Browsing by Subject "canine"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 24
  • Hitti-Malin, Rebekkah J.; Burmeister, Louise M.; Lingaas, Frode; Kaukonen, Maria; Pettinen, Inka; Lohi, Hannes; Sargan, David; Mellersh, Cathryn S. (2021)
    Canine progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) describes a group of hereditary diseases characterized by photoreceptor cell death in the retina, leading to visual impairment. Despite the identification of multiple PRA-causing variants, extensive heterogeneity of PRA is observed across and within dog breeds, with many still genetically unsolved. This study sought to elucidate the causal variant for a distinct form of PRA in the Shetland sheepdog, using a whole-genome sequencing approach. Filtering variants from a single PRA-affected Shetland sheepdog genome compared to 176 genomes of other breeds identified a single nucleotide variant in exon 11 of the Bardet-Biedl syndrome-2 gene (BBS2) (c.1222G > C; p.Ala408Pro). Genotyping 1386 canids of 155 dog breeds, 15 cross breeds and 8 wolves indicated the c.1222G > C variant was only segregated within Shetland sheepdogs. Out of 505 Shetland sheepdogs, seven were homozygous for the variant. Clinical history and photographs for three homozygotes indicated the presence of a novel phenotype. In addition to PRA, additional clinical features in homozygous dogs support the discovery of a novel syndromic PRA in the breed. The development and utilization of a diagnostic DNA test aim to prevent the mutation from becoming more prevalent in the breed.
  • Syrjä, Pernilla; Palviainen, Mari; Jokinen, Tarja; Kyöstilä, Kaisa; Lohi, Hannes; Roosje, Petra; Anderegg, Linda; Leeb, Tosso; Sukura, Antti; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa (2020)
    Lagotto Romagnolo breed dogs develop a progressive neurological disease with intracellular vacuolar storage when homozygous for a variant in the autophagy-related gene 4D (ATG4D). A lysosomal enzyme deficiency has not been proven in this disease, despite its overlapping morphology with lysosomal storage diseases. Instead, basal autophagy was altered in fibroblasts from affected dogs. The aim of this study was to clarify the origin of the limiting membrane of the accumulating vacuoles and determine whether altered basal autophagy affects the extracellular release of vesicles in cells from diseased dogs. When assessed by immunoelectron microscopy, the membrane of the cytoplasmic vacuoles in affected tissues contained ATG4D, markers for autolysosomes (microtubule-associated protein 1A/B light chain 3 and lysosome-associated membrane protein 2) and for recycling endosomes (transferrin receptor 2), indicating that the vacuoles are hybrid organelles between endocytic and autophagic pathways. Ultracentrifugation, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and mass spectrometry were used to analyze the vesicles released from cultured fibroblasts of affected and control dogs. The amount of extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from affected fibroblasts was significantly increased during basal conditions in comparison to controls. This difference disappeared during starvation. The basal EV proteome of affected cells was enriched with cytosolic, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondrial proteins. Heat shock proteins and chaperones, some of which are known substrates of basal autophagy, were identified among the proteins unique to EVs of affected cells. An increased release of extracellular vesicles may serve as a compensatory mechanism in disposal of intracellular proteins during dysfunctional basal autophagy in this spontaneous disease.
  • Heilmann, Romy M.; Guard, Melissa M.; Toresson, Linda; Unterer, Stefan; Grellet , Aurélien; Grützner, Niels; Suchodolski, J. S.; Steiner, Joerg (2021)
    Background: Fecal S100/calgranulin (S100A12 and calprotectin) concentrations are useful markers of gastrointestinal inflammation in dogs. In people, fecal S100/calgranulin concentrations are affected by age, obesity, diet and other lifestyle factors. Knowledge about the effects of such factors on fecal S100/calgranulin concentrations in dogs is currently scarce. Objective: To evaluate the association between several factors and fecal S100/calgranulin concentrations in a large cohort of healthy adult dogs. Methods: Single-spot fecal samples from 181 healthy pet dogs and data derived from a standard questionnaire served to evaluate the effect of age, sex, reproductive status, body weight and body condition, breed type and size, vaccination, endoparasite treatment, diet, environment and travel history on fecal S100/calgranulin concentrations and the fecal calgranulin ratio (fCalR). Results: Univariate analysis showed a significant association of reproductive status (in female dogs) and breed size with fecal S100A12, fecal calprotectin and fCalR. Breed type was linked to fecal S100A12 concentrations and fCalR; recent vaccination (particularly with a vaccine against canine parvovirus) to fCalR. In multivariate models, breed size was linked to fecal S100A12 and calprotectin concentrations, and recent vaccination affected S100A12 concentrations. Conclusions: Breed size, recent vaccination and reproductive status in female dogs can affect fecal S100/calgranulin concentrations, and these biomarkers should be interpreted in light of those confounding factors. The utility of reference intervals for fecal canine S100/calgranulin concentrations might be improved through stratification by sex/reproductive status and breed size. Fecal canine S100/calgranulin concentrations are not confounded by age, body condition, deworming, diet, environment or travel history.
  • Kaimio, Mirja L. M.; Lappalainen, Anu K.; Rahmani, Vahideh; Männikkö, Sofia; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi M. (2020)
    Otitis externa and otitis media are common in American Cocker Spaniels, however breed-specific aural CT descriptions are currently lacking. This prospective and retrospective, observational, analytical study aimed to describe quantitative CT characteristics of the horizontal ear canal and the tympanic bulla in American Cocker Spaniels versus similar-sized mesaticephalic dogs. We prospectively performed clinical examinations and aural CT scanning for 38 American Cocker Spaniels. Computed tomographic transverse area of the osseous horizontal ear canal (TA1), transverse area of the widest air-filled part of the cartilaginous horizontal ear canal (TA2), tympanic bulla volume, and tympanic bulla wall thickness were measured. The TA1 and TA2 measurements were compared with those of 23 retrospectively recruited, similar-sized mesaticephalic dogs that had undergone CT-scanning of the head for non-ear-related reasons. The TA1 and TA2 did not differ for healthy American Cocker Spaniels and mesaticephalic dogs. Severely affected American Cocker Spaniels had significantly smaller TA2 (P <.001). The intraclass correlation coefficient for intraobserver and interobserver repeatability was 0.972 and 0.983 for TA1 and 0.994 and 0.998 for TA2, respectively. Variation between individuals was subjectively noted in healthy and affected American Cocker Spaniels, but mean tympanic bulla volume was slightly smaller in relation to body weight, and the tympanic bulla wall was thicker than in previous reports for mesaticephalic dogs. The tympanic bulla wall appeared thicker rostro-ventrally than caudo-ventrally in 44% of the dogs. Our results imply that a relatively thick tympanic bulla wall may be a normal CT variation and should be interpreted cautiously in this breed.
  • Lehto, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Helsinki Chronic Pain Index (HCPI) is a validated clinical metrology instrument used to measure canine chronic pain. In pain assessment, it is recommended to use validated instruments, and behavioural changes provide the best basis for pain measurement. A measuring instrument is valid when it does what it is intended to do. Validation can be done using many different methods. The aim of this study was to investigate which items of the HCPI are still useful and psychometrically test a new structure of the HCPI (HCPI-E3) after four new questions had been added to the test. The data consisted of 1140 internet-based questionnaire responses from dog owners. The study dogs were divided into different groups based on their reported amount of pain symptoms, pain medications, and other treatments to relieve pain. Based on the comparison of different items, five possible structures of the new HCPI were developed and tested with different statistical methods. Based on the initial item comparison, the “vocalization” item was deleted from the HCPI. Overall, the “ease in” locomotion items showed better criterion validity than the “willingness to” items. Both of the “jumping” items performed excellent compared to the other locomotion item pairs, as well as the new structure containing both “jumping” items and only the “ease in” items from the other locomotion items. Thus, this structure was chosen to be the best candidate for the new structure of the HCPI. Jumping is an easily assessed activity, which does not occur too frequently, possibly making it easier to measure the dog’s willingness to do it compared to gait changes (walking, trotting, and galloping). The HCPI-E3 is a reliable tool for canine chronic pain measurement; however, future validation in the form of repeatability and reliability are still needed.
  • Hemida, Manal; Vuori, Kristiina A.; Moore, Robin; Anturaniemi, Johanna; Hielm-Björkman, Anna (2021)
    Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an idiopathic multifactorial disease in humans and dogs, usually assigned to the interactions between genes, gut microbiota, diet, environment, and the immune system. We aimed to investigate the modifiable early life exposures associated with IBD in dogs. Materials and Methods: The study data was extracted from the validated owner-reported DogRisk food frequency questionnaire. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study that tested 21 different early life dietary and environmental, demographic and genetic variables for their association with IBD or not, in adult dogs. A total of 7,015 dogs participated in this study. The study covered early life periods; prenatal, neonatal, early, and late postnatal periods. Two feeding patterns, a non-processed meat-based diet (NPMD) and an ultra-processed carbohydrate-based diet (UPCD) were studied. Data was analyzed using logistic regression analysis with a backward stepwise deletion. Results: From the final models we found that the NPMD during early and late postnatal periods were significantly associated with lower IBD risk later in life. The UPCD during the same periods was associated with a higher risk of IBD incidence. Also, the maternal diet during the neonatal period showed a non-significant trend of lower IBD risk in the offspring with the NPMD and a higher IBD risk with the UPCD. Additionally, the normal body weight of puppies during the first 6 months of age was associated with a lower risk of IBD in adulthood while, slim puppies associated significantly with IBD in adulthood. From the non-modifiable background variables, we identified the maternal history of IBD as the strongest risk factor for later incidence of IBD. Furthermore, male dogs were twice as likely to develop IBD as female dogs were. Conclusions: It is reassuring for owners to know that they themselves can have an impact on their dog's health. A high-fat, low-carbohydrate NPMD exposure during early life, and a normal body condition in puppyhood were significantly associated with less IBD in adult dogs. The opposite was true for UPCD exposure and abnormal body condition score in 6 month old puppies.
  • Tamminen, Tuire; Sahlin, Lena; Masironi-Malm, B.; Dahlbom, Merja; Katila, Terttu; Taponen, Juhani; Vapaavuori, Outi (2019)
    This study aimed to examine the etiology of canine dystocia by measuring the relative expression of oxytocin receptor (OXTR) mRNA and the concentration of serum progesterone, plasma PGF(2 alpha) metabolite (PGFM), and blood ionized calcium (iCa) near term and in dystocia. Altogether 58 bitches were included in this study, 41 of which underwent cesarean section (CS). The four CS groups were based on history: complete uterine inertia (CUI; n = 7), partial uterine inertia (PUI; n = 13), obstructive dystocia (OD; n = 10), and elective cesarean section (ECS; n = 11). An additional group of medically treated dystocia without CS (MD; n = 8) and a control group (C; n = 9) with normal parturition (without CS and medical treatment) were also formed. Blood samples were taken prior to CS or medical treatment. Progesterone concentrations were highest in the ECS and a significant difference (p <0.05) was observed between the ECS and the OD and between the ECS and the combined dystocia (CUI, PUI, OD, MD) groups (COMB). Highest concentrations of PGFM was observed in the C, the difference being significant (p <0.05) between the C and the ECS and between the C and the COMB group. The progesterone:PGFM ratio was significantly (p <0.05) higher in the ECS than in the C and the COMB group. No significant difference (p> 0.05) was observed in iCa concentrations between the groups. Relative OXTR mRNA expression was evaluated with real-time PCR from full-thickness uterine samples taken from the incision site during CS. The expression was highest in the ECS and the difference in expression was significant (p <0.05) between the ECS and the OD and between ECS and the combined dystocia (CUI, PUI, OD) groups (COMB2). The study supports previous reports of decreasing progesterone and increasing PGFM during prepartum luteolysis. Upregulation of OXTR occurs near term. In obstructive dystocia, a prolonged influence of oxytocin and uterine exhaustion may lead to downregulation of OXTR. Complete primary uterine inertia may have a different etiology as no clear decrease in OXTR was observed in CUI as in OD. It remains unclear if parturition ceases because of uterine inertia or if uterine inertia occurs because of ceased parturition and desensitization of receptors. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Ranki, Jenni (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    Zoonooseiksi sanotaan tauteja, jotka voivat tarttua ihmisen ja eläimen välillä. Koira voi tartuttaa ihmiseen useita eri tauteja monin eri tavoin. Suorassa koirakontaktissa zoonoosit voivat tarttua terveen tai vaurioituneen ihon ja limakalvojen läpi, hengitysteitse, eritteiden välityksellä ja purema- ja raapimahaavojen kautta. Epäsuorassa kontaktissa koiran ulosteiden, virtsan ja eritteiden kautta tarttuvia zoonooseja tunnetaan myös useita. Tässä työssä zoonoosikäsite on koiran kannalta ymmärretty poikkeuksellisen laajana, joten tähän on sisällytetty lukuisat parasiittizoonoosit, jotka vaativat tarttuakseen koirasta ihmiseen sen, että ihminen syö infektoituneen väli-isännän kuten esimerkiksi kalan, joka taas on voinut infektoitua koiran ulostettua veteen. Lisäksi koira voi toimia tärkeänä säilymönä useille niveljalkaisten puremien välityksellä tarttuville taudeille ja näin edistää näiden zoonoosien leviämistä ihmiseen. Suomessa esiintyy melko vähän zoonooseja, joiden tarttumisessa koiralla on merkitystä. Niistä merkittävimpiä ovat larva migrans ja Capnocytophaga-haavainfektiot. Puutiaisaivokuumeen ja borrelioosin levittämisessä ihmiseen koirilla voi olla merkitystä, koska ne voivat kuljettaa turkissaan infektoituneita irrallisia punkkeja, jotka voivat siirtyä ottamaan veriaterian ihmisestä, Tärkeäksi koiran levittämäksi zoonoosiksi voi nousta myös ekinokokkoosi, jonka ihminen voisi saada infektoituneen koiran ulosteesta tai turkista. Maailmanlaajuisesti tavataan kymmeniä erilaisia zoonooseja, joissa koira toimii jonkinlaisena välittäjänä. Matkailijat voivat saada tartuntoja matkakohteidensa koirista, joskus jopa syömällä koiria. Monet eksoottisemmat zoonoosit voivat tulla Suomeen tuontikoirien mukana, varsinkin jos ne ovat kadulta pelastettuja koiria. Tällaisia ovat muun muassa rabies, ekinokokkoosi ja leptospiroosi sekä ruskean koirapunkin levittämä pilkkukuume. Tässä työssä ei kuitenkaan ole selvitetty todennäköisyyksiä tai tapoja, joilla suomalainen koiranomistaja tai eläinlääkäri voisi työssä käsiteltyjä taudinaiheuttajia kohdata. Suurimman osan koiran välittämistä zoonooseista voi välttää noudattamalla käsihygieniaa ja elintarvikehygieniaa ja välttämällä koiran syljen pääsemistä ihovaurioihin. Myös koiran ruokinnassa tulisi huolehtia elintarvikehygieniasta. Punkinpuremien välttäminen vähentää useiden vektorivälitteisten zoonoosien mahdollisuutta. Immuunipuutteisille ihmisille koiran aiheuttamat riskit ovat suuremmat kuin terveelle ihmiselle, ja arkielämä terveenkin suomalaisen koiran kanssa voi sisältää riskejä
  • Markkola, Anne (Helsingfors universitet, 2001)
    Tutkimuksessa pyrittiin löytämään menetelmiä, joilla voitaisiin luotettavasti mitata koiran nivelrikon aiheuttamaa kroonista kipua ja arvioida kipuhoidon tarvetta. Tutkimukseen valittiin 41 koiraa, joilla oli diagnosoitu lonkkaniveldysplasiasta johtuva nivelrikko ja jotka omistajien mukaan kärsivät kroonisesta kivusta. Koirista otettiin verinäytteet, joista analysoitiin adrenaliinin, noradrenaliinin, β-endorfiinin, antidiureettisen hormonin ja kortisolin pitoisuudet. Kaksi riippumatonta eläinlääkäriä arvioi videolta koirien liikkumista. Koirien lonkat röntgenkuvattiin. Omistajat täyttivät kyselykaavakkeen koiransa käyttäytymisestä ja mielialasta sekä arvioivat koiransa kokemaa kipua ja liikkumisvaikeuksia visuaalisilla analogiasteikoilla (kipujana ja liikkumisjana). Verinäytteiden kontrolliryhmään valittiin 22 omistajien mukaan tervettä koiraa, joilla ei ollut minkäänlaisia kipuoireita. Kyselykaavakkeen ja visuaalisten analogiasteikoiden kontrolliryhmään valittiin 24 omistajien mukaan tervettä ja kivutonta koiraa. Eläinlääkäreiden ja omistajien arviot koirien liikkumisvaikeuksista korreloivat positiivisesti keskenään. Adrenaliinin, antidiureettisen hormonin ja kortisolin pitoisuudet plasmassa olivat korkeammat kroonisesta kivusta kärsivillä koirilla kuin kontrolliryhmän koirilla, kun taas β-endorfiinipitoisuudet olivat korkeammat kontrolliryhmän koirilla. Koirilla, joilla röntgenologisesti todettiin luupiikkimuodostusta tai irtopaloja lonkkanivelessä, oli omistajien arvioiden mukaan enemmän liikkumisvaikeuksia mutta ei kipuja kuin muilla tutkimukseen osallistuneilla koirilla. Yksittäisen koirapotilaan kroonisen kivun arvioimiseen ei tutkimuksessa löydetty luotettavaa hormonaalista tai röntgenologista muuttujaa. Tutkimuksen perusteella eläinlääkäri voi arvioida koiran kipua ainoastaan sen liikkumisen perusteella. Omistajan kertomuksella koiran käyttäytymisestä, mielialasta ja liikkumisesta on nivelrikkokivun arvioinnissa keskeinen rooli. Eläinlääkärin tulee tulkita omistajan kertomuksesta koiran kivusta kertovat seikat ja/tai opettaa omistaja tulkitsemaan koiransa kipuoireita.
  • Määttä, Merita; Laurila, Henna P.; Holopainen, Saila; Aaltonen, Kaisa; Lilja-Maula, Liisa; Viitanen, Sanna; Rajamaki, Minna M. (2021)
    Background Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF) is a chronic, interstitial lung disease that mainly affects West Highland white terriers (WHWTs) and is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the lung. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) participate in remodeling of ECM. Objectives To compare metalloproteinase-2, -7 and -9 activities in blood or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples or both of CIPF WHWTs with healthy WHWTs, healthy dogs of other breeds, and dogs with other lung diseases and determine if these MMPs could be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers for CIPF. Animals Forty-four CIPF WHWTs, 24 dogs with chronic bronchitis (CB), 17 with eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy (EBP), 10 with bacterial pneumonia, 39 healthy WHWTs, and 35 healthy dogs of other breeds. Methods Cross-sectional observational study. Pro-MMP and active MMP activities were analyzed by zymography. Results In serum, significantly higher (P <.01) pro-MMP-7 activities were observed in CIPF WHWTs compared to healthy dogs of other breeds, dogs with CB and dogs with EBP. In BALF of CIPF WHWTs, both pro-MMP-9 and pro-MMP-2 activities were significantly higher (P <.01) compared to healthy WHWTs, but these differences were not detected in plasma. The CIPF WHWTs had significantly higher (P <.05) activities of pro-MMP-9 compared to dogs with CB and of pro-MMP-2 compared to dogs with CB and EBP. No statistically significant prognostic factors were observed in CIPF WHWTs. Conclusions and clinical relevance Serum MMP-7 and BALF MMP-2 and -9 potentially may be useful diagnostic markers but not prognostic markers for CIPF.
  • Imbery, Carolin Anna; Dieterle, Frank; Ottka, Claudia; Weber, Corinna; Schlotterbeck, Götz; Müller, Elisabeth; Lohi, Hannes; Giger, Urs (2022)
    The adrenal glands play a major role in metabolic processes, and both excess and insufficient serum cortisol concentrations can lead to serious metabolic consequences. Hyper- and hypoadrenocorticism represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Serum samples from dogs with untreated hyperadrenocorticism (n = 27), hyperadrenocorticism undergoing treatment (n = 28), as well as with untreated (n = 35) and treated hypoadrenocorticism (n = 23) were analyzed and compared to apparently healthy dogs (n = 40). A validated targeted proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-1 NMR) platform was used to quantify 123 parameters. Principal component analysis separated the untreated endocrinopathies. The serum samples of dogs with untreated endocrinopathies showed various metabolic abnormalities with often contrasting results particularly in serum concentrations of fatty acids, and high- and low-density lipoproteins and their constituents, which were predominantly increased in hyperadrenocorticism and decreased in hypoadrenocorticism, while amino acid concentrations changed in various directions. Many observed serum metabolic abnormalities tended to normalize with medical treatment, but normalization was incomplete when compared to levels in apparently healthy dogs. Application of machine learning models based on the metabolomics data showed good classification, with misclassifications primarily observed in treated groups. Characterization of metabolic changes enhances our understanding of these endocrinopathies. Further assessment of the recognized incomplete reversal of metabolic alterations during medical treatment may improve disease management.
  • Somppi, Sanni; Törnqvist, Heini; Topal, Jozsef; Koskela, Aija; Hänninen, Laura; Krause, Christina M.; Vainio, Outi (2017)
    The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a critical role in social behavior and emotion regulation in mammals. The aim of this study was to explore how nasal oxytocin administration affects gazing behavior during emotional perception in domestic dogs. Looking patterns of dogs, as a measure of voluntary attention, were recorded during the viewing of human facial expression photographs. The pupil diameters of dogs were also measured as a physiological index of emotional arousal. In a placebo-controlled within-subjects experimental design, 43 dogs, after having received either oxytocin or placebo (saline) nasal spray treatment, were presented with pictures of unfamiliar male human faces displaying either a happy or an angry expression. We found that, depending on the facial expression, the dogs' gaze patterns were affected selectively by oxytocin treatment. After receiving oxytocin, dogs fixated less often on the eye regions of angry faces and revisited (glanced back at) more often the eye regions of smiling (happy) faces than after the placebo treatment. Furthermore, following the oxytocin treatment dogs fixated and revisited the eyes of happy faces significantly more often than the eyes of angry faces. The analysis of dogs' pupil diameters during viewing of human facial expressions indicated that oxytocin may also have a modulatory effect on dogs' emotional arousal. While subjects' pupil sizes were significantly larger when viewing angry faces than happy faces in the control (placebo treatment) condition, oxytocin treatment not only eliminated this effect but caused an opposite pupil response. Overall, these findings suggest that nasal oxytocin administration selectively changes the allocation of attention and emotional arousal in domestic dogs. Oxytocin has the potential to decrease vigilance toward threatening social stimuli and increase the salience of positive social stimuli thus making eye gaze of friendly human faces more salient for dogs. Our study provides further support for the role of the oxytocinergic system in the social perception abilities of domestic dogs. We propose that oxytocin modulates fundamental emotional processing in dogs through a mechanism that may facilitate communication between humans and dogs.
  • Viitanen, Sanna Johanna; Lappalainen, Anu Katriina; Koho, Ninna Maaria; Pessa-Morikawa, Tiina Inkeri; Ressel, Lorenzo; Rajamäki, Minna (2019)
    Background: Increased incidence of bacterial pneumonia (BP) has been reported in Irish Wolfhounds (IWHs), and recurrence of BP is common. The etiology of recurrent pneumonia in IWHs is largely unknown. Objectives: To describe clinical findings in IWHs with recurrent BP and investigate possible etiologies. Animals: Eleven affected IWHs, 25 healthy IWHs, 28 healthy dogs of other Sighthound breeds, and 16 healthy dogs of other breeds. Methods: Prospective cross-sectional observational study. All affected IWHs underwent thorough clinical examinations including thoracic radiographs, thoracic computed tomography, electron microscopic evaluation of ciliary structure, and bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytology and culture. Serum and BALF immunoglobulin concentrations were measured using an ELISA method, and peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations were analyzed using flow cytometry. Esophageal function was assessed by fluoroscopy (n = 2). Results: Median age of onset was 5.0 years (range, 0.4-6.5 years), and when presented for study, dogs had experienced a median of 5 previous episodes of BP (range, 2-6). The following predisposing factors to BP were detected: focal bronchiectasis (10/11), unilateral (2/9) and bilateral (1/9) laryngeal paralysis, and esophageal hypomotility (2/2). Local or systemic immunoglobulin deficiencies or primary ciliary defects were not detected. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Recurrent BP affects mostly middle-aged and older IWHs without any evident immune deficit or primary ciliary defects. Focal BE was a frequent finding in affected dogs and likely contributed to the development of recurrent respiratory infections. Laryngeal and esophageal dysfunction identified in a minority of dogs may contribute to recurrent BP.
  • Määttä, O. L. M.; Laurila, H. P.; Holopainen, S.; Lilja-Maula, L.; Melamies, M.; Viitanen, S. J.; Johnson, L. R.; Koho, N.; Neuvonen, M.; Niemi, M.; Rajamäki, M. M. (2018)
    Background: Gastroesophageal reflux and microaspiration (MA) of gastric juice are associated with various human respiratory diseases but not in dogs. Objective: To detect the presence of bile acids in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of dogs with various respiratory diseases. Animals: Twenty-seven West Highland White Terriers (WHWTs) with canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF), 11 dogs with bacterial pneumonia (BP), 13 with chronic bronchitis (CB), 9 with eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy (EBP), 19 with laryngeal dysfunction (LD), 8 Irish Wolfhounds (IWHs) with previous BPs, 13 healthy WHWTs, all privately owned dogs, and 6 healthy research colony Beagles Methods: Prospective cross-sectional observational study with convenience sampling of dogs. Bile acids were measured by mass spectrometry in BALF samples. Total bile acid (TBA) concentration was calculated as a sum of 17 different bile acids. Results: Concentrations of TBA were above the limit of quantification in 78% of CIPF, 45% of BP, 62% of CB, 44% of EBP, 68% of LD, and 13% of IWH dogs. In healthy dogs, bile acids were detected less commonly in Beagles (0/6) than in healthy WHWTs (10/13). Concentrations of TBA were significantly higher in CIPF (median 0.013 mu M, range not quantifiable [n.q.]-0.14 mu M, P <.001), healthy WHWTs (0.0052 mu M, n.q.-1.2 mu M, P = .003), LD (0.010 mu M, n.q.-2.3 mu M, P = .015), and CB (0.0078 mu M, n.q.-0.073 mu M, P = .018) groups compared to Beagles (0 mu M, n.q.). Conclusion and Clinical Importance: These results suggest that MA occurs in various respiratory diseases of dogs and also in healthy WHWTs.
  • Loukola, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Cancer is believed to emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which dogs may be able to smell. This literature review brings out previous studies about cancer detection dogs, observations made based on them and their future possibilities. There is also some information about training of the dogs, proper test settings and validating a diagnostic test. Detectable odour emissions from a patient with neoplasia, or “smell of cancer”, is an interesting topic, but it has a minor role in this work. Training of the dogs should be done with samples which disease status is confirmed so that the dogs are not rewarded for indicating wrong samples. The trainer must be able to read the dog’s signals and take care of its basic needs in order not to continue training after the dog’s concentration has deteriorated. Training should happen gradually and through positive reinforcement. There should be enough samples and they must not be the same in the testing phase as in training. In validating a diagnostic test, the main goal, materials and methods of the study must be defined and the test should be compared to a golden standard. The smell of cancer is yet unknown although there are studies of the topic. Particular VOCs, which presumably constitute the cancer smell, exist in the body’s secretions. Further studies are needed in order to understand what happens at a molecular level in cancer. There are many studies about cancer detection dogs where they try to discriminate a cancer sample among controls. In these studies, the number of dogs has varied between one to six, there are diverse breeds and dogs have different backgrounds. Good results have been achieved with only two to three weeks of training. Studies have been made of nine different cancer types and the most studied ones have been lung and prostate cancer. Urine and breath were the most common samples used. The sensitivity of cancer odour detecting dogs has varied between 18 to 100%. Previous studies have had different limitations, one of which can be considered having only one cancer sample with controls. This leads to that specificity cannot be held valid. There have been also some limitations in using dogs like short usage time because of their limited life, small number of dogs and wrong rewarding system. There should not be any systematic differences between control and cancer samples including the patient’s age and the handling procedures of samples in the study. Way of life and medications may also have an effect on the dog’s choice, but they were not taken into account in all of the studies. A small number of samples was a problem in some cases. Cancer detection dogs could possibly be used in recognizing the cancer smell, mass screenings, and surveillance after treatments, in addition to laboratory diagnostics and in the developing electronic diagnostic methods such as an artificial nose.
  • Walker, Hannah K.; Ottka, Claudia; Lohi, Hannes; Handel, Ian; Clements, Dylan N.; Gow, Adam G.; Mellanby, Richard J. (2022)
    Background Metabolic profiling identifies seasonal variance of serum metabolites in humans. Despite the presence of seasonal disease patterns, no studies have assessed whether serum metabolites vary seasonally in dogs. Hypothesis There is seasonal variation in the serum metabolite profiles of healthy dogs. Animals Eighteen healthy, client-owned dogs. Methods A prospective cohort study. Serum metabolomic profiles were assessed monthly in 18 healthy dogs over a 12-month period. Metabolic profiling was conducted using a canine-specific proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy platform, and the effects of seasonality were studied for 98 metabolites using a cosinor model. Seasonal component was calculated, which describes the seasonal variation of each metabolite. Results We found no evidence of seasonal variation in 93 of 98 metabolites. Six metabolites had statistically significant seasonal variance, including cholesterol (mean 249 mg/dL [6.47 mmol/L] with a seasonal component amplitude of 9 mg/dL [0.23 mmol/L]; 95% confidence interval [CI] 6-13 mg/dL [0.14-0.33 mmol/L], P < .008), with a peak concentration of 264 mg/dL (6.83 mmol/L) in June and trough concentration of 236 mg/dL (6.12 mmol/L) in December. In contrast, there was a significantly lower concentration of lactate (mean 20 mg/dL [2.27 mmol/L] with a seasonal component amplitude of 4 mg/dL [0.42 mmol/L]; 95% CI 2-6 mg/dL [0.22-0.62 mmol/L], P < .001) during the summer months compared to the winter months, with a peak concentration of 26 mg/dL (2.9 mmol/L) in February and trough concentration of 14 mg/dL (1.57 mmol/L) in July. Conclusions and Clinical Importance We found no clear evidence that seasonal reference ranges need to be established for serum metabolites of dogs.
  • Rinkinen, Minna; Koort, Joanna; Ouwehand, Arthur C.; Westermarck, Elias; Björkroth, Johanna (Elsevier, 2004)
    Canine intestinal lactic acid bacterium (LAB) population in four fistulated dogs was cultured and enumerated using MRS agar. LAB levels ranging from 1.4×106 to 1.5×107 CFU ml-1 were obtained in jejunal chyme. In the fecal samples 7.0×107 and 2.0×108 CFU g-1 were detected. Thirty randomly selected isolates growing in the highest sample dilutions were identified to species level using numerical analysis of 16 and 23 S rDNA RFLP patterns (ribotyping) and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. According to these results, Streptococcus alactolyticus was the dominant culturable LAB species in both faeces and jejunal chyme. In addition, Lactobacillus murinus and Lactobacillus reuteri were detected.
  • Mattila, Jan (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) deficiency is the leading cause of degenerative joint disease (DJD) in the canine stifle. The anatomy of the canine stifle is complex and the pathogenesis of CrCL rupture is not fully understood. Several competing theories on the pathogenesis and several techniques based on these theories have been presented mostly during the last 40 years. The main categories of techniques are intra-articular, extra-capsular and osteotomy, of which techniques of the two latter categories are still widely in use. The uncertainty about the pathogenesis and thus the correct technique of repair may be a reason for the multitude of proposed surgical techniques and the lack of preventive measures. This literature review attempts to cover the main surgical techniques from the three categories of techniques which are currently or have lately been in use and to determine if a preferred method exists. Approximately half of the literature is from 2000–2012 and half from 1926–2000. The literature encompasses both the original publications of each technique as well as studies on the outcomes and complications of follow-up studies using larger populations of patients. The reporting on the research regarding new surgical techniques is varied and the urge to perform surgery and not research is evident in the amount of surgical procedures reported before any peer-reviewed studies have been published. There are no meta-analyses of studies covering different techniques nor are there robust prospective double blinded placebo controlled studies on any of the alternative techniques. Most of the literature is case reports with some retrospective cohort or statistically insignificant prospective studies. Due to the non-uniform reporting, comparisons between techniques are more difficult. The literature does seem to favor TPLO, one of the oldest and the most researched technique, if the surgeon is able to invest the time and resources to acquiring the equipment and mastering the technique. If combined with the cTTA technique, a newer technique which uses some of the same equipment as the TPLO with very promising preliminary results, a surgeon could be well equipped to handle surgical treatment of CrCL deficiency.
  • Pekkin, Anne-Marie; Hänninen, Laura; Tiira, Katriina; Koskela, Aija; Pöytäkangas, Merja; Lohi, Hannes; Valros, Anna (2016)
    Fear of loud noises is a common welfare problem in pet dogs. Commercial treatment vests have been tested on dogs to relieve noise phobia, and peripheral oxytocin has been suggested to be one of the stress-relieving mediators. The effect of vests has not, however, been tested in a controlled situation. We tested whether individually customized vests, have an effect on behaviour of severely noise phobic dogs in a double-blinded experiment, where dogs are exposed to loud noises. We also investigated the possible effect of pressure by using two types of vests; a deep pressure vest (DEEP, c. 10–12 mmHg) and a light pressure vest (LIGHT, c. 2–3 mmHg). In addition to behaviour, we studied if the pressure vest has an effect on urine oxytocin level and on saliva cortisol levels. A total of 28 dogs (2-11 years), both female (18) and male (10), were recruited via an ongoing study on the genetic background of noise sensitivity by the Finnish Canine Genetic Research Group. Each dog was tested three times either without vest (CONTROL) or with DEEP or LIGHT vests in a semi-randomized order. The dogś behaviour was video recorded for 6 minutes, including three 2 minutes intervals: pre-noise, noise (70–73 dB firework sound) and recovery. Behavioural parameters included activity, body and tail postures, vocalization, and time spent near owner. Saliva samples were collected twice before and twice after the noise test. Urine samples for oxytocin analyses were collected when the deep pressure vest was first fitted: before dressing the dog and 30 min later. The DEEP vest reduced the lying time of the dogs during the noise interval. During the noise interval total lying time with any vest correlated positively with saliva cortisol, measured after noise interval, indicating that the increased lying time was a sign of a higher stress level in the dogs. Wearing either vests increased the time the dogs spent near their owners during noise interval. Time spent near the owner when wearing the DEEP vest during the recovery interval correlated positively with the urine oxytocin. These results indicate oxytocin might be related to the doǵs tendency to seek owner support and the vests might effect this behaviour positively. We did not find a clear therapeutic effect of using pressure vests in noise phobic dogs. However, our results indicate the pressure vest might reduce the acute stress reaction and speed up the recovery after stress.
  • Anturaniemi (o.s. Roine), Johanna; Zaldívar-López, Sara; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Elo, Kari; Hielm-Bjorkman, Anna (2020)
    Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) has a hereditary basis that is modified by interactions with the environment, including diet. Differentially expressed genes in non-lesional skin, determined by RNA sequencing before and after a dietary intervention, were compared between dogs with naturally occurring CAD (n = 4) and healthy dogs (n = 4). The dogs were fed either a common commercial heat-processed high carbohydrate food (kibble diet) (n = 4), or a non-processed high fat food (raw meat-based diet) (n = 4). At the end of the diet intervention, 149 differentially expressed transcripts were found between the atopic and healthy dogs. The main canonical pathways altered by the dysregulation of these genes were angiopoietin signaling, epidermal growth factor signaling, activation of angiogenesis, and alterations in keratinocyte proliferation and lipid metabolism. On the other hand, 33 differently expressed transcripts were found between the two diet groups, of which 8 encode genes that are annotated in the current version of the dog genome: immunoglobulin heavy constant mu (IGHM), immunoglobulin lambda-like polypeptide 5 (IGLL5), B-cell antigen receptor complex-associated protein beta chain (CD79B), polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (PIGR), cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS), argininosuccinate synthase 1 (ASS1), secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (SLPI), and mitochondrial ribosome recycling factor (MRRF). All genes were upregulated in the raw diet group. In conclusion the findings of this study suggest alterations in lipid and keratinocyte metabolism as well as angiogenesis in the skin of atopic dogs. Additionally, a possible enhancement of innate immunity and decrease in oxidative stress was seen in raw food fed dogs, which could have an important role in preventing hypersensitivities and disturbed immunity at young age.