoplasmic Male Sterility) has been shown to be a promising way to develop hybrid wheat. However, one downside of the technique is the challenging breeding stage step and the associated conversion and restoration process. To fully express the potential gain in yield, the restoration of the cytoplasmic sterility must be complete for the F1 to be fully fertile. In this study, we investigated different methods to assess fertility restoration in nursery and compared the results with the trial notations. The collected data were also used to feed a genomic selection model to predict the behavior of untested hybrids. The results showed a high experimental error of the bagging method originated mostly from human manipulation. The visual scoring showed higher repeatability but was poorly correlated with trial score. A deeper study of the trial scoring revealed an interesting effect coming from the female and an expression of sterility for commercial lines and CHA hybrid checks. Good prediction accuracies were found for genomic selection on both methods, however deeper studies and cross prediction are needed. The multilocation trials remained the best option to score fertility restoration
  • von Crautlein, Maria; Korpelainen, Helena; Helander, Marjo; Vare, Henry; Saikkonen, Kari (2014)
  • Katila, Terttu; Ferreira-Dias, Graca (2022)
    Simple Summary Our understanding about inflammation of the endometrium after mating and susceptibility of mares to endometritis has changed in the last 100 years since it was recognized for the first time. Initially, it was believed that bacteria introduced into the uterus during mating could infect the uterus until it was shown that sperm induce neutrophilia. It was realized that post breeding endometritis (PBE) is a physiological defense mechanism used to clean the uterus from excess semen and inflammatory by-products. In mares susceptible to endometritis, PBE can be prolonged beyond the normal duration of 24 h. Delayed uterine clearance due to conformational defects, deficient myometrial contractions, and failure of the cervix to relax is detected by intrauterine fluid accumulation and is an important reason for susceptibility to endometritis. Untreated prolonged PBE can lead to bacterial or fungal endometritis called persistent or chronic endometritis. Multiparous aged mares are more likely to be susceptible. When sperm arrive in the uterus, pro-inflammatory cytokines are released. They attract neutrophils and induce modulatory cytokines which control inflammation. However, persistence of neutrophils and pro-fibrotic cytokines can have deleterious effects in inducing endometrosis. In this paper, the pathogenesis of fibrosis is reviewed. Endometritis and endometrosis are interconnected influencing each other. In this paper, the evolution of our understanding about post breeding endometritis (PBE), the susceptibility of mares, and events leading to endometrosis are reviewed. When sperm arrive in the uterus, pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are released. They attract neutrophils and induce modulatory cytokines which control inflammation. In susceptible mares, this physiological defense can be prolonged since the pattern of cytokine release differs from that of resistant mares being delayed and weaker for anti-inflammatory cytokines. Delayed uterine clearance due to conformational defects, deficient myometrial contractions, and failure of the cervix to relax is detected by intrauterine fluid accumulation and is an important reason for susceptibility to endometritis. Multiparous aged mares are more likely to be susceptible. Untreated prolonged PBE can lead to bacterial or fungal endometritis called persistent or chronic endometritis. Exuberant or prolonged neutrophilia and cytokine release can have deleterious and permanent effects in inducing endometrosis. Interactions of neutrophils, cytokines, and prostaglandins in the formation of collagen and extracellular matrix in the pathogenesis of fibrosis are discussed. Endometritis and endometrosis are interconnected, influencing each other. It is suggested that they represent epigenetic changes induced by age and hostile uterine environment.
  • Hagman, Max (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1980)
  • Prokazin, E. P. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1980)
  • Etverk, I. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1980)
  • Velling, Pirkko; Tigerstedt, P. M. A. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1984)
  • Weissenberg, Kim von (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1973)
  • Tigerstedt, P. M. A. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1969)
  • Khazaei, Hamid; O'Sullivan, Donal M.; Stoddard, Frederick L.; Adhikari, Kedar N.; Paull, Jeffrey G.; Schulman, Alan H.; Andersen, Stig U.; Vandenberg, Albert (2021)
    Abstract Faba bean (Vicia faba L.), a member of the Fabaceae family, is one of the important food legumes cultivated in cool temperate regions. It holds great importance for human consumption and livestock feed because of its high protein content, dietary fibre, and nutritional value. Major faba bean breeding challenges include its mixed breeding system, unknown wild progenitor, and genome size of ~13 Gb, which is the largest among diploid field crops. The key breeding objectives in faba bean include improved resistance to biotic and abiotic stress and enhanced seed quality traits. Regarding quality traits, major progress on reduction of vicine-convicine and seed coat tannins, the main anti-nutritional factors limiting faba bean seed usage, have been recently achieved through gene discovery. Genomic resources are relatively less advanced compared with other grain legume species, but significant improvements are underway due to a recent increase in research activities. A number of bi-parental populations have been constructed and mapped for targeted traits in the last decade. Faba bean now benefits from saturated synteny-based genetic maps, along with next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for marker-assisted selection. Developing a reference genome, and ultimately a pan-genome, will provide a foundational resource for molecular breeding. In this review, we cover the recent development and deployment of genomic tools for faba bean breeding.
  • O'Brien, Sue; Ruffino, Lise; Johnson, Logan; Lehikoinen, Petteri; Okill, David; Petersen, Aevar; Petersen, Ib Krag; Väisänen, Roni; Williams, Jim; Williams, Stuart (JNCC, 2020)
    JNCC Report
  • Thompson, Danni; O'Brien, Sue; Ruffino, Lise; Johnson, Logan; Lehikoinen, Petteri; Okill, David; Petersen, Aevar; Petersen, Ib Krag; Väisänen, Roni; Williams, Jim; Williams, Stuart (JNCC, 2020)
    JNCC Report
  • Johnsen, Øystein; Apeland, Inger (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1988)
  • Efimov, J. P. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1980)
  • Tremmel-Bede , Karoliina; Szentmiklóssy, Marietta; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Piironen, Vieno; Shewry, Peter R; Vida, Gyula; Tömösközi, Sandor; Karsai, Ildigo; Láng, László; Bedő, Zoltán; Rakszegi, Marianna (2022)
    Wheat is a well-known source of B vitamins but also contains significant amounts of vitamin E and related tocols, which have a number of positive health benefits. However, there are no reports on increasing the tocol content of wheat. A prerequisite for increasing the tocol content is the identification of variation in its amount within wheat and related cereals. We therefore determined the tocol content and composition in the grain of 230 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of a diverse biparental wheat population (Mv Toborzo/Tommi), showing variation in the total content from 13.69 to 45.18 mu g/g d.m. The total content also showed transgressive segregation in the population. The effect of the genotype on the variance components of tocols was studied, and the broad-sense heritability was calculated to be 0.71. The lines were also grouped based on their tocol content and analyzed for their chemical composition and breadmaking quality. The high heritability value and the wide variation found in the total amount indicate that increasing the content of tocols is a possible breeding strategy.