Browsing by Subject "cannabis"

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  • Hämäläinen, Lasse; Lahti, Emmi (2021)
    Aims: In October 2019, a citizens' initiative to decriminalise cannabis use started a large debate about drug policy in Finland. This study examines online discussions about the initiative to supplement the current knowledge about citizens' drug opinions. The focus is especially on argumentation techniques that are used to support or object to the decriminalisation. Design: Methodologically, the study is based on discourse studies, new rhetoric, and argumentation analysis. The data of 1,092 messages were collected from a popular Finnish anonymous discussion forum Ylilauta. Results: Online discussions about the legal status of cannabis are highly polarised. Decriminalisation is often both supported and resisted in a strong and affective manner, and even hate speech is not rare in the data. Statements made by both discussion parties often lack any argumentation or are based on fallacies, especially ad hominem arguments. Some discussants refer to scientific studies and expert statements, even though such references are usually inaccurate. Cannabis is compared to alcohol more often than to other illegal drugs. Conclusions: The emotional responses and inadequate argumentation might be partially explained by the general nature of online discussions and the culture of the investigated website, but also by the powerful stigma related to illegal drugs and insufficient knowledge on the subject. A future objective is to create a societal atmosphere where the complex question of the legal status of cannabis could be discussed more neutrally and rationally.
  • Vaissiere, James; Thorp, Jackson G.; Ong, Jue-Sheng; Ortega-Alonzo, Alfredo; Derks, Eske M. (2020)
    There is a well-established relationship between cannabis use and psychosis, although the exact nature of this relationship is not fully understood. Recent studies have observed significant genetic overlap between a diagnosis of schizophrenia and lifetime cannabis use. Expanding on this work, the current study aimed to examine whether genetic overlap also occurs for subclinical psychosis (schizotypy) and cannabis use, as well as examining the phenotypic association between the traits. Phenotypic correlations were calculated for a variety of schizotypy and cannabis phenotypes in the UK Biobank (UKB), and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability estimates and genetic correlations were calculated for these UKB phenotypes as well as for several other variables taken from recent genomewide association studies. Positive phenotypic correlations were observed between 11 out of 12 pairs of the cannabis use and schizotypy phenotypes (correlation range .05-.18), indicating a robust association between increased symptoms of schizotypy and cannabis use. SNP-based heritability estimates for two schizotypy phenotypes remained significant after multiple testing correction:social anhedonia(h(SNP)(2)= .08,SE= .02,N= 4025) andever seen an unreal vision(h(SNP)(2)= .35,SE= .10,N= 150,717). Finally, one significant genetic correlation was observed between schizotypy and cannabis use, a negative correlation betweensocial anhedoniaandnumber of times used cannabis(r(g)= -.30,p= .012). The current study suggests the relationship between cannabis use and psychosis is also seen in subclinical symptoms of psychosis, but further research with larger samples is needed to determine the biological mechanisms underlying this association.
  • Johansson, Janet (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Godtagbara och rättvisa kriminaliseringar främjar respekt för det straffrättsliga systemet och samtidigt efterföljande av strafflagstiftningen. Därav följer att såväl gränser som legitimerande argument för varje kriminalisering måste kunna anföras i en rättsstat. Syftet för denna avhandling är att framföra och diskutera fungerande och etiskt godtagbara kvalitativa ramvillkor för strafflagstiftningen, samt pröva huruvida dessa kriminaliseringsprinciper beaktats vid kriminaliseringen av cannabisbruk. Avhandlingen diskuterar inledningsvis avgränsande och rättfärdigande av straffrätten på ett mer allmänt plan. Som lösning för dikotomin mellan moral och politik å ena sidan och rätten å andra sidan erbjuds här Kaarlo Tuoris kritiska rättspositivism, där kriterierna för en godtagbar rättsnorm kan föras tillbaka på moraliskt präglade principer på rättens djupare nivåer. Avhandlingens tyngdpunkt ligger på själva kriminaliseringsprinciperna. Ingen internationellt accepterad enhetlig uppfattning om kriminaliseringsteorins innehåll existerar. Den finska uppfattningen bygger istället på en handfull principer, som uppnått en vedertagen ställning i vårt rättssystem. Med utgångspunkt i bl.a. finsk rättslitteratur samt grundlagsutskottets begränsningskriterier för grundrättigheter presenteras fyra huvudsakliga kriminaliseringsprinciper, det vill säga legalitetsprincipen, principen om skydd för rättsintressen, ultima ratio-principen, samt principen om nytto-skadeavvägning. Härefter diskuteras kriminaliseringsprinciperna specifikt i förhållande till kriminaliseringen av cannabisbruk. Kriminaliseringen av cannabisbruk har varit en återkommande omstridd fråga såväl redan på 1970-talet som under den senaste diskussionen kring medborgarinitiativet om avskaffandet av straffbarheten av cannabis. Emot varandra står den liberala västerländska principen om individens rätt till självbestämmande och strävan att totalt utrota droganvändning. För legalitetsprincipens del påpekas att den cannabisrelaterade lagstiftningen verkar otillräcklig på grund av vidare hänvisningar och otydliga regler om straffbarhet. Den mest omfattande diskussionen förs kring frågor om rättsintresse och individuell frihet. Kriminaliseringen av cannabisbruk framhålls stå vid gränsen mellan två ur rättsintresseprincipens synpunkt problematiska slag av kriminalisering, det vill säga paternalistisk och moralistisk kriminalisering. I samband med ultima ratio-principen behandlas sedan bland annat effektiviteten och kostnaderna av själva kriminaliseringen av cannabisbruk. För nytto-skadeavvägningens del diskuteras till sist hurdana negativa verkningar kriminaliseringen av cannabisbruk medfört och konstateras att den mest eftersträvade nyttan, det vill säga kriminaliseringens preventiva effekt, åtminstone inte entydigt uppnåtts.
  • Salama, Essi S.; Castaneda, Anu E.; Lilja, Eero; Suvisaari, Jaana; Rask, Shadia; Laatikainen, Tiina; Niemela, Solja (2020)
    Background and aims The associations between traumatic events, substance use and perceived discrimination have been rarely studied among migrants in host countries. We examined whether pre-migration potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs) or perceived discrimination (PD) are associated with substance use among migrants with voluntary (Russians) and forced (Kurds) migration backgrounds. Design Cross-sectional interview and health examination data from the Finnish Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study were used. The target sample (n = 1000 for each group) was drawn from the national population register using stratified random sampling by participants' country of birth and native language. Setting Population-based data were collected from six cities in Finland during 2010-12. Participants The participation rates were 68% (Russians) and 59% (Kurds). The analytical sample size varied (Russians n = 442-687, Kurds n = 459-613), as some participants completed only interview, health examination or short interview. The majority of Kurds had a refugee background (75%) while Russians had mainly migrated for other reasons (99%). Measurements The three main outcomes were self-reported binge drinking, daily smoking and life-time cannabis use. PTEs and PD were self-reported in the interview. Socio-demographic background, migration-related factors and current affective symptoms were adjusted for. Findings Among Kurds, PTEs were associated with binge drinking [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.30-5.42] and PD was associated with life-time cannabis use (aOR = 3.89, 95% CI = 1.38-10.97) after adjusting for contextual factors. Among Russians, PTEs were associated with life-time cannabis use adjusting for contextual factors (aOR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.12-4.18). Conclusions In Finland, pre-migration traumatic experiences appear to be associated with life-time cannabis use among the Russian migrant population (voluntary migration) and binge drinking among the Kurdish migrant population (forced migration). Perceived discrimination in Finland appears to be associated with life-time cannabis use among Kurdish migrants.
  • Salama, Essi; Castaneda, Anu E.; Suvisaari, Jaana; Rask, Shadia; Laatikainen, Tiina; Niemelä, Solja (2022)
    Comorbidity of substance use with affective symptoms and suicidality has been well documented in the general population. However, population-based migrant studies about this association are scarce. We examined the association of affective symptoms and suicidal ideation with binge drinking, daily smoking, and lifetime cannabis use among Russian, Somali, and Kurdish migrants in comparison with the Finnish general population. Cross-sectional data from the Finnish Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study (Maamu, n?=?1307) and comparison group data of the general Finnish population (n?=?860) from the Health 2011 Survey were used. Substance use included self-reported current binge drinking, daily smoking, and lifetime cannabis use. Affective symptoms and suicidal ideation were measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25). We performed multivariate logistic regression analyses, including age, gender, and additional socio-demographic and migration-related factors. Suicidal ideation (OR 2.4 95% CI 1.3?4.3) was associated with binge drinking among Kurds and lifetime cannabis use among Russians (OR 5.6, 95% CI 1.9?17.0) and Kurds (OR 5.5, 95% CI 1.9?15.6). Affective symptoms were associated with daily smoking (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.02?2.6) and lifetime cannabis use (OR 6.1, 95% CI 2.6?14.5) among Kurdish migrants. Our results draw attention to the co-occurrence of suicidal ideation, affective symptoms, and substance use, especially among Kurdish migrants. These results highlight the variation of comorbidity of substance use and affective symptoms between the different populations. This implies that screening for substance use in mental healthcare cannot be neglected based on presumed habits of substance use.
  • Hellman, Matilda (2020)
    The pandemic has made us think about how the Nordic countries react both similarly and differently in their societal strategies. In newspapers and on social media, people have speculated about the different lines of reasoning that the Nordic countries took during the pandemic’s first phase in spring 2020. Especially why Sweden deviated. Suddenly we saw new variances between countries: the Swedish Public Health Agency had a different role in Sweden than the corresponding authorities in Finland and in Norway. In Sweden, temporary constitutional changes can only be made during wartime. Who knew? At once, the meaning of Nordic comparisons became more evident in the classic realisation of “we are similar but still not the same”.