Browsing by Subject "carbon neutral"

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  • Dahal, Karna Prasad; Niemelä, Jari Kalevi (2016)
    Carbon neutrality represents one climate strategy adopted by many cities, including the city of Helsinki and the Helsinki metropolitan area in Finland. This study examines initiatives adopted by the Helsinki metropolitan area aimed at reducing energy-related carbon emissions and achieving carbon neutrality through future actions. Various sectorial energy consumption rates per year and carbon emissions from various sectors within the city of Helsinki and the metropolitan area were extracted from an online database and re-calculated (in GWh, MWh/inhabitant and MtCO(2)e, KtCO(2)e/inhabitant). We employed a backcasting scenario method to explore the various carbon reduction measures in the Helsinki metropolitan area. About 96% of the emissions produced in the Helsinki metropolitan area are energy-based. District heating represents the primary source of emissions, followed by transportation and electricity consumption, respectively. We also found that accomplishing the carbon reduction strategies of the Helsinki metropolitan area by 2050 remains challenging. Technological advancement for clean and renewable energy sources, smart policies and raising awareness resulting in behavioral changes greatly affect carbon reduction actions. Thus, strong political commitments are also required to formulate and implement stringent climate actions
  • Niskanen, Marko (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Climate change, global warming and depleting fossil fuel reserves together with the globally increasing energy consumption have resulted in a need for new carbon neutral technologies to produce and store renewable energy. Microbiologial methanation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide is a promising carbon neutral technology to store renewable electricity as methane gas. Methane has the largest temporal and quantitative energy storage capacity of all the current energy storage pathways. There is also a globally increasing demand for carbon neutral transportation fuels and methane gas can be utilized in the existing natural gas infrastructure and combustion engines. The aim of this thesis was to study the methanation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide in a new type of a fixed bed reactor. A reactor in volume of 4 l was packed with support mixture consisting of vermiculite and perlite. Peak methane production rate of 0.15 l CH4 / h / 1 l reactor volume was achieved while the peak treatment power was 1.6 W / l. Hydrogen conversion rate during these achieved peak numbers was 25 %. Higher hydrogen conversion rate of 92 % was achieved in a stable operaton while the methane production rate was 0.03 l l CH4 / h / 1 l reactor volume and treatment power was 0.35 W/l. A simple and cost effective reactor structure for methanation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen is a promising way to store renewable energy and produce carbon neutral transportation fuels. Stable operation with high methane production rates and optimization of the reactor remains to be achieved. Present study was a part of a larger research project of the Natural Resources Institute Finland regarding the fixed bed reactor technology.
  • Santalahti, Tanya (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Carbon neutral agriculture plays a key role in climate change mitigation. However, Finnish farmers are struggling with the impacts of climate change and the profitability crisis. This study aims at providing market insight on potential sources of income for Finnish farmers in carbon neutral agriculture by 2030. However, this thesis does not focus on the question whether carbon neutral agriculture is achievable. The role of policy instruments is also investigated to determine whether they facilitate or prevent changes. The thesis is commissioned by Envitecpolis Oy. Six experts from the agriculture field were interviewed and the data were analysed with theory-driven content analysis. The analysis is based on the future signals sense-making framework (FSSF) that focuses on the weak signals, drivers and trends found in the data. Each theme includes two categories; the nonlinear and linear paths of change. In addition, policy instruments were divided into promoters and disrupters of change. The relevant weak signals identified are innovations, the formation of premium markets, the adoption of paludiculture, novel and existing market mechanisms for carbon neutral practices, the substitution of materials and energy in production, digitalization, the increasing requirements for producers by food industry and by consumers and lastly, strengthened cooperation between actors in agriculture. The drivers of change, such as climate change, knowledge and advances in technology, significantly influence the adoption of these weak signals. However, various trends function as blockers of change whilst some trends are inevitable large change processes. In light of the results, weak signals of potential sources of income are not likely to become mainstream by 2030. However, existing or emerging issues may play a key role in providing additional income for farmers. National agriculture policy and the EU Common Agriculture Policy (CAP) are complex schemes that are gradually emphasizing climate issues. However, these policies fail to incentivize farmers to adopt practices for carbon neutral agriculture. Recommendations for future research include the cost-effectiveness of climate change mitigation measures and a follow-up on the sources of income for farmers in 2030.
  • Schoenefeld, Jonas J.; Schulze, Kai; Hildén, Mikael; Jordan, Andrew J. (Taylor & Francis, 2021)
    The International Spectator, 56:3, 24-40
    To achieve its ambitious climate targets, the European Union (EU) must adopt new policies, increase the impact of existing policies and/or remove dysfunctional ones. The EU has developed an elaborate system to monitor national policy mixes in order to support these challenging requirements. Data that member states have reported to the EU over the last ten years reveal that the average expected per-policy-instrument emission reduction has declined, while national policy mixes have remained generally stable over time. This is strikingly discordant with the EU’s ambitious commitment to become carbon neutral by 2050 (‘net zero’).