Browsing by Subject "broiler"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-10 of 10
  • Tuunainen, Petra; Koivunen, Erja; Valaja, Jarmo; Valkonen, Eija; Hiidenhovi, Jaakko; Tupasela, Tuomo; Hongisto, Marja (2016)
    Performance, meat quality and litter quality were determined in 4000 male and female Ross 308 broilers fed on starter diet (soybean meal or rapeseed meal and peas) and grower-finisher diets based on either soybean meal (control) or substituting rapeseed meal or rapeseed meal and pea in different proportions (100/0%, 75/25% or 50/50%) for soybean meal in iso-nitrogenous basis. Performance of the birds fed with soybean meal diets was superior compared to that of the birds fed with rapeseed meal and pea based diets. Bird performance was the poorest and mortality the highest for the birds fed with the rapeseed meal grower diet. In this experiment birds did not reach performance target for the age and strain of bird. Overall, diet based solely on rapeseed meal protein is not suitable for broiler production. However, dietary rapeseed meal inclusion clearly improved fatty acid profile of breast meat. The omega-6/omega-3-ratio was 4.1, 2.4 and 2.7 for soybean meal, rapeseed meal, and rapeseed meal and peas based diets, respectively. There were no differences in sensory quality evaluation of breast meat between the treatments.
  • Kaukonen, Eija; Norring, Marianna; Valros, Anna (2017)
    1. Experiment 1, comparing wood shavings and ground straw bedding with peat, was performed on 7 broiler farms over two consecutive batches during the winter season. Experiment 2, assessing the effect of elevated (30 cm) platforms, was conducted in three farms replicated with 6 consecutive batches. 2. Footpad lesions were inspected at slaughter following the Welfare Quality® (WQ) assessment and official programme. Hock lesions, plumage cleanliness and litter condition were assessed using the WQ assessment. Litter height, pH, moisture and ammonia were determined. 3. Footpad condition on wood shavings appeared to be worse compared with peat using both methods of assessment and was accompanied by inferior hock skin health. WQ assessment resulted in poorer footpad and hock skin condition on ground straw compared with peat. Farms differed in footpad and hock skin condition. Footpad and hock lesions were not affected by platform treatment. Peat appeared more friable than ground straw. The initial pH of wood shavings was higher and moisture was lower than in peat, but at the end of production period there were no differences. Ground straw exhibited higher initial and lower end pH, and was drier in the beginning than peat. Litter condition and quality were not affected by platform treatment. 4. This study provides new knowledge about the applicability of peat as broiler bedding and shows no negative effects of elevated platforms on litter condition or the occurrence of contact dermatitis in commercial environments. The results suggest a complicated relationship between litter condition, moisture and contact dermatitis. Furthermore, it is concluded that the farmer’s ability to manage litter conditions is important, regardless of the chosen litter material. Peat bedding was beneficial for footpad and hock skin health compared with wood shavings and ground straw.
  • Soglia, F.; Zeng, Z.; Gao, J.; Puolanne, E.; Cavani, C.; Petracci, M.; Ertbjerg, P. (2018)
    In the past few yr, an emerging muscle abnormality termed wooden breast (WB) was found to affect broilers' Pectoralis major muscles. Although different studies have been performed in order to evaluate the effect of WB on meat quality, there is no evidence concerning its impact on the proteolytic processes taking place during meat aging. Thus, this study aimed at investigating the effect of a 7-day storage of broiler breast fillets on free calcium concentration, calpain activity, and proteolysis. Both the superficial and the deep layers of the Pectoralis major muscles were considered. Although similar electrophoretic profiles were observed by comparing the corresponding sampling positions, an evident lack of a high-molecular weight protein band, ascribed to nebulin, was found in the superficial layer of the WB fillets at 10 h postmortem. Compared to normal fillets (NB), both the superficial and the deep layer of WB exhibited a significantly higher amount of free calcium at 168 h postmortem (96 and 88 vs. 20 and 53 mu M; P
  • Susiluoto, Tuija; Korkeala, Hannu; Björkroth, Johanna (Elsevier, 2002)
    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in retail, modified-atmosphere-packaged (MAP), marinated broiler meat strips on sell-by day were mainly identified as Leuconostoc gasicomitatum. A total of 32 packages, 3 to 5 packages of 7 differently marinated broiler meat products, were studied at the end of the producer-defined shelf life (at 6ºC, 7 to 9 days depending on the manufacturer). Prior to the microbiological analyses, appearance and smell of the product was checked and pH measured. Bacteria were cultured on MRS and Tomato Juice Agar (TJA), Rogosa SL agar (SLA), Plate Count Agar (PCA) and Streptomycin Thallium Acetate Agar (STAA) for the enumeration of LAB, lactobacilli, total bacterial count and B. thermosphacta, respectively. The average CFU/g of the 32 packages was 2.3 × 108 on PCA. The highest bacterial average, 3.1 × 108, was recovered on TJA, the corresponding CFU/g averages on MRS and SLA being 2.3 × 108 and 1.3 × 108, respectively. Despite the high LAB numbers, radical spoilage changes such as unpleasant odor, slime production and formation of gas were not recognized. B. thermosphacta did not form a significant part of the bacterial population since none of the levels exceeded the spoilage threshold level of 105 CFU/g reported in previous studies. In order to characterize the dominating LAB population, as many as 85, 85 and 88 colonies from MRS, TJA and SLA, respectively, were randomly picked and cultured pure. LAB were identified to species level using a 16 and 23S rDNA HindIII RFLP (ribotyping) database. Fifty-six of the 170 isolates picked from the non-selective LAB media (MRS and TJA) were identified as Leuconostoc gasicomitatum, followed by Carnobacterium divergens (41 isolates), Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus curvatus subsp. melibiosus (31 isolates) and Lactobacillus curvatus subsp. curvatus (20 isolates) species. SLA proved not to be completely selective for lactobacilli because the growth of Leuconostoc spp. was not inhibited, Carnobacterium spp. were the only species not detected on SLA.
  • Brandes, Jasmin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Wooden breast is muscle myopathy occurring in broilers, myopathy forms hard and pale connective tissue areas in broiler breast muscles. When wooden breast is occurring also some other myopathies can coexist: loose muscle structure and white stripping are visible on breast muscles. The myopathy is relatively new and it was noticed approximately ten years ago in greater amounts. The subject of this thesis was to study wing flapping and how it affects the morphology of breast muscles and bones and whether there are links between them and wooden breast prevalence. The literature review handled muscle morphology and bones morphology and how muscles shape changes when they grow in size, how muscles and bones grow normally and how the exercise of the muscles will affect wooden breast prevalence. In the literature review the anatomy of broiler movement and especially the anatomy of bones and the muscles that are involved in wing movement is handled. The study is made by raising 171 broiler birds divided in three groups: Group A birds have feed and water on floor level and birds do not have to use their wings. Group B birds lived same way as A-group until at day 25 drinking water is moved to platform which is higher than the floor level. Birds had to fly to platform and down when they need water or feed. Group C feed and water were on floor level but after 3 days water was risen on the platform and platform was risen gradually when birds grew and all birds of the Group C learned how to get to platform. From the original 171 birds 17 were sacrificed outside the study due health reasons. The birds (171-17 i.e. 154) were terminated 20, 30 or 41 days old in 40, 58 or 56 bird batches. The percentage of termination was roughly equal in each group on each termination, except at Day 20, when Group A and Group B had had the same treatment, and there were no terminations in Group B. The aim of this thesis was to study effects of wing flapping to broilers morphological changes. This thesis showed that there were no significant differences in Group A and Group C between studied properties. Wing flapping showed no significant differences during sample termination days in morphological properties.
  • Jaakkola, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The thesis literature review is about the effects of brine to meat and manufacturing process. Possible ingredients the brine of broiler and their impact on meat was also introduced. Possible ingredients properties were explored as well. The aim of experimental work was to test in practice how a new brine works versus the currently used brine and investigate how the brines behave with broiler meat using different methods. The samples were injection salting cured pea-psyllium fibre back quarters and bamboo-psyllium fibre back quarters, drum cured pea-psyllium fillet steaks and bamboo-psyllium fibre fillet steaks. These samples were tested microbiologically with TEMPO®-method, sensory evaluation with descriptive method, by measuring pH, by determining cooking loss and drip loss and by determining samples salt contents. Microbiologically the cured back quarters and fillet steaks remained good at least during the 15 days tested with both brines and thus the shelf life could be at least 15 days. In sensory evaluation there was no statistical difference between the two brines used for curing fillet steaks and back quarters. Neither, there was no statistical difference in cooking losses and drip losses. Samples pH values were an appropriate level and there were no deviations. Salt contents were consistent when comparing to the amount of added salt. In conclusion, the new bamboo-psyllium fibre brine works nearly as well as the currently used pea-psyllium brine in broiler meat. The bamboo-psyllium fibre brine could work better if recipe would be optimized.
  • Salo, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The quality of Finish broiler meats is ensured during the whole foodchain from primary production to retail trades. Broiler meat products have to maintain the typical microbiological, chemical and sensory attributes during the shelf life. The shelf life of foods are regulated by the European Union and the Finish national law and by the directions of the Finish Food Safety Authority which the food companies have to follow. The shelf life of broiler meat products and especially the microbiological quality can be affected by the internal and the external factors of foods. The internal factors are pH, water activity (aw) and content of nutritive. The food packaging technology, storage temperature and the activity of microbes are examples of external factors that influence the shelf life. The shelf life of broiler meat products can be affected for example by controlling the number of microbes in the carcass during slaughter, packaging technology and storage temperature. The shelf life of meat products can be influenced especially by the storage temperature so that growing conditions of microbes can be controlled in a way that the generation time of spoilage microbes will be as long as possible. The shelf life of meat products and microbial quality will specially have an effect on the microbial load of animals when they are transported to slaughter house. Additionally, the microbial quality of a final product will be affected by the process steps of the slaughter and the contaminations that will happen during the cutting and the packaging. The carcasses passes through the following processes during the slaughter: stunning, bleeding, scalding, rinsing, evisceration, washing and chilling. The aims of the research were to investigate the changes of the microbial load of carcasses during the slaughter and especially how the microbial load can be controlled. Additionally, it was studied how two process parameters affected the microbial quality of carcasses and how the packaging technology affected the microbiological, sensory and chemical properties of products.
  • Koivunen, Erja; Talvio, Eija; Valkonen, Eija; Tupasela, Tuomo; Tuunainen, Petra; Valaja, Jarmo (2016)
    The aim was to study the effects of dietary pea inclusion and the addition of Avizyme 1200 -enzyme cocktail on broiler performance, intestinal viscosity and organoleptic quality of meat. The experimental design was a 4 x 2 factorial, the factors being dietary pea inclusion (0, 150, 300 and 450 g kg(-1)) in the diets fed from day 9 to day 38 and the addition of Avizyme 1200 enzyme cocktail including amylase, protease and xylanase during the entire experiment. The growth of birds improved (p 0.05). In conclusion, 450 g kg(-1) peas can be used in the broiler grower diets without negative effects on the bird performance. The use of enzyme cocktail improves bird performance.
  • Sihvo, H. -K.; Linden, J.; Airas, N.; Immonen, K.; Valaja, J.; Puolanne, E. (2017)
    Wooden breast (WB) myopathy of broiler chickens is a myodegenerative disease of an unknown etiology and is macroscopically characterized by a hardened consistency of the pectoralis major muscle. Our aim was to describe the development and morphology of WB over the growth period in broilers. Additionally, the effect of restricted dietary selenium on the occurrence of WB was examined by allocating the birds in 2 dietary groups: restricted and conventional level of selenium. The experiment included 240 male broilers that were euthanized at ages of 10, 18, 24, 35, 38, or 42 days and evaluated for WB based on abnormal hardness of the pectoralis major muscle. The severity and the distribution of the lesion and presence of white striping were recorded. The first WB cases were seen at 18 days; 13/47 birds (28%) were affected and the majority exhibited a mild focal lesion. In subsequent age groups the WB prevalence varied between 48% and 73% and the lesion was usually diffuse and markedly firm. White striping often coexisted with WB. Histological evaluation performed on 111 cases revealed a significant association of myodegeneration and lymphocytic vasculitis with WB. Vasculitis and perivascular cell infiltration were restricted to the veins. Restricted dietary selenium did not affect the occurrence of WB (P = .44). Our results indicate that WB starts focally and spreads to form a diffuse and more severe lesion.