Browsing by Subject "capital"

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  • Mykkänen, Reijo (The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1994)
    The study presents a theory of utility models based on aspiration levels, as well as the application of this theory to the planning of timber flow economics. The first part of the study comprises a derivation of the utility-theoretic basis for the application of aspiration levels. Two basic models are dealt with: the additive and the multiplicative. Applied here solely for partial utility functions, aspiration and reservation levels are interpreted as defining piecewisely linear functions. The standpoint of the choices of the decision-maker is emphasized by the use of indifference curves. The second part of the study introduces a model for the management of timber flows. The model is based on the assumption that the decision-maker is willing to specify a shape of income flow which is different from that of the capital-theoretic optimum. The utility model comprises four aspiration-based compound utility functions. The theory and the flow model are tested numerically by computations covering three forest holdings. The results show that the additive model is sensitive even to slight changes in relative importances and aspiration levels. This applies particularly to nearly linear production possibility boundaries of monetary variables. The multiplicative model, on the other hand, is stable because it generates strictly convex indifference curves. Due to a higher marginal rate of substitution, the multiplicative model implies a stronger dependence on forest management than the additive function. For income trajectory optimization, a method utilizing an income trajectory index is more efficient than one based on the use of aspiration levels per management period. Smooth trajectories can be attained by squaring the deviations of the feasible trajectories from the desired one.
  • Karimi, Zeinab (2019)
    This article focuses on the process through which intergenerational ambivalence is experienced by a group of adult children and their parents with an Iranian refugee background living in Finland. This ethnographic study provides an insight into how the families' struggles to mobilize capital in different forms can contribute to their experience of intergenerational ambivalence. The study indicates that when the parents' social, economic and cultural capitals accumulated prior to migration are not accessible or valuable in Finland, they become dependent on their children's conduct. This produces a contradictory demand on the participants roles as parents and children, where they face difficulties in navigating their role expectations. The families in this study expressed a significant ambivalence in their intergenerational relationships associated with these stressful conditions.
  • Vaara, Eero; Fay, Eric (Hanken School of Economics, 2012)
    Accepted Article/Accepted Manuscript on the 3 Feb 2012
    Despite a proliferation of critical studies on management education, there is a paucity of knowledge of the ways in which problematic beliefs, values and practices are reproduced in and through management education. By drawing on and extending Bourdieu’s seminal work, this paper offers a new perspective on reproduction on the global scale. Our framework spans three inter-related levels of analysis: the dominant beliefs, values and practices (nomos and doxa) of management in global society, the structuration of the field of management education on a global scale, and the prevailing pedagogical practices in management education programs. Our analysis adds to critical studies of management education by elucidating the overwhelming institutional forces of reproduction and thus explaining how difficult it is to effect change in the prevailing ideas, values and practices. Unlike most critical analyses, we also explain how change might take place and what it would require. Thus, our analysis advances studies of reproduction in this era of globalization more generally. It also provides an example of how Bourdieusian ideas can be applied and expanded upon in novel ways in research on education in general and management education in particular.
  • Torkkeli, Anu (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2016)
    Economics and Society – 296
    This study examines the corporate capital gains taxation in Nordic countries, European Union and Finland. The main perspective is in the corporate income tax law, but because of the multidisciplinary subject of the corporate capital gains taxation, this study also has an economic perspective. Before analyzing the taxation itself, the basic concepts for the study are introduced such as the concept of capital, income and capital gain. Also the tax framework of this study is introduced by describing the most significant features and issues in corporate income taxation and in corporate capital gains taxation. Corporate capital gains taxation is discussed by starting with Nordic countries, continuing with European Union member states and finally ending up with Finland. A rough comparative summary is created at the end of each of these sections. Recent changes having taken place until January 2015 in the corporate capital gains taxation are also included in the study. Taxation is investigated based on the existing tax law literature, and the analysis is fulfilled with the help of the selected case law. After the international tax system analysis, the future options for corporate capital gains taxation are discussed as well as challenges related to the changes in the corporate income taxation such as correct level of harmonization so that individual countries still have their own fiscal policy. This study offers the value-added to the society in a couple of different ways. The study extensively analyzes the international corporate capital gains taxation models. In addition, the study not only discusses the corporate capital gains purely from the legal point of view but also has a strong focus on the underlying features behind the corporate capital gains taxation system: features of the good taxation system, economics and competitiveness, significance and role of the corporate capital gains in the economics. The conclusions of the study are made in a concrete way, because a proposal for the focus of future development of the corporate capital gains taxation at the EU level and the proposal for a future corporate capital gains taxation model in Finland as an individual Nordic country and EU member state is developed.
  • Mikkola, Pia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This thesis is a study of cultural, corporal, social, symbolic and economic forms of capital of the Western surfers in Bali, Indonesia. The thesis follows Pierre Bourdieu's theory of social distinction. The study examines what types of capital exist in the surfing social field of Western surfers in Bali, and how these different forms of capital function, how they are established and negotiated. Study also analyses how social distinctions are created and negotiated through the distribution of capital. This study is based on a four and a half month long ethnographic fieldwork in spring 2015 in the southern parts of Bali, Indonesia. Methods used are participant observation, 10 in-depth interviews and informal discussions, as well as observations in the field and local surf related magazines. The informants of this study were surfers from Western countries who lived in Bali permanently or for and extended period of time. The analytical section of this thesis is divided into four sections on the basis of different forms of capital. First, analysis is provided on how and what types of bodily and perceptive skills and knowledge constitute surfers' corporeal capital. The second section focuses on the types of narratives that surfers use to constitute surfing experience and surfed place. The analysis suggests that in the narratives of individual experiences, surfers use socially legitimated ways of storytelling and contribute to the construction of surfing social field through the circulation of these narratives. The third section focuses on symbolic capital produced in surfing advertisements and negotiated amongst surfers and the surfing brands. The section illustrates how surfing brands harness symbolic capital relevant to the surfing social field and turn it into economic capital. Lastly, analysis is provided on surfing lifestyle. The section observes how surfers rationalize their lifestyles as personal choices, but suggests that they are choices available to these agents through their relative affluence that enables making choices distanced from necessity. This study suggests that surfing social field is constructed in visual and oral narratives that both the surfers and the surf brands produce. It is noted that whilst acquisition of relevant corporeal skills and capital seems to function as a gatekeeper to the surfing field, it is through relevant affluence and existing economic capital that enables the significant personal investments of time and efforts to gain this entrance. Thus, it is argued that the possibilities of Western surfers in Bali are linked broader global construction of social hierarchies and unequal distribution of affluence.
  • Cloke, Jon (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2013)
    COLLeGIUM: Studies across Disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences 14
    This paper reviews distinct critical writings on the current global economic crisis in order to suggest that the crisis represents a distinctly new form of actor-network capitalism, originating in the hybrid financial innovations since the 1970s, the explosive growth in cyber-space potential during the 1990s and the subsuming of the State by finance that accompanied these two processes. The paper proposes the evolution of what is referred to as ultracapital (capital beyond capital) from within the global financial services sector, as a relational space in which to examine actants, networks and processes. Hybrid cyber-, juridical and socio-political spaces are considered in outline alongside the increasingly sophisticated development of new financial services instruments driven by IT innovation toward the fundamental detachment of value from price. These considerations suggest that many of the partial views on the economic crisis within the disciplines of geography, economics and politics need to be re-thought using cross-disciplinary, holistic analyses that utilize relational and actor-network theorization. Finally, the paper suggests that global economic events since 2007 are not just another episode in a series of crises which are endemic to capitalism, but a transitional phase towards an entirely different capitalist topology.
  • Liu, Wei (2006)
    The liberalization of capital outflows could cause an increase, rather than decrease, in capital inflows. The aim of this thesis is to explore the paradox. Empirical evidence from four countries, Spain, New Zealand, Italy and Uruguay, is introduced to illustrate the positive influence of capital-outflow liberalizations on capital inflows. Two models are adopted to offer theoretical explanations from different perspectives as well. The first model suggests that the liberalization of capital outflows could be designed to reduce the minimum capital-repatriation period for foreign investment. With this period length reduction, investors get more freedom to invest and withdraw their capitals. Their "option value" of investing after getting certain about the possible policies changes is lowered. Therefore, they will increase the investment from the beginning period. The second model is about the "signaling effect" of capital-outflow liberalizations. It is based on this asymmetric information system. Investors will regard current capital polices as a signal for future possible polices. Today's liberalization on capital outflows predicts a higher probability of favorable investment polices tomorrow. With the "friendly" capital policies, investors are more confident and then increase their investments. The empirical analysis about China's capital outflow liberalization and its influence on capital inflows is carried out. The VAR model is applied for this empirical analysis. The data used for analysis are mainly from International Monetary Fund and Chinese National Bureau of Statistics. The test result shows that the positive influence of the capital liberalization in China can be expected too.
  • Aura, Ossi (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2006)
    Economics and Society
    In a framework of Intellectual Capital (IC), the effects and interactions of a Worksite Fitness Program (WFP) policy was studied with a multidisciplinary approach. In a preliminary study, indicators for physical activity (PAI), physical fitness (PFI), activity in WFP on a regular (WFPI) and on a events basis (WFPE) were created in line with positive findings regarding the associations between physical activity and fitness patterns and sick leave, perceived health, and self-assessed work ability. The intensity of physical activity was found to be the most important variable to predict positive associations with the above mentioned wellness parameters. In four case study follow-up settings, the effects and interactions of physical activity and fitness patterns and the company’s WFP-policy on different elements of IC were studied. Qualitative methods were applied in constructing indicators and a descriptive IC measure for each case company. In cross-sectional and follow-up settings, several findings with respect to IC were found regarding physical activity in general and activity in WFP in particular. Findings were relatively strong in health and wellness related indicators in Human Capital, where, as also in Structural Capital indicators such as the company climate and employee-superior relationship, revealed positive associations. Physical activity patterns were found to act in minor role in Relational Capital. Overall, WFP was seen to be an integrated part of Structural Capital. From the viewpoint of Worksite Fitness Program as a phenomenon, this study positioned WFP as an active element of Intellectual Capital. The literature in the field of WFP emphasizes the role of WFP as an instrument to activate employees in physical activity, and thus promote their health and wellbeing. With the wider perspective the active and long range WFP policy can support a company’s Structural and Relational Capital in line with the fundamental role it has on Human Capital.