Browsing by Subject "burden of disease"

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  • Haagsma, Juanita A.; James, Spencer L.; Castle, Chris D.; Dingels, Zachary; Fox, Jack T.; Hamilton, Erin B.; Liu, Zichen; Lucchesi, Lydia R.; Roberts, Nicholas L. S.; Sylte, Dillon O.; Adebayo, Oladimeji M.; Ahmadi, Alireza; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Alahdab, Fares; Alghnam, Suliman A.; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M.; Alsharif, Ubai; Altirkawi, Khalid; Anjomshoa, Mina; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Appiah, Seth Christopher Yaw; Aremu, Olatunde; Arora, Amit; Asayesh, Hamid; Assadi, Reza; Awasthi, Ashish; Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina; Balalla, Shivanthi; Banstola, Amrit; Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn; Baernighausen, Till Winfried; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Bedi, Neeraj; Behzadifar, Masoud; Behzadifar, Meysam; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Bhaumik, Soumyadeep; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bijani, Ali; Borges, Guilherme; Borschmann, Rohan; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Brazinova, Alexandra; Rincon, Julio Cesar Campuzano; Cardenas, Rosario; Carrero, Juan J.; Carvalho, Felix; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Choi, Jee-Young J.; Christopher, Devasahayam J.; Crowe, Christopher Stephen; Dalal, Koustuv; Daryani, Ahmad; Davitoiu, Dragos Virgil; Degenhardt, Louisa; De Leo, Diego; De Neve, Jan-Walter; Deribe, Kebede; Dessie, Getenet Ayalew; deVeber, Gabrielle Aline; Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda; Linh Phuong Doan; Dolan, Kate A.; Driscoll, Tim Robert; Dubey, Manisha; El-Khatib, Ziad; Ellingsen, Christian Lycke; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Faro, Andre; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Eduarda; Filip, Irina; Fischer, Florian; Franklin, Richard Charles; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Gezae, Kebede Embaye; Gill, Tiffany K.; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Grada, Ayman; Guo, Yuming; Gupta, Rahul; Bidgoli, Hassan Haghparast; Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Hamidi, Samer; Maria Haro, Josep; Hassankhani, Hadi; Hassen, Hamid Yimam; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hendrie, Delia; Henok, Andualem; Hijar, Martha; Hole, Michael K.; Rad, Enayatollah Homaie; Hossain, Naznin; Hostiuc, Sorin; Hu, Guoqing; Igumbor, Ehimario U.; Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Ivers, Rebecca Q.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jahanmehr, Nader; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jha, Ravi Prakash; Jonas, Jost B.; Shushtari, Zahra Jorjoran; Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy; Jurisson, Mikk; Kabir, Ali; Kalani, Rizwan; Kasaeian, Amir; Kelbore, Abraham Getachew; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif; Khalid, Nauman; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khoja, Abdullah T.; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A.; Kim, Young-Eun; Kim, Daniel; Kisa, Adnan; Koyanagi, Ai; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kumar, Manasi; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lam, Hilton; Lami, Faris Hasan; Lansingh, Van C.; Leasher, Janet L.; Li, Shanshan; Linn, Shai; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Machado, Flavia R.; Abd El Razek, Hassan Magdy; Abd El Razek, Muhammed Magdy; Mahotra, Narayan Bahadur; Majdan, Marek; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malik, Manzoor Ahmad; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Manda, Ana-Laura; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard; Maulik, Pallab K.; Meheretu, Hailemariam Abiy Alemu; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Melese, Addisu; Mendoza, Walter; Mengesha, Melkamu Merid; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Meretoja, Atte; Mestrovic, Tomislav; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Miller, Ted R.; Mini, G. K.; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Moazen, Babak; Mezerji, Naser Mohammad Gholi; Mohammadibakhsh, Roghayeh; Mohammed, Shafiu; Molokhia, Mariam; Monasta, Lorenzo; Mondello, Stefania; Montero-Zamora, Pablo A.; Moodley, Yoshan; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Moradi, Ghobad; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Morawska, Lidia; Moreno Velasquez, Ilais; Morrison, Shane Douglas; Moschos, Marilita M.; Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam; Murthy, Srinivas; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Naik, Gurudatta; Najafi, Farid; Nangia, Vinay; Nascimento, Bruno Ramos; Ndwandwe, Duduzile Edith; Negoi, Ionut; Trang Huyen Nguyen; Son Hoang Nguyen; Long Hoang Nguyen; Huong Lan Thi Nguyen; Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini; Nirayo, Yirga Legesse; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oh, In-Hwan; Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Olagunju, Andrew T.; Olagunju, Tinuke O.; Olivares, Pedro R.; Orpana, Heather M.; Otstavnov, Stanislav S.; Mahesh, P. A.; Pakhale, Smita; Park, Eun-Kee; Patton, George C.; Pesudovs, Konrad; Phillips, Michael R.; Polinder, Suzanne; Prakash, Swayam; Radfar, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rafiei, Alireza; Rahimi, Siavash; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Ramezanzadeh, Kiana; Rawaf, Salman; Rawaf, David Laith; Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Resnikoff, Serge; Rezaeian, Shahab; Roever, Leonardo; Ronfani, Luca; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Sabde, Yogesh Damodar; Saddik, Basema; Salamati, Payman; Salimi, Yahya; Salz, Inbal; Samy, Abdallah M.; Sanabria, Juan; Riera, Lidia Sanchez; Milicevic, Milena M. Santric; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Sawyer, Susan M.; Saxena, Sonia; Saylan, Mete; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schwebel, David C.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shams-Beyranvand, Mehran; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Sharif-Alhoseini, Mahdi; Sheikh, Aziz; Shen, Jiabin; Shigematsu, Mika; Shiri, Rahman; Shiue, Ivy; Silva, Joao Pedro; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Soares Filho, Adauto Martins; Soriano, Joan B.; Soshnikov, Sergey; Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Starodubov, Vladimir; Stein, Dan J.; Stokes, Mark A.; Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale; Sunshine, Jacob E.; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tabb, Karen M.; Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Thakur, Jarnail Singh; Khanh Bao Tran; Bach Xuan Tran; Car, Lorainne Tudor; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S. Chudi; Valdez, Pascual R.; Varavikova, Elena; Nogales Vasconcelos, Ana Maria; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasily; Waheed, Yasir; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Wijeratne, Tissa; Winkler, Andrea Sylvia; Yadav, Priyanka; Yano, Yuichiro; Yenesew, Muluken Azage; Yip, Paul; Yisma, Engida; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Zafar, Shamsa; Zaidi, Zoubida; Bin Zaman, Sojib; Zamani, Mohammad; Zhao, Yong; Zodpey, Sanjay; Hay, Simon; Lopez, Alan D.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Vos, Theo (2020)
    Background The epidemiological transition of non-communicable diseases replacing infectious diseases as the main contributors to disease burden has been well documented in global health literature. Less focus, however, has been given to the relationship between sociodemographic changes and injury. The aim of this study was to examine the association between disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from injury for 195 countries and territories at different levels along the development spectrum between 1990 and 2017 based on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 estimates. Methods Injury mortality was estimated using the GBD mortality database, corrections for garbage coding and CODEm-the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on surveys and inpatient and outpatient data sets for 30 cause-of-injury with 47 nature-of-injury categories each. The Socio-demographic Index (SDI) is a composite indicator that includes lagged income per capita, average educational attainment over age 15 years and total fertility rate. Results For many causes of injury, age-standardised DALY rates declined with increasing SDI, although road injury, interpersonal violence and self-harm did not follow this pattern. Particularly for self-harm opposing patterns were observed in regions with similar SDI levels. For road injuries, this effect was less pronounced. Conclusions The overall global pattern is that of declining injury burden with increasing SDI. However, not all injuries follow this pattern, which suggests multiple underlying mechanisms influencing injury DALYs. There is a need for a detailed understanding of these patterns to help to inform national and global efforts to address injury-related health outcomes across the development spectrum.
  • James, Spencer L.; Lucchesi, Lydia R.; Bisignano, Catherine; Castle, Chris D.; Dingels, Zachary; Fox, Jack T.; Hamilton, Erin B.; Henry, Nathaniel J.; McCracken, Darrah; Roberts, Nicholas L. S.; Sylte, Dillon O.; Ahmadi, Alireza; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Alahdab, Fares; Alipour, Vahid; Andualem, Zewudu; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Arabloo, Jalal; Badiye, Ashish D.; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba; Banstola, Amrit; Baernighausen, Till Winfried; Barzegar, Akbar; Bayati, Mohsen; Bhaumik, Soumyadeep; Bijani, Ali; Bukhman, Gene; Carvalho, Felix; Crowe, Christopher Stephen; Dalal, Koustuv; Daryani, Ahmad; Nasab, Mostafa Dianati; Hoa Thi Do; Huyen Phuc Do; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Fernandes, Eduarda; Filip, Irina; Fischer, Florian; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Gebremedhin, Ketema Bizuwork Bizuwork; Gebremeskel, Gebreamlak Gebremedhn; Gilani, Syed Amir; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Hamidi, Samer; Hostiuc, Sorin; Househ, Mowafa; Igumbor, Ehimario U.; Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Kahsay, Amaha; Kapoor, Neeti; Kasaeian, Amir; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khazaee-Pool, Maryam; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Lopez, Alan D.; Madadin, Mohammed; Majdan, Marek; Maled, Venkatesh; Malekzadeh, Reza; Manafi, Navid; Manafi, Ali; Mangalam, Srikanth; Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard; Meles, Hagazi Gebre; Menezes, Ritesh G.; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Miazgowski, Bartosz; Miller, Ted R.; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Mohammadpourhodki, Reza; Morrison, Shane Douglas; Negoi, Ionut; Trang Huyen Nguyen; Son Hoang Nguyen; Cuong Tat Nguyen; Nixon, Molly R.; Olagunju, Andrew T.; Olagunju, Tinuke O.; Padubidri, Jagadish Rao; Polinder, Suzanne; Rabiee, Navid; Rabiee, Mohammad; Radfar, Amir; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rawaf, Salman; Rawaf, David Laith; Rezapour, Aziz; Rickard, Jennifer; Roro, Elias Merdassa; Roy, Nobhojit; Safari-Faramani, Roya; Salamati, Payman; Samy, Abdallah M.; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Schwebel, David C.; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Shigematsu, Mika; Soheili, Amin; Stokes, Mark A.; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Bach Xuan Tran; Valdez, Pascual R.; Wijeratne, Tissa; Yisma, Engida; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zamani, Mohammad; Zhang, Zhi-Jiang; Hay, Simon; Mokdad, Ali H. (2020)
    Background Past research has shown how fires, heat and hot substances are important causes of health loss globally. Detailed estimates of the morbidity and mortality from these injuries could help drive preventative measures and improved access to care. Methods We used the Global Burden of Disease 2017 framework to produce three main results. First, we produced results on incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability, deaths, years of life lost and disability-adjusted life years from 1990 to 2017 for 195 countries and territories. Second, we analysed these results to measure mortality-to-incidence ratios by location. Third, we reported the measures above in terms of the cause of fire, heat and hot substances and the types of bodily injuries that result. Results Globally, there were 8 991 468 (7 481 218 to 10 740 897) new fire, heat and hot substance injuries in 2017 with 120 632 (101 630 to 129 383) deaths. At the global level, the age-standardised mortality caused by fire, heat and hot substances significantly declined from 1990 to 2017, but regionally there was variability in age-standardised incidence with some regions experiencing an increase (eg, Southern Latin America) and others experiencing a significant decrease (eg, High-income North America). Conclusions The incidence and mortality of injuries that result from fire, heat and hot substances affect every region of the world but are most concentrated in middle and lower income areas. More resources should be invested in measuring these injuries as well as in improving infrastructure, advancing safety measures and ensuring access to care.
  • Haagsma, Juanita A.; Olij, Branko F.; Majdan, Marek; van Beeck, Ed F.; Vos, Theo; Castle, Chris D.; Dingels, Zachary; Fox, Jack T.; Hamilton, Erin B.; Liu, Zichen; Roberts, Nicholas L. S.; Sylte, Dillon O.; Aremu, Olatunde; Baernighausen, Till Winfried; Borzi, Antonio M.; Briggs, Andrew M.; Carrero, Juan J.; Cooper, Cyrus; El-Khatib, Ziad; Ellingsen, Christian Lycke; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Filip, Irina; Fischer, Florian; Haro, Josep Maria; Jonas, Jost B.; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Mohammed, Shafiu; Pathak, Ashish; Radfar, Amir; Rawaf, Salman; Rawaf, David Laith; Riera, Lidia Sanchez; Shiue, Ivy; Vasankari, Tommi Juhani; James, Spencer L.; Polinder, Suzanne (2020)
    Introduction Falls in older aged adults are an important public health problem. Insight into differences in fall-related injury rates between countries can serve as important input for identifying and evaluating prevention strategies. The objectives of this study were to compare Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 estimates on incidence, mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to fall-related injury in older adults across 22 countries in the Western European region and to examine changes over a 28-year period. Methods We performed a secondary database descriptive study using the GBD 2017 results on age-standardised fall-related injury in older adults aged 70 years and older in 22 countries from 1990 to 2017. Results In 2017, in the Western European region, 13 840 per 100 000 (uncertainty interval (UI) 11 837-16 113) older adults sought medical treatment for fall-related injury, ranging from 7594 per 100 000 (UI 6326-9032) in Greece to 19 796 per 100 000 (UI 15 536-24 233) in Norway. Since 1990, fall-related injury DALY rates showed little change for the whole region, but patterns varied widely between countries. Some countries (eg, Belgium and Netherlands) have lost their favourable positions due to an increasing fall-related injury burden of disease since 1990. Conclusions From 1990 to 2017, there was considerable variation in fall-related injury incidence, mortality, DALY rates and its composites in the 22 countries in the Western European region. It may be useful to assess which fall prevention measures have been taken in countries that showed continuous low or decreasing incidence, death and DALY rates despite ageing of the population.
  • James, Spencer L.; Castle, Chris D.; Dingels, Zachary; Fox, Jack T.; Hamilton, Erin B.; Liu, Zichen; Roberts, Nicholas L. S.; Sylte, Dillon O.; Henry, Nathaniel J.; LeGrand, Kate E.; Abdelalim, Ahmed; Abdoli, Amir; Abdollahpour, Ibrahim; Abdulkader, Rizwan Suliankatchi; Abedi, Aidin; Abosetugn, Akine Eshete; Abushouk, Abdelrahman; Adebayo, Oladimeji M.; Agudelo-Botero, Marcela; Ahmad, Tauseef; Ahmed, Rushdia; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Alahdab, Fares; Alamene, Genet Melak; Alanezi, Fahad Mashhour; Alebel, Animut; Alema, Niguse Meles; Alghnam, Suliman A.; Al-Hajj, Samar; Ali, Beriwan Abdulqadir; Ali, Saqib; Alikhani, Mahtab; Alinia, Cyrus; Alipour, Vahid; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Almasri, Nihad A.; Altirkawi, Khalid; Amer, Yasser Sami Abdeldayem; Amini, Saeed; Amit, Arianna Maever Loreche; Andrei, Catalina Liliana; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Appiah, Seth Christopher Yaw; Arabloo, Jalal; Arab-Zozani, Morteza; Arefi, Zohreh; Aremu, Olatunde; Ariani, Filippo; Arora, Amit; Asaad, Malke; Asghari, Babak; Awoke, Nefsu; Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala; Ayano, Getinet; Ayanore, Martin Amogre; Azari, Samad; Azarian, Ghasem; Badawi, Alaa; Badiye, Ashish D.; Bagli, Eleni; Baig, Atif Amin; Bairwa, Mohan; Bakhtiari, Ahad; Balachandran, Arun; Banach, Maciej; Banerjee, Srikanta K.; Banik, Palash Chandra; Banstola, Amrit; Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn; Baernighausen, Till Winfried; Barrero, Lope H.; Barzegar, Akbar; Bayati, Mohsen; Baye, Bayisa Abdissa; Bedi, Neeraj; Behzadifar, Masoud; Bekuma, Tariku Tesfaye; Belete, Habte; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Berhe, Kidanemaryam; Bhardwaj, Pankaj; Bhat, Anusha Ganapati; Bhattacharyya, Krittika; Bibi, Sadia; Bijani, Ali; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat; Borges, Guilherme; Borzi, Antonio Maria; Boufous, Soufiane; Brazinova, Alexandra; Briko, Nikolay Ivanovich; Budhathoki, Shyam S.; Car, Josip; Cardenas, Rosario; Carvalho, Felix; Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia, Joao; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Castelpietra, Giulio; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Cerin, Ester; Chandan, Joht S.; Chanie, Wagaye Fentahun; Chattu, Soosanna Kumary; Chattu, Vijay Kumar; Chatziralli, Irini; Chaudhary, Neha; Cho, Daniel Youngwhan; Chowdhury, Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir; Chu, Dinh-Toi; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Constantin, Maria-Magdalena; Costa, Vera M.; Damiani, Giovanni; Daryani, Ahmad; Alberto Davila-Cervantes, Claudio; Demeke, Feleke Mekonnen; Demis, Asmamaw Bizuneh; Demoz, Gebre Teklemariam; Demsie, Desalegn Getnet; Derakhshani, Afshin; Deribe, Kebede; Desai, Rupak; Nasab, Mostafa Dianati; da Silva, Diana Dias; Forooshani, Zahra Sadat Dibaji; Doyle, Kerrie E.; Driscoll, Tim Robert; Dubljanin, Eleonora; Adema, Bereket Duko; Eagan, Arielle Wilder; Eftekhari, Aziz; Ehsani-Chimeh, Elham; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Elemineh, Demelash Abewa; El-Jaafary, Shaimaa; El-Khatib, Ziad; Ellingsen, Christian Lycke; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Endalew, Daniel Adane; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Faris, Pawan Sirwan; Faro, Andre; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fatahi, Yousef; Fekadu, Wubalem; Ferede, Tomas Y.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Eduarda; Ferrara, Pietro; Feyissa, Garumma Tolu; Filip, Irina; Fischer, Florian; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Foroutan, Masoud; Francis, Joel Msafiri; Franklin, Richard Charles; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Geberemariyam, Biniyam Sahiledengle; Gebre, Abadi Kahsu; Gebremedhin, Ketema Bizuwork; Gebremeskel, Gebreamlak Gebremedhn; Gebremichael, Berhe; Gedefaw, Getnet Azeze; Geta, Birhanu; Ghafourifard, Mansour; Ghamari, Farhad; Ghashghaee, Ahmad; Gholamian, Asadollah; Gill, Tiffany K.; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Grada, Ayman; Grivna, Michal; Gubari, Mohammed Ibrahim Mohialdeen; Guimaraes, Rafael Alves; Guo, Yuming; Gupta, Gaurav; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Bidgoli, Hassan Haghparast; Hall, Brian James; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Hamidi, Samer; Maria Haro, Josep; Hasan, Mehedi; Hasanzadeh, Amir; Hassanipour, Soheil; Hassankhani, Hadi; Hassen, Hamid Yimam; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hayat, Khezar; Hendrie, Delia; Heydarpour, Fatemeh; Hijar, Martha; Ho, Hung Chak; Chi Linh Hoang; Hole, Michael K.; Holla, Ramesh; Hossain, Naznin; Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi; Hostiuc, Sorin; Hu, Guoqing; Ibitoye, Segun Emmanuel; Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Ilic, Irena; Ilic, Milena D.; Inbaraj, Leeberk Raja; Indriasih, Endang; Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Islam, M. Mofizul; Ivers, Rebecca Q.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jahani, Mohammad Ali; Jahanmehr, Nader; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; Jalilian, Farzad; Jayaraman, Sudha; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jha, Ravi Prakash; John-Akinola, Yetunde O.; Jonas, Jost B.; Joseph, Nitin; Joukar, Farahnaz; Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy; Jungari, Suresh Banayya; Jurisson, Mikk; Kabir, Ali; Kadel, Rajendra; Kahsay, Amaha; Kalankesh, Leila R.; Kalhor, Rohollah; Kamil, Teshome Abegaz; Kanchan, Tanuj; Kapoor, Neeti; Karami, Manoochehr; Kasaeian, Amir; Kassaye, Hagazi Gebremedhin; Kavetskyy, Taras; Kebede, Hafte Kahsay; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kelbore, Abraham Getachew; Kelkay, Bayew; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif; Khalid, Nauman; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Khalilov, Rovshan; Khammarnia, Mohammad; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khan, Maseer; Khanna, Tripti; Khazaie, Habibolah; Shadmani, Fatemeh Khosravi; Khundkar, Roba; Kiirithio, Daniel N.; Kim, Young-Eun; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Yun Jin; Kisa, Adnan; Kisa, Sezer; Komaki, Hamidreza; Kondlahalli, Shivakumar K. M.; Korshunov, Vladimir Andreevich; Koyanagi, Ai; Kraemer, Moritz U. G.; Krishan, Kewal; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kugbey, Nuworza; Kumar, Vivek; Kumar, Nithin; Kumar, G. Anil; Kumar, Manasi; Kumaresh, Girikumar; Kurmi, Om P.; Kuti, Oluwatosin; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lami, Faris Hasan; Lamichhane, Prabhat; Lang, Justin J.; Lansingh, Van C.; Laryea, Dennis Odai; Lasrado, Savita; Latifi, Arman; Lauriola, Paolo; Leasher, Janet L.; Lee, Shaun Wen Huey; Lenjebo, Tsegaye Lolaso; Levi, Miriam; Li, Shanshan; Linn, Shai; Liu, Xuefeng; Lopez, Alan D.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan A.; Madadin, Mohammed; Abd El Razek, Muhammed Magdy; Mahotra, Narayan Bahadur; Majdan, Marek; Majeed, Azeem; Malagon-Rojas, Jeadran N.; Maled, Venkatesh; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Manafi, Navid; Manafi, Amir; Manda, Ana-Laura; Manjunatha, Narayana; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Mansouri, Borhan; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Maravilla, Joemer C.; March, Lyn M.; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra; Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard; Maulik, Pallab K.; Meles, Gebrekiros Gebremichael; Melese, Addisu; Melketsedik, Zeleke Aschalew; Memiah, Peter T. N.; Mendoza, Walter; Menezes, Ritesh G.; Mengesha, Meresa Berwo; Mengesha, Melkamu Merid; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Meretoja, Atte; Merie, Hayimro Edemealem; Mestrovic, Tomislav; Miazgowski, Bartosz; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Miller, Ted R.; Mini, G. K.; Mirica, Andreea; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Mirzaei-Alavijeh, Mehdi; Mithra, Prasanna; Moazen, Babak; Moghadaszadeh, Masoud; Mohamadi, Efat; Mohammad, Yousef; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Darwesh, Aso Mohammad; Mezerji, Naser Mohammad Gholi; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Mohammadoo-Khorasani, Milad; Mohammadpourhodki, Reza; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mohammed, Jemal Abdu; Mohebi, Farnam; Molokhia, Mariam; Monasta, Lorenzo; Moodley, Yoshan; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Moradi, Masoud; Moradi, Ghobad; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moradpour, Farhad; Morawska, Lidia; Moreno Velasquez, Ilais; Morisaki, Naho; Morrison, Shane Douglas; Mossie, Tilahun Belete; Muluneh, Atalay Goshu; Murthy, Srinivas; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Mustafa, Ghulam; Nabhan, Ashraf F.; Nagarajan, Ahamarshan Jayaraman; Naik, Gurudatta; Naimzada, Mukhammad David; Najafi, Farid; Nangia, Vinay; Nascimento, Bruno Ramos; Naserbakht, Morteza; Nayak, Vinod; Ndwandwe, Duduzile Edith; Negoi, Ionut; Ngunjiri, Josephine W.; Cuong Tat Nguyen; Huong Lan Thi Nguyen; Nikbakhsh, Rajan; Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini; Nnaji, Chukwudi A.; Nyasulu, Peter S.; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oghenetega, Onome Bright; Oh, In-Hwan; Okunga, Emmanuel Wandera; Olagunju, Andrew T.; Olagunju, Tinuke O.; Bali, Ahmed Omar; Onwujekwe, Obinna E.; Asante, Kwaku Oppong; Orpana, Heather M.; Ota, Erika; Otstavnov, Nikita; Otstavnov, Stanislav S.; Mahesh, P. A.; Padubidri, Jagadish Rao; Pakhale, Smita; Pakshir, Keyvan; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Park, Eun-Kee; Patel, Sangram Kishor; Pathak, Ashish; Pati, Sanghamitra; Patton, George C.; Paulos, Kebreab; Peden, Amy E.; Filipino Pepito, Veincent Christian; Pereira, Jeevan; Hai Quang Pham; Phillips, Michael R.; Pinheiro, Marina; Polibin, Roman; Polinder, Suzanne; Poustchi, Hossein; Prakash, Swayam; Pribadi, Dimas Ria Angga; Puri, Parul; Syed, Zahiruddin Quazi; Rabiee, Mohammad; Rabiee, Navid; Radfar, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rafiee, Ata; Rafiei, Alireza; Rahim, Fakher; Rahimi, Siavash; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Rajabpour-Sanati, Ali; Rajati, Fatemeh; Rakovac, Ivo; Ranganathan, Kavitha; Rao, Sowmya J.; Rashedi, Vahid; Rastogi, Prateek; Rathi, Priya; Rawaf, Salman; Rawal, Lal; Rawassizadeh, Reza; Renjith, Vishnu; Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Resnikoff, Serge; Rezapour, Aziz; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; Rickard, Jennifer; Rios Gonzalez, Carlos Miguel; Ronfani, Luca; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Saad, Anas M.; Sabde, Yogesh Damodar; Sabour, Siamak; Saddik, Basema; Safari, Saeed; Safari-Faramani, Roya; Safarpour, Hamid; Safdarian, Mahdi; Sajadi, S. Mohammad; Salamati, Payman; Salehi, Farkhonde; Zahabi, Saleh Salehi; Salem, Marwa R. Rashad; Salem, Hosni; Salman, Omar; Salz, Inbal; Samy, Abdallah M.; Sanabria, Juan; Riera, Lidia Sanchez; Milicevic, Milena M. Santric; Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Sarveazad, Arash; Sathian, Brijesh; Sawhney, Monika; Sawyer, Susan M.; Saxena, Sonia; Sayyah, Mehdi; Schwebel, David C.; Seedat, Soraya; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Sha, Feng; Shaahmadi, Faramarz; Shahabi, Saeed; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shams-Beyranvand, Mehran; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Sharif-Alhoseini, Mahdi; Sharifi, Hamid; Sheikh, Aziz; Shigematsu, Mika; Shin, Jae Il; Shiri, Rahman; Siabani, Soraya; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Smarandache, Catalin-Gabriel; Smith, Emma U. R.; Soheili, Amin; Soleymani, Bija; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Soriano, Joan B.; Sorrie, Muluken Bekele; Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Stein, N. J.; Stokes, Mark A.; Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale; Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tabb, Karen M.; Taddele, Biruk Wogayehu; Tadesse, Degena Bahrey; Tamiru, Animut Tagele; Tarigan, Ingan Ukur; Tefera, Yonatal Mesfin; Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash; Tekle, Merhawi Gebremedhin; Tekulu, Gebretsadkan Hintsa; Tesema, Ayenew Kassie; Tesfay, Berhe Etsay; Thapar, Rekha; Tilahune, Asres Bedaso; Tlaye, Kenean Getaneh; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Topor-Madry, Roman; Bach Xuan Tran; Khanh Bao Tran; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Tsai, Alexander C.; Car, Lorainne Tudor; Ullah, Saif; Ullah, Irfan; Umar, Maida; Unnikrishnan, Bhaskaran; Upadhyay, Era; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Valdez, Pascual R.; Vasankari, Tommi Juhani; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasily; Waheed, Yasir; Weldesamuel, Girmay Teklay; Werdecker, Andrea; Wiangkham, Taweewat; Wolde, Haileab Fekadu; Woldeyes, Dawit Habte; Wondafrash, Dawit Zewdu; Wondmeneh, Temesgen Gebeyehu; Wondmieneh, Adam Belay; Wu, Ai-Min; Yadav, Rajaram; Yadollahpour, Ali; Yano, Yuichiro; Yaya, Sanni; Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Vahid; Yip, Paul; Yisma, Engida; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Youm, Yoosik; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yousefi, Zabihollah; Yu, Yong; Yu, Chuanhua; Yusefzadeh, Hasan; Moghadam, Telma Zahirian; Zaidi, Zoubida; Bin Zaman, Sojib; Zamani, Mohammad; Zamanian, Maryam; Zandian, Hamed; Zarei, Ahmad; Zare, Fatemeh; Zhang, Zhi-Jiang; Zhang, Yunquan; Zodpey, Sanjay; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Degenhardt, Louisa; Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda; Hay, Simon; Mokdad, Ali H.; Reiner, Robert C.; Sartorius, Benn; Vos, Theo (2020)
    Background Past research in population health trends has shown that injuries form a substantial burden of population health loss. Regular updates to injury burden assessments are critical. We report Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 Study estimates on morbidity and mortality for all injuries. Methods We reviewed results for injuries from the GBD 2017 study. GBD 2017 measured injury-specific mortality and years of life lost (YLLs) using the Cause of Death Ensemble model. To measure non-fatal injuries, GBD 2017 modelled injury-specific incidence and converted this to prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs). YLLs and YLDs were summed to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Findings In 1990, there were 4 260 493 (4 085 700 to 4 396 138) injury deaths, which increased to 4 484 722 (4 332 010 to 4 585 554) deaths in 2017, while age-standardised mortality decreased from 1079 (1073 to 1086) to 738 (730 to 745) per 100 000. In 1990, there were 354 064 302 (95% uncertainty interval: 338 174 876 to 371 610 802) new cases of injury globally, which increased to 520 710 288 (493 430 247 to 547 988 635) new cases in 2017. During this time, age-standardised incidence decreased non-significantly from 6824 (6534 to 7147) to 6763 (6412 to 7118) per 100 000. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised DALYs decreased from 4947 (4655 to 5233) per 100 000 to 3267 (3058 to 3505). Interpretation Injuries are an important cause of health loss globally, though mortality has declined between 1990 and 2017. Future research in injury burden should focus on prevention in high-burden populations, improving data collection and ensuring access to medical care.
  • Abolhassani, Hassan; Azizi, Gholamreza; Sharifi, Laleh; Yazdani, Reza; Mohsenzadegan, Monireh; Delavari, Samaneh; Sohani, Mahsa; Shirmast, Paniz; Chavoshzadeh, Zahra; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Kalantari, Arash; Tavakol, Marzieh; Jabbari-Azad, Farahzad; Ahanchian, Hamid; Momen, Tooba; Sherkat, Roya; Sadeghi-Shabestari, Mahnaz; Aleyasin, Soheila; Esmaeilzadeh, Hossein; Al-Herz, Waleed; Bousfiha, Ahmed Aziz; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Seppänen, Mikko; Sullivan, Kathleen E.; Hammarstrom, Lennart; Modell, Vicki; Modell, Fred; Quinn, Jessica; Orange, Jordan S.; Aghamohammadi, Asghar (2020)
    Introduction During the last 4 decades, registration of patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PID) has played an essential role in different aspects of these diseases worldwide including epidemiological indexes, policymaking, quality controls of care/life, facilitation of genetic studies and clinical trials as well as improving our understanding about the natural history of the disease and the immune system function. However, due to the limitation of sustainable resources supporting these registries, inconsistency in diagnostic criteria and lack of molecular diagnosis as well as difficulties in the documentation and designing any universal platform, the global perspective of these diseases remains unclear. Areas covered Published and unpublished studies from January 1981 to June 2020 were systematically reviewed on PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. Additionally, the reference list of all studies was hand-searched for additional studies. This effort identified a total of 104614 registered patients and suggests identification of at least 10590 additional PID patients, mainly from countries located in Asia and Africa. Molecular defects in genes known to cause PID were identified and reported in 13852 (13.2% of all registered) patients. Expert opinion Although these data suggest some progress in the identification and documentation of PID patients worldwide, achieving the basic requirement for the global PID burden estimation and registration of undiagnosed patients will require more reinforcement of the progress, involving both improved diagnostic facilities and neonatal screening.
  • Crowe, Christopher Stephen; Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard; Morrison, Shane Douglas; Chang, James; Friedrich, Jeffrey Barton; Abady, Gdiom Gebreheat; Alahdab, Fares; Alipour, Vahid; Arabloo, Jalal; Asaad, Malke; Banach, Maciej; Bijani, Ali; Borzi, Antonio Maria; Briko, Nikolay Ivanovich; Castle, Chris D.; Cho, Daniel Youngwhan; Chung, Michael T.; Daryani, Ahmad; Demoz, Gebre Teklemariam; Dingels, Zachary; Hoa Thi Do; Fischer, Florian; Fox, Jack T.; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Gebre, Abadi Kahsu; Gebremichael, Berhe; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin; Handiso, Demelash Woldeyohannes; Hay, Simon; Chi Linh Hoang; Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi; Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy; Kalhor, Rohollah; Kasaeian, Amir; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalilov, Rovshan; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khundkar, Roba; Kisa, Sezer; Kisa, Adnan; Liu, Zichen; Majdan, Marek; Manafi, Navid; Manafi, Ali; Manda, Ana-Laura; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Miller, Ted R.; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Mohammadpourhodki, Reza; Bandpei, Mohammad A. Mohseni; Mokdad, Ali H.; Naimzada, Mukhammad David; Ndwandwe, Duduzile Edith; Cuong Tat Nguyen; Huong Lan Thi Nguyen; Olagunju, Andrew T.; Olagunju, Tinuke O.; Hai Quang Pham; Pribadi, Dimas Ria Angga; Rabiee, Navid; Ramezanzadeh, Kiana; Ranganathan, Kavitha; Roberts, Nicholas L. S.; Roever, Leonardo; Safari, Saeed; Samy, Abdallah M.; Riera, Lidia Sanchez; Shahabi, Saeed; Smarandache, Catalin-Gabriel; Sylte, Dillon O.; Tesfay, Berhe Etsay; Bach Xuan Tran; Ullah, Irfan; Vahedi, Parviz; Vahedian-Azimi, Amir; Theo Vos; Woldeyes, Dawit Habte; Wondmieneh, Adam Belay; Zhang, Zhi-Jiang; James, Spencer L. (2020)
    Background As global rates of mortality decrease, rates of non-fatal injury have increased, particularly in low Socio-demographic Index (SDI) nations. We hypothesised this global pattern of non-fatal injury would be demonstrated in regard to bony hand and wrist trauma over the 27-year study period. Methods The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 was used to estimate prevalence, age-standardised incidence and years lived with disability for hand trauma in 195 countries from 1990 to 2017. Individual injuries included hand and wrist fractures, thumb amputations and non-thumb digit amputations. Results The global incidence of hand trauma has only modestly decreased since 1990. In 2017, the age-standardised incidence of hand and wrist fractures was 179 per 100 000 (95% uncertainty interval (UI) 146 to 217), whereas the less common injuries of thumb and non-thumb digit amputation were 24 (95% UI 17 to 34) and 56 (95% UI 43 to 74) per 100 000, respectively. Rates of injury vary greatly by region, and improvements have not been equally distributed. The highest burden of hand trauma is currently reported in high SDI countries. However, low-middle and middle SDI countries have increasing rates of hand trauma by as much at 25%. Conclusions Certain regions are noted to have high rates of hand trauma over the study period. Low-middle and middle SDI countries, however, have demonstrated increasing rates of fracture and amputation over the last 27 years. This trend is concerning as access to quality and subspecialised surgical hand care is often limiting in these resource-limited regions.
  • Franklin, Richard Charles; Peden, Amy E.; Hamilton, Erin B.; Bisignano, Catherine; Castle, Chris D.; Dingels, Zachary; Hay, Simon; Liu, Zichen; Mokdad, Ali H.; Roberts, Nicholas L. S.; Sylte, Dillon O.; Theo Vos; Abady, Gdiom Gebreheat; Abosetugn, Akine Eshete; Ahmed, Rushdia; Alahdab, Fares; Andrei, Catalina Liliana; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Arabloo, Jalal; Arba, Aseb Arba Kinfe; Badiye, Ashish D.; Bakkannavar, Shankar M.; Banach, Maciej; Banik, Palash Chandra; Banstola, Amrit; Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn; Barzegar, Akbar; Bayati, Mohsen; Bhardwaj, Pankaj; Bhaumik, Soumyadeep; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bijani, Ali; Boloor, Archith; Carvalho, Felix; Chowdhury, Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir; Dinh-Toi Chu; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Dagne, Henok; Dagnew, Baye; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Daryani, Ahmad; Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda; Forooshani, Zahra Sadat Dibaji; Hoa Thi Do; Driscoll, Tim Robert; Eagan, Arielle Wilder; El-Khatib, Ziad; Fernandes, Eduarda; Filip, Irina; Fischer, Florian; Gebremichael, Berhe; Gupta, Gaurav; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Hassan, Shoaib; Hendrie, Delia; Chi Linh Hoang; Hole, Michael K.; Holla, Ramesh; Hostiuc, Sorin; Househ, Mowafa; Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Inbaraj, Leeberk Raja; Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi; Islam, M. Mofizul; Ivers, Rebecca Q.; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Joukar, Farahnaz; Kalhor, Rohollah; Kanchan, Tanuj; Kapoor, Neeti; Kasaeian, Amir; Khan, Maseer; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Krishan, Kewal; Kumar, G. Anil; Lauriola, Paolo; Lopez, Alan D.; Madadin, Mohammed; Majdan, Marek; Maled, Venkatesh; Manafi, Navid; Manafi, Ali; McKee, Martin; Meles, Hagazi Gebre; Menezes, Ritesh G.; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Miller, Ted R.; Mithra, Prasanna; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Mohammadpourhodki, Reza; Mohebi, Farnam; Molokhia, Mariam; Mustafa, Ghulam; Negoi, Ionut; Cuong Tat Nguyen; Huong Lan Thi Nguyen; Olagunju, Andrew T.; Olagunju, Tinuke O.; Padubidri, Jagadish Rao; Pakshir, Keyvan; Pathak, Ashish; Polinder, Suzanne; Pribadi, Dimas Ria Angga; Rabiee, Navid; Radfar, Amir; Rana, Saleem Muhammad; Rickard, Jennifer; Safari, Saeed; Salamati, Payman; Samy, Abdallah M.; Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Schwebel, David C.; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Shaahmadi, Faramarz; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shin, Jae Il; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Soheili, Amin; Stokes, Mark A.; Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Tarigan, Ingan Ukur; Temsah, Mohamad-Hani; Tesfay, Berhe Etsay; Valdez, Pascual R.; Veisani, Yousef; Ye, Pengpeng; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yu, Chuanhua; Yusefzadeh, Hasan; Bin Zaman, Sojib; Zhang, Zhi-Jiang; James, Spencer L. (2020)
    Background Drowning is a leading cause of injury-related mortality globally. Unintentional drowning (International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10 codes W65-74 and ICD9 E910) is one of the 30 mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive causes of injury-related mortality in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. This study's objective is to describe unintentional drowning using GBD estimates from 1990 to 2017. Methods Unintentional drowning from GBD 2017 was estimated for cause-specific mortality and years of life lost (YLLs), age, sex, country, region, Socio-demographic Index (SDI) quintile, and trends from 1990 to 2017. GBD 2017 used standard GBD methods for estimating mortality from drowning. Results Globally, unintentional drowning mortality decreased by 44.5% between 1990 and 2017, from 531 956 (uncertainty interval (UI): 484 107 to 572 854) to 295 210 (284 493 to 306 187) deaths. Global age-standardised mortality rates decreased 57.4%, from 9.3 (8.5 to 10.0) in 1990 to 4.0 (3.8 to 4.1) per 100 000 per annum in 2017. Unintentional drowning-associated mortality was generally higher in children, males and in low-SDI to middle-SDI countries. China, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh accounted for 51.2% of all drowning deaths in 2017. Oceania was the region with the highest rate of age-standardised YLLs in 2017, with 45 434 (40 850 to 50 539) YLLs per 100 000 across both sexes. Conclusions There has been a decline in global drowning rates. This study shows that the decline was not consistent across countries. The results reinforce the need for continued and improved policy, prevention and research efforts, with a focus on low- and middle-income countries.
  • Eriksson, Veronica (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Migraine was ranked as the second largest cause of disability in 2016 in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. People with migraine have a greater disability and a lower health-related quality of life than those of the general population. Many migraine patients experience functional and emotional impairment due to their disease. Migraine can limit their daily activities and impact their private, professional and social life. Migraine affects the patient also in between the attacks and can impact their education, career and their family and loved ones. Comorbid diseases and failed treatment lines add to the burden of migraine. Furthermore, migraine also imposes an economic burden. Stigma is described as the hidden burden of disease. Chronic migraine patients have been found to have higher stigma than episodic migraine patients. Even though migraine is one of the most common disabling headache disorders, it is still both under-recognised, under-diagnosed and under-treated. The objectives of this study were to determine the extent of the burden and the stigma of migraine in adult Finnish migraine patients. This study aimed to produce comprehensive and current information about migraine and its severity in Finland, highlighting the burden it poses on the migraine patients as well as on society. Migraine is most prevalent among the working aged population, which increases the societal burden of the disease. This study was conducted as a cross-sectional electronic survey amongst adult Finnish migraine patients. The participants were contacted through the Finnish Migraine Patient Advocacy Group. The questionnaire consisted of the already existing and validated Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) Questionnaire and of measures developed by the author. The final data consisted of 608 responses. Of all respondents with 8 or more headache days a month, over 90% were categorised in the severe disability group (MIDAS grade IV), thus having similar disability to those with 15 or more headache days a month (i.e. respondents with probable chronic migraine). The proportion of respondents with severe disability (MIDAS grade IV) was greater in the present study (65.0%) than in a study conducted in Finland in 2000 (47%), indicating that migraine disability in Finland might have become more severe during the past two decades. The mean level of headache pain in the present study was 6.2 (on a scale of 0-10) and pain was the aspect that most respondents viewed as the worst aspect of migraine. This highlights the importance of proper pain management in migraine care. Many of the respondents were also at risk for medication overuse, which highlights the importance of monitoring medication use and informing the patients about possible risks. Stress was reported as the most common migraine trigger, and reducing stress at the workplace was also reported as the most important way of how migraine could better be managed at the workplace. Almost half (44.4%) of all respondents felt stigmatised due to their migraine. Reasons for this stigma and suggested solutions on how to reduce/manage the stigma were quite similar. The ignorance of others was the most reported reason for their migraine stigma, and increasing awareness and correct information about migraine was the most reported way of reducing the stigma. Many of the respondents had faced, due to their migraine, belittlement at work, from family and friend and from healthcare professionals. Facing belittlement from healthcare professionals was reported to have happened often by 11.5% and sometimes by 34.7% of all respondents. Of all respondents, 55.6% worried often and 29.8% worried sometimes about the onset of the next migraine attack. The majority of the respondents had severe disability based on their MIDAS grades. Many other aspect of the burden were reported as well, inculding stigma, reported by almost half of the respondents. Further and future studies need to be conducted to get an even better understanding of the burden and stigma of migraine experienced by adult Finnish migraine patients. This includes further and more intricate quantitative and qualitative analyses of the data from this study, as´well as studies with new perspectives based on the results found in this study.