Browsing by Subject "cardiopulmonary bypass"

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  • Pesonen, Eero; Passov, Arie; Andersson, Sture; Suojaranta, Raili; Niemi, Tomi; Raivio, Peter; Salmenperä, Markku; Schramko, Alexey (2019)
    Objective: Experimental inflammation induces degradation of glycocalyx. The authors hypothesized that inflammation is an important determinant of glycocalyx degradation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Design: A prospective observational study. Setting: Operation theater and intensive care unit of a university hospital. Participants: Two separate prospective patient cohorts. Interventions: Blood samples were collected at 5 perioperative time points in the trial cohort (30 patients) and only preoperatively in the preoperative cohort (35 patients). Plasma syndecan-1 (biomarker of glycocalyx degradation), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and IL-10 were measured. Measurements and Main Results: In the trial cohort, preoperative ranges were as follows: 0.8-198 ng/mL for syndecan-1; 0-902 pg/mL for IL-6; 0-314.9 pg/mL for IL-8, and 0-2,909 pg/mL for IL-10. Seven out of 30 patients were outliers in terms of plasma concentrations of syndecan-1 and all cytokines preoperatively. The increase of syndecan-1 was 2.7-fold, and those of IL-6 and IL-8 were both 2.5-fold. The increase of IL-10 was modest. Plasma syndecan-1 correlated with all cytokines preoperatively (IL-6: R = 0.66, p <0.001; IL-8: R = 0.67, p = 0.001; IL-10: R = 0.73, p <0.001) as well as at 6 hours postoperatively (IL-6: R = 0.49, p = 0.006; IL-8: R = 0.43, p = 0.02; IL-10: R = 0.41, p = 0.03) and on the postoperative morning (IL-6: R = 0.57, p = 0.001; IL-8: R = 0.37, p = 0.06; IL-10: R = 0.51, p = 0.005) but not intraoperatively. The preoperative findings of the trial cohort could be confirmed in the preoperative cohort. Conclusions: In patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB, inflammation in terms of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 is associated with glycocalyx degradation measured as plasma syndecan-1 concentrations. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Lax, Mikko; Pesonen, Eero; Hiippala, Seppo; Schramko, Alexey; Lassila, Riitta; Raivio, Peter (2020)
    Objective: High heparin doses during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) have been suggested to reduce thrombin activation and consumption coagulopathy and consequently bleeding complications. The authors investigated the effect of a high heparin dose during CPB on point-of-care measurements of coagulation. The authors hypothesized that during CPB a high heparin dose compared with a lower heparin dose would reduce thrombin generation and platelet activation and tested whether this would be reflected in the results of rotational thromboelastometry (TEM) and platelet aggregation, measured with multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA). Design: Prospective, randomized, controlled, open single-center study. Setting: University teaching hospital. Participants: Sixty-three consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting with CPB were enrolled. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to receive either a high (600 IU/kg, n = 32) or a low (300 IU/kg, n = 31) initial dose of heparin. Target levels of activated clotting time during CPB were >600 seconds in the high heparin dose group and >400 seconds in the low heparin dose group. Measurements and Main Results: Blood samples were collected (1) preoperatively after induction of anesthesia, (2) 10 minutes after aortic declamping, (3) 30 minutes after protamine administration, and (4) 3 hours after protamine administration. TEM and MEA were then measured. There was no difference in blood loss up to 18 hours postoperatively (median 735 mL for high dose v 610 mL for low dose; p <0.056) or transfusions between the groups. Total median heparin dose (54,300 IU v 27,000 IU; p = 0.001) and median antifactor Xa levels during CPB (9.38 U/mL v 5.04 U/mL; p = 0.001) were greater in the high than in the low heparin dose group. However, neither TEM nor MEA results differed significantly between the groups. Conclusions: Compared with a lower dose of heparin during CPB, a high dose of heparin had little effect on the point-of-care measurements of hemostasis, TEM, and MEA. Based on the similarity of platelet and coagulation activity assessments, the higher heparin dose does not appear to offer benefit during CPB. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Thorlacius, Elin M.; Wåhlander, Håkan; Ojala, Tiina; Ylänen, Kaisa; Keski-Nisula, Juho; Synnergren, Mats; Romlin, Birgitta S.; Ricksten, Sven-Erik; Castellheim, Albert (2020)
    Objective : We aimed to determine the differential effects of intra-operative administration of milrinone versus levosimendan on myocardial function after pediatric cardiac surgery. Transthoracic echocardiography was employed for myocardial function evaluation, utilizing biventricular longitudinal strain with two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography in addition to conventional echocardiographic variables. Design : A secondary analysis of a randomized, prospective, double-blinded clinical drug trial Setting : Two pediatric tertiary university hospitals Participants : Infants between 1-12 months of age diagnosed with ventricular septal defect, complete atrioventricular septal defect, or tetralogy of Fallot who were scheduled for corrective surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Interventions : The patients were randomized to receive an infusion of milrinone or levosimendan at the start of cardiopulmonary bypass and for 26 consecutive hours. Measurements and main results : Biventricular longitudinal strain and conventional echocardiographic variables were measured preoperatively, on the first postoperative morning and prior to hospital discharge. The association between perioperative parameters and postoperative myocardial function was also investigated. Images were analyzed for left ventricular (n=67) and right ventricular (n=44) function. The day after surgery, left ventricular longitudinal strain was deteriorated in both the milrinone and levosimendan groups; 33% and 39%, respectively. The difference was not significant. The corresponding deterioration in right ventricular longitudinal strain was 42% and 50% (non-significant difference). For both groups, biventricular longitudinal strain approached their preoperative values at hospital discharge. Preoperative N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide could predict the left ventricular strain on postoperative day one (p=0.014). Conclusions : Levosimendan was comparable to milrinone for left and right ventricular inotropic support in pediatric cardiac surgery.
  • Stark, Christoffer K. -J.; Tarkia, Miikka; Kentala, Rasmus; Malmberg, Markus; Vahasilta, Tommi; Savo, Matti; Hynninen, Ville-Veikko; Helenius, Mikko; Ruohonen, Saku; Jalkanen, Juho; Taimen, Pekka; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka; Saraste, Antti; Knuuti, Juhani; Savunen, Timo; Koskenvuo, Juha (2016)
    The use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and aortic cross-clamping causes myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (I-RI) and can lead to reduced postoperative cardiac function. We investigated whether this injury could be attenuated by thymosin beta 4 (TB4), a peptide which has showed cardioprotective effects. Pigs received either TB4 or vehicle and underwent CPB and aortic cross-clamping for 60 min with cold intermittent blood-cardioplegia and were then followed for 30 h. Myocardial function and blood flow was studied by cardiac magnetic resonance and PET imaging. Tissue and plasma samples were analyzed to determine the amount of cardiomyocyte necrosis and apoptosis as well as pharmacokinetics of the peptide. In vitro studies were performed to assess its influence on blood coagulation and vasomotor tone. Serum levels of the peptide were increased after administration compared to control samples. TB4 did not decrease the amount of cell death. Cardiac function and global myocardial blood flow was similar between the study groups. At high doses a vasoconstrictor effect on mesentery arteries and a vasodilator effect on coronary arteries was observed and blood clot firmness was reduced when tested in the presence of an antiplatelet agent. Despite promising results in previous trials the cardioprotective effect of TB4 was not demonstrated in this model for global myocardial I-RI.