Browsing by Subject "cardiac output"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-2 of 2
  • Mathewson, Karen J.; Pyhälä, Riikka; Hovi, Petteri; Räikkönen, Katri; Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Boyle, Michael H.; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M.; Kajantie, Eero; Schmidt, Louis A. (2015)
    Background. Adults born extremely preterm appear to have more difficulty managing the stresses of early adulthood than their term-born peers. Objective. To examine the effects of being born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight < 1000 g) versus at full term on cardiovascular responses to stress. Method. Cardiovascular responses were elicited during administration of a widely used laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results. Term-born adults exhibited a larger decrease in total peripheral resistance and larger increase in cardiac output for TSST performance, reflecting greater resilience, than did ELBW adults. Furthermore, in ELBW participants but not controls, cardiovascular responses were correlated with anxiety, suggesting that their responses reflected feelings of stress. Conclusions. Skills-training and practice with relevant stressors may be necessary to increase the personal resources of ELBW participants for managing stress as they transition to adulthood.
  • Hector, Rachel C.; Rezende, Marlis L.; Mama, Khursheed R.; Steffey, Eugene P.; Raekallio, Marja R.; Vainio, Outi M. (2021)
    Objective To evaluate the effects of combined infusions of vatinoxan and dexmedetomidine on inhalant anesthetic requirement and cardiopulmonary function in dogs. Study design Prospective experimental study. Methods A total of six Beagle dogs were anesthetized to determine sevoflurane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) prior to and after an intravenous (IV) dose (loading, then continuous infusion) of dexmedetomidine (4.5 mu g kg(-1) hour(-1)) and after two IV doses of vatinoxan in sequence (90 and 180 mu g kg(-1) hour(-1)). Blood was collected for plasma dexmedetomidine and vatinoxan concentrations. During a separate anesthesia, cardiac output (CO) was measured under equivalent MAC conditions of sevoflurane and dexmedetomidine, and then with each added dose of vatinoxan. For each treatment, cardiovascular variables were measured with spontaneous and controlled ventilation. Repeated measures analyses were performed for each response variable; for all analyses, p <0.05 was considered significant. Results Dexmedetomidine reduced sevoflurane MAC by 67% (0.64 +/- 0.1%), mean +/- standard deviation in dogs. The addition of vatinoxan attenuated this to 57% (0.81 +/- 0.1%) and 43% (1.1 +/- 0.1%) with low and high doses, respectively, and caused a reduction in plasma dexmedetomidine concentrations. Heart rate and CO decreased while systemic vascular resistance increased with dexmedetomidine regardless of ventilation mode. The co-administration of vatinoxan dose-dependently modified these effects such that cardiovascular variables approached baseline. Conclusions and clinical relevance IV infusions of 90 and 180 mu g kg(-1) hour(-1) of vatinoxan combined with 4.5 mu g kg(-1) hour(-1) dexmedetomidine provide a meaningful reduction in sevoflurane requirement in dogs. Although sevoflurane MAC-sparing properties of dexmedetomidine in dogs are attenuated by vatinoxan, the cardiovascular function is improved. Doses of vatinoxan >180 mu g kg(-1) hour(-1) might improve cardiovascular function further in combination with this dose of dexmedetomidine, but beneficial effects on anesthesia plane and recovery quality may be lost.