Browsing by Subject "candidate genes"

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  • de Jong, M. A.; Saastamoinen, Marjo (2018)
    Thermal tolerance has a major effect on individual fitness and species distributions and can be determined by genetic variation and phenotypic plasticity. We investigate the effects of developmental and adult thermal conditions on cold tolerance, measured as chill coma recovery (CCR) time, during the early and late adult stage in the Glanville fritillary butterfly. We also investigate the genetic basis of cold tolerance by associating CCR variation with polymorphisms in candidate genes that have a known role in insect physiology. Our results demonstrate that a cooler developmental temperature leads to reduced cold tolerance in the early adult stage, whereas cooler conditions during the adult stage lead to increased cold tolerance. This suggests that adult acclimation, but not developmental plasticity, of adult cold tolerance is adaptive. This could be explained by the ecological conditions the Glanville fritillary experiences in the field, where temperature during early summer, but not spring, is predictive of thermal conditions during the butterfly's flight season. In addition, an amino acid polymorphism (Ala-Glu) in the gene flightin, which has a known function in insect flight and locomotion, was associated with CCR. These amino acids have distinct biochemical properties and may thus affect protein function and/or structure. To our knowledge, our study is the first to link genetic variation in flightin to cold tolerance, or thermal adaptation in general.
  • Koskela, Elli (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is the most important berry crop cultivated in Finland. Due to the species' economic importance, there is a national breeding programme aimed at extending the cropping season from the current one month to up to three months. This could be achieved by growing cultivars which would initiate flowers throughout the summer months, without the requirement of a period of short days as is the case with currently grown cultivars. The cultivated strawberry is an octoploid and therefore has complex patterns of inheritance. It is desirable to study the genetic mechanisms of flowering in the closely related but diploid species F. vesca (L). In the diploid Fragaria, a mutation in a single locus, namely the SEASONAL FLOWERING LOCUS (Sfl), changes the flowering phenotype from seasonal to perpetual flowering. There is also an array of genetic tools available for F. vesca, which facilitate genetic studies at molecular level. Experiments described here aimed at elucidating the identity of the gene which confers perpetual flowering in F. vesca by exploring the flowering characteristics and genotypes of five F2 populations (crosses between seasonal × perpetual flowering cultivars). The study took advantage of a genetic map for diploid Fragaria, publicly available EST and genomic Fragaria sequences and a recently developed BAC library. Sequence information was used for designing gene–specific primers for a host of flowering–related candidate genes, which were subsequently mapped on the diploid Fragaria genetic map. BAC library was screened with molecular markers supposedly located close to the Sfl, with the aim of positionally cloning the Sfl. Segregation of flowering phenotypes in the five F2 populations showed, that the Sfl indeed controls flowering in all the tested cultivars. A genetic map was constructed of the chromosome with the Sfl, and a positional cloning attempt was initiated with the closest flanking markers. 45 gene–specific primers pairs were designed for 21 flowering–related genes, and eight genes were successfully mapped on the diploid Fragaria map. One of the mapped genes, namely PRR7, located very close to the Sfl, and is a potential candidate for the gene that has evaded identification so far.
  • Baison, John; Vidalis, Amaryllis; Zhou, Linghua; Chen, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Zitong; Sillanpää, Mikko J.; Bernhardsson, Carolina; Scofield, Douglas; Forsberg, Nils; Grahn, Thomas; Olsson, Lars; Karlsson, Bo; Wu, Harry; Ingvarsson, Pär K.; Lundqvist, Sven-Olof; Niittylae, Totte; Garcia-Gil, M. Rosario (2019)
    Norway spruce is a boreal forest tree species of significant ecological and economic importance. Hence there is a strong imperative to dissect the genetics underlying important wood quality traits in the species. We performed a functional genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 17 wood traits in Norway spruce using 178 101 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) generated from exome genotyping of 517 mother trees. The wood traits were defined using functional modelling of wood properties across annual growth rings. We applied a Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO-based) association mapping method using a functional multilocus mapping approach that utilizes latent traits, with a stability selection probability method as the hypothesis testing approach to determine a significant quantitative trait locus. The analysis provided 52 significant SNPs from 39 candidate genes, including genes previously implicated in wood formation and tree growth in spruce and other species. Our study represents a multilocus GWAS for complex wood traits in Norway spruce. The results advance our understanding of the genetics influencing wood traits and identifies candidate genes for future functional studies.
  • de Vries, Boukje; Anttila, Verneri; Freilinger, Tobias; Wessman, Maija; Kaunisto, Mari A.; Kallela, Kaarlo Mikko; Artto, Ville; Vijfhuizen, Lisanne S.; Goebel, Hartmut; Dichgans, Martin; Kubisch, Christian; Ferrari, Michel D.; Palotie, Aarno; Terwindt, Gisela M.; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.; Int Headache Genetics Consortium (2016)
    BackgroundBefore the genome-wide association (GWA) era, many hypothesis-driven candidate gene association studies were performed that tested whether DNA variants in genes that had been selected based on prior knowledge about migraine pathophysiology were associated with migraine. Most studies involved small sample sets without robust replication, thereby making the risk of false-positive findings high. Genome-wide marker data of thousands of migraine patients and controls from the International Headache Genetics Consortium provide a unique opportunity to re-evaluate key findings from candidate gene association studies (and other non-GWA genetic studies) in a much larger data set. MethodsWe selected 21 genes from published candidate gene association studies and six additional genes from other non-GWA genetic studies in migraine. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes, as well as in the regions 500kb up- and downstream, were inspected in IHGC GWAS data from 5175 clinic-based migraine patients with and without aura and 13,972 controls. ResultsNone of the SNPs in or near the 27 genes, including the SNPs that were previously found to be associated with migraine, reached the Bonferroni-corrected significance threshold; neither when analyzing all migraine patients together, nor when analyzing the migraine with and without aura patients or males and females separately. ConclusionThe available migraine GWAS data provide no clear evidence for involvement of the previously reported most promising candidate genes in migraine.