Browsing by Subject "burnout"

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  • Nurttila, Suvi (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Aims. There are two main frameworks to approach disengagement in studying: educational psychology and occupational psychology. Both frameworks have gathered analogous results on the problems in studying and their risks for low success, drop out and ill-being. However, there is no research on the hypothesis that these frameworks investigate same phenomena with different concepts. Thus, the main aim of this study was to construct a measurement model by combining two inventories: firstly, MED NORD (Medical Education in Nordic countries) from educational psychology framework measuring lack of interest and lack of regulation, and secondly, SBI (School Burnout Inventory) from occupational psychology framework measuring exhaustion, cynicism and inadequacy. Hypothesis was that a three-dimensional Study Problem Model (SPM) could be constructed, consisting of Lack of relevance combining MED NORD lack of interest and SBI cynicism, Lack of energy including SBI exhaustion and Lack of efficacy combining MED NORD lack of regulation and SBI inadequacy. To further validate the model, its' relations to academic success were investigated. Method. The participants (n=1254) were higher education students from Helsinki area (mean age 23.78, 65.1 % female, 94.4 % first or second year students). The data were collected by questionnaire as a part of Mind the Gap research project, and achievement data (ECTS and GPA per year) for 1064 of the participants were gathered from the universities' archives. To find the latent structure of problems in studying and to cross- validate the results, EFA and CFA were used on two different randomly divided subsamples (for both, n=627), and based on these results the SPM was constructed. After this SEM was used on the whole data to look at the relationships between the SPM and academic achievement. Results and conclusions. The results suggested that a three-factor model would fit the data best, and the three dimensions of SPM emerged as follows: 1) Lack of relevance as hypothesized, 2) Lack of energy as hypothesized and 3) Lack of regulation consisting of MED NORD lack of regulation. The SBI inadequacy items were leaved out of the model as they didn't load coherently on any of the dimensions. SEM results showed, as hypothesized, both Lack of relevance and Lack of regulation to be related lower achievement, whereas lack of energy was related to higher achievement. The strongest association was between Lack of relevance and ECTS. Altogether, the relations of SPM were stronger for ECTS than GPA. SPM supports both frameworks' views on study disengagement/burnout, capturing the experiences of meaninglessness, exhaustion and lack of adequate studying skills. The different consequences of the SPM dimensions on achievement reflect their compositions: Lack of relevance being related the strongest to slower proceeding of studies, Lack of regulation being related the strongest to poor grades and Lack of energy being, rather interestingly, related to higher achievement. In future research, especially the last-mentioned should be looked at more precisely, as the association could be caused by for example reverse causality or the fact that lack of energy indicates commitment rather than disengagement. The results could be utilized for designing ways to promote efficient studying and student well-being.
  • Järvinen, Jenny (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Teacher burnout has negative consequences on an individual, transactional and organizational levels between teachers and pupils. Compared to other fields, the educational field experiences higher levels of burnout. Previous studies indicate that burnout is connected to turnover, withdrawal, pupils’ motivation, and problems in the working community in addition to the individual’s health. The burnout symptoms have been found to differ in gender, career phase, academic level, socio- economic level of the neighborhood and organization size. Previous research has found that burnout crossover happens from an individual to another across the teacher community. The buffering and exposing attributes concerning the crossover of teacher burnout have been studied rather little. The aim of this research is to discover which individual, transactional and organizational attributes could potentially buffer or expose to the crossover of burnout. Research data was gathered as a part of a wider, national research project called School Matters by the members of the Learning and Development in School research group (Pietarinen, Pyhältö & Soini, 2017). The participants were selected from six different areas. Altogether 1531 teachers from primary, secondary and combined schools completed the questionnaire. The teachers were divided into groups based on their gender, academic level, the level of socio-economic status (SES) of the school neighborhood, career phase and school size. Individual, transactional and organizational factors’ connection to the burnout symptoms were examined through correlations, t-test and One-way analysis of variance. Results indicate that on average the teachers are doing quite well and experience quite moderate levels of burnout. Even so, quite many of them reported higher and lower levels of the symptoms. The symptoms correlate positively with each other. Based on the research findings it can be suggested that individual attributes, including male gender and higher number of years in the profession, buffer from the crossover of burnout. In addition, the higher socio-economic status (SES) of the school neighborhood – a transactional attribute – and smaller school size – an organizational attribute – also act as buffers. On the other hand, exposing attributes include the female gender, less years in the profession, lower socio-economic status of the school neighborhood and large school size. The result may be generalized to the Finnish teaching community as a whole because the research population was large and the geographical distribution of the population was comprehensive.
  • Helve, Oskari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    There has been increasing research attention on wellbeing of students in higher education both in Finland and internationally. Because of its goal-oriented nature, higher education resembles working in many ways. Thus, research on students´ wellbeing has started utilizing concepts derived from occupational research. Burnout and study engagement are concepts that are being used in research on both lower educational levels and higher education. Burnout describes feelings of exhaustion, cynicism and inadequacy experienced when demands of studying exceed available resources. Engagement on the other hand means feeling vigorous, dedicated and absorbed in studying and arises when demands and resources are better balanced. The goal of this thesis was to increase understanding of social resources that can guard against the negative effects of demands and foster engagement in higher education. It investigated how social support, guidance and counselling from the educational institution and sense of belonging to studying related groups are related to burnout and engagement experienced by students. The data for this study was the Finnish Student Health Service´s Student Health Survey from 2016, which is a representative sample of students in universities and universities of applied sciences in Finland (N=3110). Burnout symptoms were measured using the SBI-9 measure and engagement using the Schoolwork Engagement Scale. The total scores on these two scales were analyzed together with social support, guidance and counselling and sense of belonging to studying related groups. Pearson´s correlation coefficients were obtained to reveal the bivariate associations of these variables followed by two hierarchical regression analyses on burnout and engagement individually. All of the social resources were included as predictors in these models and the stage of studies, gender and feeling of being in the right field of study were controlled for as background variables. The results supported both hypotheses and existing literature. It was found that those students who were able to talk about their matters with someone, had received guidance to their studies and felt like they belong to studying related groups had lower levels of burnout symptoms. Similarly, students with sufficient social resources were more engaged in their studies. The results indicate that social resources are an important factor in wellbeing of higher education students. Future research should continue to further study these resources using more accurate measures incorporating different types of social support or different groups in the educational context.
  • Merikanto, Ilona; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Paunio, Tiina; Partonen, Timo (2022)
    Background: Circadian phenotype has a crucial role in determining wellbeing and health prospective. Evening-types have higher risk for sleep and mental health problems, which is also reflected in work wellbeing. However, there are no population-based studies examining the association of working ability and circadian typology at different working-age-groups. Also, the role of predisposing factors, ie, sleep-related differences between circadian types, has not been studied in relation to working ability among circadian types in a population-based sample. Methods: In this population-based sample of 13,114 working-age Finnish adults from 18 to 64 years of age, we examined the associations between circadian type, exhaustion and working ability and the roles of sleep-wake rhythm misalignment and insufficient sleep on these associations in 10-years-wide age-groups. Circadian type was assessed with the widely-used single item for selfassessed morningness/eveningness from the Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Results: Evening-types, especially definite evening-types, were more exhausted and had poorer working ability than morning-types. Higher exhaustion among evening-types was apparent in all working ages with a peak at ages 45 to 54 years. Poorer working ability in definite evening-types as compared to definite morning-types was found only at ages 35 to 54 years. Evening-types, especially definiteevening-types, had also more social jet lag and they reported more insufficient sleep than definite morning-types. More frequent insufficient sleep associated with poorer working ability and partly mediated the association between circadian type and working ability. Conclusion: Circadian phenotypes were found to differ in risk for exhaustion and in working ability, and this association was partly mediated by insufficient sleep. Our findings emphasize the importance to improve sleep especially among evening-types to ensure better work wellbeing.
  • Ketvel, Laila (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objective: Both stress-related exhaustion and depression have previously been associated with a decline in cognitive performance, but there is a lack of evidence on whether these conditions have different associations with different cognitive domains and whether they have additive effects on cognitive performance. Furthermore, very little is known about the cognitive effects of chronic stress-related exhaustion. Consequently, the aims of this study were to 1) examine the associations between current stress-related exhaustion and cognitive performance, 2) investigate whether different developmental trajectories of stress-related exhaustion are differently associated with cognitive performance, 3) compare the association between stress-related exhaustion and cognitive performance to the relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive performance, 4) examine if individuals with comorbid stress-related exhaustion and depression have lower cognitive performance than individuals with at most one of these conditions (i.e., whether clinical stress-related exhaustion and clinical depression might have additive effects on cognitive performance). Methods: The data used in the study was a Finnish population-based sample of six cohorts born between 1962 and 1977 from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Stress-related exhaustion was assessed using the Maastricht Questionnaire, depressive symptoms with the Beck Depression Inventory, and cognitive performance with four subtests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, measuring visuospatial associative learning, reaction time, sustained attention, and executive functions. Cognitive performance and depressive symptoms were assessed in 2012, and stress-related exhaustion in 2001, 2007, and 2012. Participants were 35 to 50 years old in 2012. Linear associations between stress-related exhaustion and cognitive performance (N = 905) and depressive symptoms and cognitive performance (N = 904) were examined by conducting multivariate regression analyses. Age, sex, socioeconomic status, and parents’ socioeconomic status were controlled in the regression models. Additionally, multivariate analyses of variance were performed to investigate the different developmental trajectories of stress-related exhaustion and their relation to cognitive performance (N = 541) and the associations of comorbid stress-related exhaustion and depression with cognitive performance (N = 1273). Results and conclusion: The main finding was that high stress-related exhaustion is associated with slower reaction times, but not with performance in spatial working memory, visuospatial associative learning, or executive functions. Ongoing, chronic stress-related exhaustion was more strongly associated with slower reaction times than short-term exhaustion experienced years ago. Compared to depressive symptoms, high stress-related exhaustion was associated with slower reaction times also when subclinical cases were included, whereas only clinical levels of depressive symptoms had an association with slower reaction times. There were no differences in cognitive performance between individuals with only stress-related exhaustion or depression and those with comorbid stress-related exhaustion and depression, which supports the notion that these conditions do not have additive effects on cognitive performance. These findings add to the existing evidence of the cognitive effects of stress-related exhaustion in the general population and have several practical implications. Further research is needed on the topic, preferably with longitudinal designs, more comprehensive cognitive measures, and clinical assessment of the psychiatric symptoms.
  • Myyry, Liisa; Karaharju-Suvanto, Terhi; Vesalainen, Marjo; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Raekallio, Marja; Salminen, Outi; Vuorensola, Katariina; Nevgi, Anne (2020)
    The aim of this study was to examine the emotions higher education teachers associate with assessment and the factors in their teaching environment that triggered these emotions. As a starting point, Frenzel's model of teacher emotions and Pekrun's control-value theory of achievement emotions were used. The sample consisted of 16 experienced and pedagogically advanced teachers who participated in semi-structured interviews. After abductive content analyses, both positive and negative emotions were detected corresponding to Frenzel's and Pekrun's models. The main sources of emotions were validity of assessment, assessment methods, pedagogical development and assessment culture. This preliminary study indicates that assessment evokes both positive and negative emotions, and that validity of assessment is a prominent issue in evoking these emotions. Pedagogical training should deal with emotions and their regulation in assessment to help teachers in higher education to cope with negative emotions.
  • Kanerva, Katja (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The aim of my research is to understand work engagement and it's construction in the hospitality field. A central target of my interest is to observe how well employees in hotel and restaurant business feel and which factors generate work engagement and which factors prevent it's development among the employees in the field. Work engagement is a dimension of work well-being. It increases the well-being of employees and their coping at work. The meaning of work well-being emphasizes before anything in the work of front line employees, where the working conditions are challenging and working hours are varying. Work engagement's study is about what makes one enjoy his/her work and feel well. It can be seen as the antipode of burnout. The research data is formed of 24 scientific studies of work engagement and/or burnout in the context of hotel and restaurant field. As my research method I have used the systematic literature review. My research findings pointed out that previous research has been more concentrated in the antecedents and the consequences of work engagement rather than analyzing how engaged to work employees are. Main resources that influence on the construction of work engagement were personal traits and characteristics of work or workplace all together. These resources reduce the load of work related requirements and generate work engagement. Organizations need to invest into the work well-being of their employees by adding the supply and availability of resources. Although superiors can influence more on the characteristics of work and workplace they should not forget the personal traits of employees. It is important that superiors are aware of the factors relating to work engagement to be able to support these factors if possible.
  • Tuovinen, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the social engagement scale among students at Finnish comprehensive schools. Another aim was to examine the interaction effect of social engagement and introversion on self-esteem, schoolwork engagement and burnout. The purpose of this was to understand how introverts with higher social engagement perform in terms of their self-esteem, schoolwork engagement and burnout in comparison to introverts with lower social engagement. The theory of this study focused on social engagement, which has been suggested the fourth dimension of school engagement. Social interactions help students’ learning, and enhance critical thinking and problem solving. Introversion was selected for this study as introverts are usually stereotypically seen as unsocial and unwilling to work with other people. The data for this study were collected through questionnaires of the Mind the Gap Research Group of the University of Helsinki in 2013–2016. Sample size was 862 students. The analytical methods were confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and hierarchical multiple regression. The results indicated that a two-factor model best fit the social engagement scale. These two dimensions were named the social engagement approach and social engagement avoidance. When examining self-esteem, the interactions between the social engagement approach and introversion were significant. This suggests that introverts with high social engagement have higher self-esteem than introverts with low social engagement. Interaction terms for the social engagement approach and social engagement in terms of schoolwork engagement and burnout were not found.
  • Hintsa, Taina; Elovainio, Marko; Jokela, Markus; Ahola, Kirsi; Virtanen, Marianna; Pirkola, Sami (2016)
    Burnout has been suggested to be related to depression. We examined the relationship between burnout and allostatic load, and whether this association is independent of psychological distress and depression. We measured burnout psychological distress, depression, and allostatic load in 3283 participants. Higher burnout (=0.06, p=0.003) and cynicism (=0.03, p=0.031) and decreased professional efficacy (=0.03, p=0.007) were related to higher allostatic load independent of age, sex, education, occupation and psychological distress. Depression, however, explained 60percent of the association. Burnout is related to higher allostatic load, and this association partly overlaps with co-occurring depression.
  • Hirvonen, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract The aim of this thesis is to study high school students´ experiences with school dog activity, its effects on their well-being and burnout prevention. The focus of this study is the students' views of dog assisted pedagogy. The theoretical part of the thesis addresses both animal assisted and dog-assisted activity. The definition of well being and how it is emphasized in the national curriculum of Finnish high schools are also covered in this section. We end the theoretical part by defining the term burnout and why is it considered an essential part of this study. This study is a case study and the material used in this study was gathered from one high school. Via skype meeting, five high school students were interviewed about their experiences of school dog activity.The results were analyzed based on the theoretical frame of the study and also based on content oriented analysis. School dogs have a clear connection to students' well-being and their strengths during burnout. The school dog activity received positive feedback from all interviewed students. According to the interviewees, school dogs helped them cope with burnout. Burnout was said to include social, physical and mental aspects. The interviewed students told that school dogs gave them support when they found themselves on the verge of a burnout. Dogs had a calming effect on students during burnout and they also raised positive feelings among students. School dogs were seen as an essential part of students' well-being. Working with school dogs reduced anxiety and evoked feelings of pleasure. School dogs also helped the students meet new people and interact with each other. According to the students, dogs had a calming effect on them and they also reduced stress- and anxiety-related symptoms. School dogs were shown to have many beneficial roles. For example, dogs were seen as friends, listeners and also therapists. Having a school dog around during break was shown to evoke positive feelings in students. The attitudes towards school dog activity were also positive among students' families. The interviewed students saw many future opportunities for the school dog activity and gave a lot of ideas on how to expand it. All the students considered the school dog activity as a success in their school.
  • Söderqvist, Katja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Previous research has suggested that job demands and resources are related to teacher’s wellbeing. The purpose of this master’s thesis is to find out how inclusion in classrooms is connected to classroom teacher’s work-related wellbeing. In this thesis it is tried to find out what kind of demands inclusion brings to teachers and what kind of resources teachers have. In addition the aim is to find out which factors are especially weakening techer’s wellbeing and how they affect it and which factors support teacher wellbeing. This thesis was carried out as qualitative research. The qualitative data was obtained through half-structured interviews. There were four interviewees and all of them worked in inclusive classrooms as classroom teachers. The data was analysed with content analysis. The job demands of inclusion and the resources the teachers have were categorized as institutional, classroom and personal demands and resources. The demands factors that weakened the teachers wellbeing especially were the feeling of insufficiency combined with a too challengin job. This consisted of too many students with special needs and too few resources, especially not enough adults in the classroom. In addition behavioral problems and excessive workload by paperwork as well as more multiprofessional cooperation and parent-teacher meetings were such factors. Resources and factors supporting teacher wellbeing included especially good school climate, support from colleagues. administration and parents, teamwork and simply enough appropriate resources. In addition, smaller groupsize was considered as a resource. Teachers’ weakened wellbeing demonstrated as e.g. sleeping problems, tearfulness, being tense, disengagement and as feelings of despair and anxiety. Classroom teachers felt that they were less excited about their work and felt their work motivation decreasing when their wellbeing was compromised. In conclusion, inclusion in classrooms may weaken teacher wellbeing if the resources and demands do not match.
  • Kovanen, Anna (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Introduction Young adulthood is an important stage of life. Health development and problems during young adulthood have impact on life later on (Koskinen, Kestilä, Martelin & Aromaa, 2005). Well- and ill-being during studying and working have been studied from the perspective of burnout and engagement. Burnout is defined as a studying- or work-related prolonged stress-disorder (Maslach, Schaufeli & Leiter, 2001; Salmela-Aro, 2009), while engagement is a positive, long-term affective-cognitive state (Schaufeli, Salanova, González-Romá & Bakker, 2002). According to the demands-resources -model, in studying and work, burnout leads to ill-being while engagement leads to well-being (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner & Schaufeli, 2001; Salmela-Aro & Upadyaya, 2014a; Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004). Apparently it has not been previously studied, whether it is possible to experience burnout and engagement in leisure-time like it is in studying and working. The main goal of this study was to identify burnout- and engagement groups using the person-centered approach (Bergman & Anderson, 2010) in studying or working young adults, who could differ in terms of background-, health- and welfare-factors. The secondary goal was to explore the structure of burnout and engagement in leisure-time of the same participants and also find out what kind of factors were involved. Methods This study is part of the Finnish Educational Transitions Studies (FinEdu) -longitudinal study, using the latest questionnaire material collected in 2013–2014. Only students and employees were included in the analyzed data (N=924, women=562, primary students=317, employees=607), their age varying from 24 to 29 years of age. Burnout and engagement groups in studying and work were identified through latent profile analysis. The structure of burnout and engagement in leisure-time was studied with explorative factor analysis. The acquired groups along with burnout and engagement in leisure-time were compared to different background-, health- and welfare-factors. Results The latent-profile-analysis identified three burnout- and engagement groups in studying and work. The engaged (56%) experienced engagement and minor burnout in their studies or work. They also had the best state of health and well-being. The burned-out (14%) experienced burnout in their studies or work and had low engagement. Their group also had the worst state of health and well-being. The disengaged (30%) reminded the burned-out, but did not have as low experience of engagement or as high burnout as the burned-out. The disengaged placed in between the engaged and the burned-out in terms of health and well-being. In leisure-time, both burnout- and engagement dimensions were distinguishable through explorative factor analysis. Burnout in leisure-time was connected to a worse state of health and lesser well-being, while engagement linked to better health and higher well-being. In addition, burnout and engagement in leisure-time was connected to the burnout- and engagement groups in studying and work. Discussion Young adults experience burnout and engagement in their studies, work and leisure time. According to this study, half of the students experience more engagement than burnout in their studies or work. Alarmingly, the other half experiences more burnout than engagement in their studies or work which is also linked to burnout and engagement experienced in leisure-time. Burnout and engagement are linked to many ill- and well-being factors, thus having a great impact on both the individual and the society. Therefore, it is important that the study of these phenomena is pursued.
  • Erkkilä, Emma-Helka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Faculty: Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences Degree programme: Master’s Programme in Neuroscience Study track: Neuroscience Author: Emma-Helka Erkkilä Title: The brain physiology of stress and the effects of burnout on executive functions Level: Master’s thesis Month and year: 08/2022 Number of pages: 35 Keywords: executive functions, emotion, cognition, stress, burnout Supervisor or supervisors: Docent Kaisa Hartikainen and Lic.Med. Mia Pihlaja Where deposited: Helsinki University Library Additional information: Abstract: BACKGROUND- Burnout as a result of prolonged and excessive stress may impair higher order cognitive functions of the brain such as executive functions and their efficiency. This Master's thesis examines the effects of chronic stress on the brain, more specifically the effects of burnout on executive functions. The aim of this study was to specifically research the effects of burnout on executive and emotional functions and their interaction. The research was conducted at the Behavioral Neurology Research Unit, Tampere University Hospital as part of Sustainable Brain Health project funded by the European Social Fund. MATERIAL AND METHODS- 54 voluntary examinees of whom 51 were analyzed. The examinees were divided into two groups based on BBI-15 survey (27 suffering from burnout and 24 control subjects without burnout). The examinees performed a computer-based Executive reaction time (RT) test, during which a 64-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. In additions all examinees received alternating transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) and placebo stimulation. From the Executive RT test, we obtained objective measures reflecting the efficiency of executive functions (RT and total errors) and specific executive functions such as working memory, inhibition and attention. Additionally, the emotional stimulus included in the test enabled the assessment of the emotional functions and the interaction between emotional and executive functions. The EEG and tVNS results were not in the scope of this master’s thesis, and they will be reported later on. RESULTS- The results of this thesis are preliminary. Distinct positive correlation was observed between burnout assessment based on the BBI-15 survey and the results of the BRIEF-A self-report which measures the subjective experience of challenges in executive functions in daily life. There was no statistically significant (p<0.05) difference between the groups in RTs or errors made in the Executive function RT test. Instead, the groups differed on how the threatening emotional stimulus affected the accuracy of responses. Subjects suffering from burnout made less errors with a threatening emotional stimulus compared to a neutral stimulus and vice versa the control subjects made more errors with the threatening emotional stimulus compared to neutral. This difference was statistically significant (p=0,025). DISCUSSION- Challenges experienced in everyday executive functions were linked with burnout. However, RTs and errors in the Executive reaction time test did not correlate with the severity of the burnout nor were the self-evaluated problems in executive functions depicted in the test performance. Instead, the subjects suffering from burnout differed from the control group in how the threatening stimulus affected the accuracy of responses in the test. It is possible that the subjects suffering from burnout benefit from the increase in arousal caused by the threatening emotional stimulus which was shown as improved accuracy of responses when there was a threatening stimulus, whereas the control group's accuracy of responses was disrupted by the threatening stimulus. We speculate that if the control group’s baseline level of arousal was optimal then the threatening emotional stimulus may have increased arousal to suboptimal level causing decrease in performance. Subjectively experienced challenges in executive functions and objective changes in the interaction between emotions and the executive functions were observed in the study. In conclusion, burnout causes changes in executive functions.
  • Tikkanen, Lotta; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Bujacz, Aleksandra; Nieminen, Juha (2021)
    This study focused on exploring individual variations in doctoral candidates' well-being, in terms of experienced research engagement and burnout by using a person-centered approach. In addition, the associations between well-being profiles and gender, country of origin, study status (full-time or part-time), research group status and drop-out intentions were explored. The participants were 692 PhD candidates in the field of medicine. Latent profile analysis was employed to identify the well-being profiles. Four distinct profiles were identified: high engagement-low burnout, high engagement-moderate burnout, moderate engagement-moderate burnout, and moderate engagement-high burnout. Working in a clinical unit or hospital and working in a research group seemed to be related to increased engagement and reduced risk for suffering burnout, while the intentions to quit one's doctoral studies were more frequently reported in profiles with moderate levels of engagement. The findings imply that although a significant number of PhD candidates in medicine had an increased risk for developing burnout, for most of the PhD candidates research education is an engaging experience.
  • Cao, Yanling; Postareff, Liisa; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari; Toom, Auli (2018)
    Teacher educators' approaches to teaching, and their experience of burnout and self-efficacy beliefs, are related to how they are able to facilitate student teachers' learning. In this study, 115 Chinese teacher educators responded to a questionnaire in 2015. Based on the previous study investigating the teacher educators' approaches to teaching, the present study explored how these approaches were related to their self-efficacy beliefs in teaching and burnout. Burnout was measured through inadequacy in teacher-student interaction and exhaustion subscales. The analyses revealed that a student-focused approach to teaching among teacher educators was positively related to their self-efficacy beliefs in teaching. Both student- and teacher-focused approaches to teaching were positively related to the educators' experience of inadequacy in teacher-student interaction. However, the study revealed no relationship between teacher educators' approaches to teaching and the experience of exhaustion. To prevent feelings of inadequate interaction with their students, pedagogical training should provide these teacher educators with efficient guidance on how to interact with student teachers. The present study provides new insights in the teacher educators' adoption of the student- and teacher-focused approaches to teaching.
  • Penttinen, Markus A.; Virtanen, Jenni; Laaksonen, Marika; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Kautiainen, Hannu; Korhonen, Päivi (2021)
    Background: Burnout is an undesirable mental condition, which may have a negative impact on individuals' health and work ability. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between diet and burnout symptoms among female public sector employees. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 among 630 female employees from 10 municipal work units of the city of Pori, Finland. Burnout symptoms were assessed with the Bergen Burnout Indicator (BBI). The consumption of food items was determined using the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The main food groups were categorized into healthy and unhealthy foods based on the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations for a healthy and balanced diet. Results: In multivariate linear regression analysis, consumption of healthy food items had an inverse relationship with the severity of burnout symptoms independently of age, education years, physical activity, and depressive symptoms. De-tailed analysis revealed that subjects with lower BBI score consumed more often low-fat dairy produce, vegetables, fruit and berries, vegetable food, and white meat. Conclusions: Frequent consumption of healthy food items is associated with low level of burnout symptoms. Our results emphasize the importance of diverse and balanced healthy diet to promote work well-being.
  • Oksa, Reetta; Saari, Tiina; Kaakinen, Markus Aarno Ilmari; Oksanen, Atte (2021)
    Working life has digitalized considerably in recent decades and organizations have taken into use new forms of collaborative technologies such as social media platforms. This study examined the relationship between social media use at work and well-being at work for millennials and members of former generations in Finland. The research data contained focus group interviews (N = 52), an expert organization survey (N = 563), and a nationally representative survey (N = 1817). Well-being measures included technostress, burnout, psychological distress, and a set of background variables. Content analysis and linear regression models were used as analysis methods. The results showed that millennials have various intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for social media use at work. Intrinsic motivations included employees' personal choice and their pure interest to follow the market and discussions in their own field. Extrinsic motivations were related mainly to organizations' work culture and personal branding. The survey findings revealed, however, that millennials were not only more active social media users for work, but they also experienced higher technostress and burnout than members of former generations. Social media use motivations were associated with both higher and lower technostress and burnout depending on motivation, indicating that social media use can have both positive and negative effects. Overall, our findings suggest that employees tend to utilize social media more if their needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness are fulfilled.
  • Hakanen, Jari (2005)
    Työ ja ihminen. Tutkimusraportti ; 27
    This thesis investigated work-related well-being from seven rarely studied angles, e.g., the role of negative life events and pre-employment resource losses, and work engagement were explored. The data sets were a three-wave 35-year follow-up questionnaire data (N = 532), a questionnaire data based on the staff of a large educational organization (N = 3365), and qualitative interviews of the 22 most burned out participants in the 35-year prospective study. The main results of the study were: 1) Adverse socio-economic and individual conditions in childhood were negatively associated with educational achievements, which in turn exposed to jobs with less resources, and hence, led to burnout symptoms and furthermore to poor health and increased intentions of early retirement. 2) The instability of the work career during 13 years of follow-up was positively associated with burnout and negatively with life satisfaction. 3) The role of negative life events, family-to-work conflict and personality factors (strong sense of responsibility and sense of coherence) in the burnout process was small compared with the role of working conditions and work-to-family conflict. 4) however, work and non-work stressors, as well as work and personality factors had some joint effects on burnout and life satisfaction. 5) Burnout could be interpreted in accordance with Hobfoll's conservation of resources (COR) theory as a loss spiral of resources, while at the same time the qualitative data analysis made it possible to refine some of the general assumptions of the COR theory. Strong initial motivation or enthusiasm seemed to be a prerequisite for burnout only in the case of some of the interviewed employees. 6) CFA confirmed the factorial validity of the Finnish version of the UWES. Work engagement was positively related to health, work ability, and job satisfaction, and negatively to intentions of quitting one's job and early retirement. Women, those with fixed-term work contracts, those with less than 5 years or more than 30 years' tenure in the present job, as well as those with long working hours, were more engaged than their counterparts. 7) the hypothesized Job Demands - Resources model was partly supported.
  • Wiik, Marina (2008)
    Utbrändhet är ett allmänt fenomen i dagens yrkesliv. Tillståndet utvecklas ur kontinuerlig stress och kännetecknas av psykisk och fysisk utmattning, negativa attitydförändringar och raserat själförtroende. Brister i arbetets struktur eller arbetsmiljön bidrar ofta till uppkomsten av utbrändhet. Journalistyrket har inbyggda stressegenskaper och den journalistiska miljön har förändrats mycket under de senaste årtiondena. Syftet med denna avhandling är att genom en analytisk kartläggning ge en helhetsbild av utbrändhet hos journalister och i viss mån även hos övriga anställda med ett medierelaterat arbete i Svenskfinland. Empirin baserar sig på temaintervjuer med sju journalister som drabbats av utbrändhet samt på en enkätundersökning som besvarades av 110 svenskspråkiga medlemmar i Finlands Journalistförbund. Avhandlingen bygger i hög grad på allmän litteratur om utbrändhet. Resultaten har även jämförts med tidigare forskning om journalisters utbrändhet. I den kvalitativa delen ligger fokus på hur utbrändhet uppstår och vilka orsakssammanhang som framstår i människors sätt att berätta om sina egna erfarenheter av burnout. Genom kvantitativa metoder har den tidigare uppnådda kunskapen fått mera bredd och kunnat sättas in i ett större sammanhang. Detta har motiverat generella uttalanden om syndromet och dess förekomst vid finlandssvenska medier. Avhandlingen vill bryta tabun om utbrändhet och göra arbetsgivare och -tagare i mediebranschen uppmärksamma på problemet. Enligt forskningsresultaten är utbrändhet ett tämligen vanligt problem på finlandssvenska redaktioner. Intervjustudien från 2005 tyder ändå på att utbrändhet sällan tas upp till diskussion. I enkätundersökningen från 2007 uppger närapå 30 procent av respondenterna att utbrändhet har diskuterats officiellt på någon redaktion där de har jobbat och ännu oftare inofficiellt. En majoritet av enkätsvaren gällande orsakerna till utbrändhet sammanhängde med arbetets organisering eller arbetets villkor. Stress och överbelastning var den vanligaste enskilda utlösaren av utbrändhet. Speciellt intervjusvaren tyder på att arbetsbördan i sig inte alltid är avgörande, utan har samband med en minskad trygghetskänsla. Enligt respondenterna har chefen huvudansvaret för personalens välbefinnande på arbetsplatsen. För att minska risken för utbrändhet hos arbetstagare, borde redaktioner ha en stresshanteringsplan – något som de flesta tycks sakna. Utmattning i arbetslivet skall i första hand inte bekämpas genom att man fokuserar på sjukdomens följder utan genom att orsakerna till tillståndet utreds och elimineras.
  • Fager, Henna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Uupumuksesta puhuminen on yleistynyt, mutta aiheeseen liittyy edelleen hiljaisia kohtia. Uupumisen yleisyys jää edelleen arvailujen varaan. Yleisyydestä ei ole tutkimusta ja lukuja on vaikea saada diagnoosien perusteella, sillä uupumus ei itsessään ole sairaus vaan ”terveydentilaan vaikuttava tekijä”, joka voi olla liitoksissa esimerkiksi masennukseen. Uupumuksesta puhuminen ja sen esittäminen tuottavat tietynlaista kuvaa uupumuksesta ja sen muotojen ilmenemisestä. Diagnostiikan kautta olisi mahdollista luoda legitiimi määritelmä uupumukselle, jolloin yhteiskunnallisesti todettaisiin uupumuksen olemassaolo. Arkikielessä ja mediassa muodostetaan tietynlaista narratiivia ja puhetapaa uupumuksesta. Puhetavoilla ja sanoilla luodaan suhtautumistapoja, hyväksyttäviä ilmaisumuotoja, ja niiden vakiintuminen määrittää, miten uupumuksesta puhutaan ja mitä siitä voi puhua. Kulttuurin asettamat määritelmät voivatkin muodostaa erilaiset mielenterveyden kokemukset hyvinkin raskaiksi. Uupumuksen kokemukset koetaan epäsovinnaisiksi ja yksilön epäonnistumisiksi. Haastateltavat kuvasivatkin sitä ihannetta, joiden mukaan kokivat toimivansa, sekä sitä, mikä tätä kuvaa tuottaa. Ihanneyksilön kuva ja toimintatavat opitaan mm. kasvatuksen, julkisen keskustelun ja erilaisten kuvien kautta. Tämä ei tapahdu pelkästään yksilön mielessä, vaan myös kollektiivisten merkityksien luomisessa ja toisintamisessa. Uupumuksen oireet ovat lomittaisia ja mystisiä. Kaikkia ei osata selittää tai liitetä alkuun uupumuksen oireiksi. Uupumus vaikuttaa näkökulmiin kehosta ja mielestä. Keho ja mieli onkin mahdollista nähdä monella eri tavalla ja tasolla kulttuurillisen kontekstin mukaan. Uupumuksen tuntemukset ovat pitkälti myös aistikokemuksia, ja erilaiset tavat hahmottaa maailma ja luokitella tuntemuksia vaikuttavat siihen, kuinka yksilö kokee ympäristönsä, kehonsa ja mielensä.