Browsing by Subject "cardiovascular disease"

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  • Ollila, Meri-Maija; Piltonen, Terhi T.; Tapanainen, Juha S.; Morin-Papunen, Laure (2020)
    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in their reproductive years age present with metabolic dysfunction and thus increased likelihood of long-term health consequences and diminished well-being in later life. Due to their larger ovarian reserve, however, they may experience menopause at later age and protection from metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, previous studies have indicated that late reproductive aged, normal-weight women with PCOS do not seem to have the expected high risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D), as previously thought. Health related quality of life (HRQoL), nevertheless, is decreased in women with PCOS up until late fertile age, warranting attention and actions from the health care personnel. Given conflicting reports regarding the risk of cardiovascular diseases, future research with well characterized and adequately sized PCOS populations are needed as well as studies aiming to improve their HRQoL.
  • Tucker, Philip; Harma, Mikko; Ojajärvi, Anneli; Kivimäki, Mika; Leineweber, Constanze; Oksanen, Tuula; Salo, Paula; Vahtera, Jussi (2019)
    Objective This study examined the associations between shift work and use of antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and antidiabetic medications. Methods Survey data from two cohorts of Finnish men (N=11998) and women (N=49 944) working in multiple occupations where shift work was used were linked to national Drug Prescription Register data, with up to 11 years of follow-up. In each cohort, age-stratified Cox proportional hazard regression models were computed to examine any incident use of prescription medication for each of the three medical conditions, separately comparing each of two groups of rotating shift workers (those whose schedules included night shifts. and those whose schedules did not include night shifts) with day workers who worked in a similar range of occupations. Results In the larger cohort, among participants aged 40-49 at baseline, shift work without night shifts was associated with increased use of type-2 diabetes medication after adjustments for sex, occupational status, marital status, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity [hazard ratio (HR) 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.62], while shift work with night shifts was associated with increased use of dyslipidemia medication after adjustments (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.12-1.57). There were no such associations among younger and older shift workers. Also in the larger cohort, among those aged Conclusions There was mixed evidence regarding the use of medications for cardiovascular risk factors by shift workers. Selection effects may have affected the associations.
  • Stassen, Willem; Kurland, Lisa; Wallis, Lee; Castren, Maaret; Vincent-Lambert, Craig (2020)
    Background: ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is on the rise in sub-Saharan Africa. South Africa consistently fails to deliver timely reperfusion to these patients, possibly due to under-developed coronary care networks (CCN). Objectives: To determine the current perceived state of CCNs, to determine the barriers to optimising CCNs and to suggest facilitators to optimising CCNs within the South African context. Methods: A qualitative descriptive approach was employed, by performing two structured in-depth and two focus group interviews (n=4 and 5, respectively), inviting a purposely heterogeneous sample of 11 paramedics (n=4), doctors (n=5), and nurses (n=2) working within different settings in South African CCNs. Recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and subjected to content analysis. Results: Participants described an under-resourced, unprioritised and fragmented CCN with significant variation in performance. Barriers to CCN optimisation resided in recognition and diagnosis of STEMI, transport and treatment decisions, and delays. Participants suggested that thrombolysing all STEMI patients could facilitate earlier reperfusion and that pre-hospital thrombolysis should be considered. Participants highlighted the need for regionalised STEMI guidelines, and the need for further research. Conclusion: Numerous barriers were highlighted. Healthcare policy-makers should prioritise the development of CCNs that is underpinned by evidence and that is contextualised to each specific region within the South African health care system.
  • Karpik, Elena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In general the amount of fat in cow’s milk, what consists mostly of fatty acids, is about 4%, and more than half of the milk fatty acids are saturated. Dairy fat, due to its saturated fat and cholesterol content, is related to the risk of cardiovascular disease. Moreover, energy from fat can also be related to obesity. These relations also concern cow’s milk, however, its fat content remains around 4% and besides fat, there are a lot of positive effects on health, as milk is a good source of some vitamins and minerals. Milk consumption in Finland per capita has been the largest in the world for many years. There is also a market for milk substitutes, i.e. non-dairy drinks, produced mostly from oat, soy, and almond. This master’s thesis focuses on cow’s milk fat content and its relations to human health, especially the cardiovascular health and obesity. According to the hypothesis, consumer attitude towards cow’s milk is strongly affected by assumptions associated with the impact of dairy fat on health as well as the impact of dairy industry on climate change. The aim of this research was to study how detrimental or beneficial the dairy fat in milk is for human health on the basis of cow’s milk chemical composition, health related reports by authorities, research findings, historical perspectives, and consumer preferences. According to the literature, the chemical composition and nutrients properties of whole milk show that more nutrients of health benefit are present in comparison than of detrimental compounds. Most of present evidence suggest that milk and dairy products have neutral or beneficial effect on human cardiovascular health alhtough it is generally recognized in dietary recommendations that saturated fat is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The experimental part investigated Finnish consumers attitudes and preferences regarding milk consumption and overall preferences and issues affecting attitude toward food choice. It appears that the study hypothesis partly refuted, as the majority of participants were not much affected by assumptions associated with the impact of dairy fat on health. However, the impact of dairy industry on climate change was a very important issue related to attitude and preference regarding milk consumption. The majority of the study participants made their choice of drinking milk on the basis of taste, and the impact on health was considered mainly as beneficial rather than detrimental.
  • Sarin, Heikki V.; Taba, Nele; Fischer, Krista; Esko, Tonu; Kanerva, Noora; Moilanen, Leena; Saltevo, Juha; Joensuu, Anni; Borodulin, Katja; Männistö, Satu; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus (2019)
    Background: Food neophobia is considered a behavioral trait closely linked to adverse eating patterns and reduced dietary quality, which have been associated with increased risk of obesity and noncommunicable diseases. Objectives: In a cross-sectional and prospective study, we examined how food neophobia is associated with dietary quality, health-related biomarkers, and disease outcome incidence in Finnish and Estonian adult populations. Methods: The study was conducted based on subsamples of the Finnish DIetary, Lifestyle, and Genetic determinants of Obesity and Metabolic syndrome (DILGOM) cohort (n = 2982; age range: 25-74 y) and the Estonian Biobank cohort (n = 1109; age range: 18-83 y). The level of food neophobia was assessed using the Food Neophobia Scale, dietary quality was evaluated using the Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS), and biomarker profiles were determined using an NMR metabolomics platform. Disease outcome information was gathered from national health registries. Follow-up data on the NMR-based metabolomic profiles and disease outcomes were available in both populations. Results: Food neophobia associated significantly (adjusted P <0.05) with health-related biomarkers [e.g., omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids, citrate, alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein, HDL, and MUFA] in the Finnish DILGOM cohort. The significant negative association between the severity of food neophobia and omega-3 fatty acids was replicated in all cross-sectional analyses in the Finnish DILGOM and Estonian Biobank cohorts. Furthermore, food neophobia was associated with reduced dietary quality (BSDS: beta: -0.03 +/- 0.006; P = 8.04 x 10(-5)), increased fasting serum insulin (beta: 0.004 +/- 0.0013; P = 5.83 x 10(-3)), and increased risk of type 2 diabetes during the similar to 8-y follow-up (HR: 1.018 +/- 0.007; P = 0.01) in the DILGOM cohort. Conclusions: In the Finnish and Estonian adult populations, food neophobia was associated with adverse alteration of health-related biomarkers and risk factors that have been associated with an increased risk of noncommunicable diseases. We also found that food neophobia associations with omega-3 fatty acids and associated metabolites are mediated through dietary quality independent of body weight.
  • Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Eriksson, Johan G. (2017)
    BACKGROUND: Women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes later in life. Offspring born from these hypertensive pregnancies have increased levels of cardiovascular risk factors; whether they are at an increased risk of type 2 diabetes is not known. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the investigation was to study the risk of type 2 diabetes in the adult offspring exposed to maternal preeclampsia or gestational hypertension in utero. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 5335 members of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who were born between 1934 and 1944 and who lived in Finland in 1995 when the National Medication Purchase Register was initiated. We ascertained gestational hypertension and preeclampsia according to modern criteria by using maternal and birth records. We defined type 2 diabetes through purchases of antidiabetic medication recorded in the comprehensive National Medication Purchase Register, excluding the 31 subjects who had purchased only insulin. We used Cox regression to assess hazard ratios for type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: A total of 590 men (21.6%) and 433 women (16.9%) had purchased medication for diabetes. The hazard ratio for type 2 diabetes for offspring exposed to any maternal hypertension in pregnancy was 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.29; n = 1780). For maternal gestational hypertension, it was 1.15 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.33; n = 1336) and for preeclampsia 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.71-1.34; n = 231). For type 2 diabetes with first medication purchase before 62 years, the corresponding hazard ratios were 1.25 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.51); 1.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.58), and 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.84). The hazard ratios were similar when adjusted for birthweight SD score for gestation, length of gestation, maternal body mass index in late pregnancy, height, age, and parity and for childhood or adult socioeconomic position. An increased risk of type 2 diabetes was also associated with low birthweight SD score, independent of the association with gestational hypertension. CONCLUSION: Offspring exposed to maternal gestational hypertension in utero have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in late adult life. This finding underlines the role of the whole spectrum of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy as risk factors of offspring disease throughout life. It also reinforces previous suggestions that adult health care providers should incorporate birth histories when evaluating an individual's risk to develop type 2 diabetes.
  • Litwin, Linda; Sundholm, Johnny K. M.; Meinilä, Jelena; Kulmala, Janne; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Rönö, Kristiina; Koivusalo, Saila B.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Sarkola, Taisto (2021)
    Background: Heredity and family-shared lifestyle contribute to cardiovascular risk, but the magnitude of their influence on arterial structure and function in early childhood is unknown. We aimed to assess associations between child and maternal ideal cardiovascular health, maternal subclinical atherosclerosis, and child arterial phenotype. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 201 mother-child pairs originating from the Finnish Gestational Diabetes Prevention Study (RADIEL) longitudinal cohort was done at child age 6.1 +/- 0.5 years with assessments of ideal cardiovascular health (BMI, blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, diet quality, physical activity, smoking), body composition, very-high frequency ultrasound of carotid arteries (25 and 35 MHz), and pulse wave velocity. Results: We found no association between child and maternal ideal cardiovascular health but report evidence of particular metrics correlations: total cholesterol (r=0.24, P=0.003), BMI (r=0.17, P=0.02), diastolic blood pressure (r=0.15, P=0.03), and diet quality (r=0.22, P=0.002). Child arterial phenotype was not associated with child or maternal ideal cardiovascular health. In the multivariable regression explanatory model adjusted for child sex, age, systolic blood pressure, lean body mass, and body fat percentage, child carotid intima-media thickness was independently associated only with maternal carotid intima-media thickness (0.1 mm increase [95% CI 0.05, 0.21, P=0.001] for each 1 mm increase in maternal carotid intima-media thickness). Children of mothers with subclinical atherosclerosis had decreased carotid artery distensibility (1.1 +/- 0.2 vs 1.2 +/- 0.2%/10 mmHg, P=0.01) and trend toward increased carotid intima-media thickness (0.37 +/- 0.04 vs 0.35 +/- 0.04 mm, P=0.06). Conclusion: Ideal Cardiovascular Health metrics are heterogeneously associated in mother-child pairs in early childhood. We found no evidence of child or maternal Ideal Cardiovascular Health effect on child arterial phenotype. Maternal carotid intima-media thickness predicts child carotid intima-media thickness, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Maternal subclinical atherosclerosis is associated with local carotid arterial stiffness in early childhood.
  • Laukkanen, Erika; Vehkalahti, Miira M; Kotiranta, Anja (2019)
    Aim To investigate the impact of systemic health and tooth-based factors on the outcome of root canal treatment (RCT). Methodology The target population consisted of all patients receiving RCT at the Helsinki University Clinic in 2008-2011. The inclusion criteria were diagnosable pre- and postoperative (minimum 6 months after root filling) radiographs and adequate patient records of RCT available. Teeth extracted for nonendodontic reasons were excluded. Patient documents including digital radiographs of 640 permanent teeth in 504 patients were scrutinized. The radiographs were assessed by two examiners under standardized conditions. The Periapical Index was used to define radiographically 'healthy' and 'healing' cases as successful. Data included systemic health, technical quality of root fillings, type of restoration and level of alveolar bone loss. Statistical evaluation of differences between groups included chi-squared tests and Fisher's exact tests. Logistic regression modelling utilizing robust standard errors to allow for clustering within patients was applied to analyse factors related to the outcome of RCT. Results The mean age of patients was 51.5 years (standard deviation (SD) 15.0; range 10-83), and 49% were female. In 41 cases (6%), the patient had diabetes mellitus (DM), in 132 (21%) cardiovascular disease and in 284 (44%) no systemic disease. The follow-up period was 6-71 months (mean 22.7). In the primary analyses, the success rate of RCT was 73.2% in DM patients and 85.6% in patients with no systemic disease (P = 0.043); other systemic diseases had no impact on success. In the multifactorial analysis, the impact of DM became nonsignificant and RCTs were more likely to succeed in the absence of apical periodontitis (AP; odds ratio (OR) = 4.4; P <0.001), in teeth with optimal root filling quality (OR = 2.5; P <0.001), in teeth restored with indirect restorations (OR = 3.7; P = 0.002) and in teeth with none/mild alveolar bone loss (OR = 2.4; P = 0.003). Conclusions DM diminished the success of RCT, especially in teeth with apical periodontitis. However, tooth-based factors had a more profound impact on the outcome of RCT. This should be considered in clinical decision-making and in assessment of RCT prognosis.
  • Keindl, Magdalena; Fedotkina, Olena; du Plessis, Elsa; Jain, Ruchi; Bergum, Brith; Mygind Jensen, Troels; Laustrup Moller, Cathrine; Falhammar, Henrik; Nystrom, Thomas; Catrina, Sergiu-Bogdan; Jorneskog, Gun; Groop, Leif; Eliasson, Mats; Eliasson, Bjorn; Brismar, Kerstin; Nilsson, Peter M.; Berg, Tore Julsrud; Appel, Silke; Lyssenko, Valeriya (2020)
    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is largely considered an autoimmune disease leading to the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Further, patients with T1D have 3-4-fold increased risk of developing micro- and macrovascular complications. However, the contribution of immune-related factors contributing to these diabetes complications are poorly understood. Individuals with long-term T1D who do not progress to vascular complications offer a great potential to evaluate end-organ protection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of inflammatory protein levels with vascular complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, cardiovascular disease) in individuals with long-term T1D compared to individuals who rapidly progressed to complications. We studied a panel of inflammatory markers in plasma of patients with long-term T1D with (n = 81 and 26) and without (n = 313 and 25) vascular complications from two cross-sectional Scandinavian cohorts (PROLONG and DIALONG) using Luminex technology. A subset of PROLONG individuals (n = 61) was screened for circulating immune cells using multicolor flow cytometry. We found that elevated plasma levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha (sIL-2R) were positively associated with the complication phenotype. Risk carriers of polymorphisms in the IL2RA and PTPN2 gene region had elevated plasma levels of sIL-2R. In addition, cell surface marker analysis revealed a shift from naive to effector T cells in T1D individuals with vascular complications as compared to those without. In contrast, no difference between the groups was observed either in IL-2R cell surface expression or in regulatory T cell population size. In conclusion, our data indicates that IL2RA and PTPN2 gene variants might increase the risk of developing vascular complications in people with T1D, by affecting sIL-2R plasma levels and potentially lowering T cell responsiveness. Thus, elevated sIL-2R plasma levels may serve as a biomarker in monitoring the risk for developing diabetic complications and thereby improve patient care.
  • Gylling, Helena; Strandberg, Timo E.; Kovanen, Petri T.; Simonen, Piia (2020)
    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVDs) cause every fifth death worldwide. However, it is possible to prevent the progression of ASCVDs by reducing circulating concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Recent large meta-analyses demonstrated that by reducing the dietary intake of saturated fat and cholesterol, it is possible to reduce the risk of ASCVD events. Plant stanols, as fatty-acid esters, were developed as a dietary adjunct to reduce LDL-C levels as part of a heart-healthy diet. They reduce cholesterol absorption so that less cholesterol is transported to the liver, and the expression of LDL receptors is upregulated. Ultimately, LDL-C concentrations are reduced on average by 9-12% by consuming 2-3 g of plant stanol esters per day. In this review, we discuss recent information regarding the prevention of ASCVDs with a focus on dietary means. We also present new estimates on the effect of plant stanol ester consumption on LDL-C levels and the risk of ASCVD events. Plant stanol esters as part of a heart-healthy diet plausibly offer a means to reduce the risk of ASCVD events at a population level. This approach is not only appropriate for subjects with a high risk of ASCVD, but also for subjects at an apparently lower risk to prevent subclinical atherosclerosis.
  • Perkovic, Vlado; Agarwal, Rajiv; Fioretto, Paola; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Levin, Adeera; Thomas, Merlin C.; Wanner, Christoph; Kasiske, Bertram L.; Wheeler, David C.; Groop, Per-Henrik; Conf Participants (2016)
    The prevalence of diabetes around the world has reached epidemic proportions and is projected to increase to 642 million people by 2040. Diabetes is already the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in most developed countries, and the growth in the number of people with ESKD around the world parallels the increase in diabetes. The presence of kidney disease is associated with a markedly elevated risk of cardiovascular disease and death in people with diabetes. Several new therapies and novel investigational agents targeting chronic kidney disease patients with diabetes are now under development. This conference was convened to assess our current state of knowledge regarding optimal glycemic control, current antidiabetic agents and their safety, and new therapies being developed to improve kidney function and cardiovascular outcomes for this vulnerable population.
  • Niemi, Katriina Viola Elisabeth (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Matriksin metalloproteinaasi 8 on kollageenia hajottava ihmisen elimistön erittämä entsyymi. Se osallistuu normaaliin kudosten muokkaamiseen ja tulehduksellisiin sairauksiin, kuten syöpään, parodontiittiin ja sydän- ja verisuonitauteihin. Tässä tutkimuksessa aineistona ovat Pubmedistä haetut artikkelit ja FINRISK-tutkimuksessa vuonna 1997 kerätty aineisto 8349 henkilöltä. MMP-8-pitoisuus määritettiin tutkimushenkilöiden seerumista IFMA-menetelmällä. FINRISK-tutkimusaineistoa analysoitiin IMB SPSS Statistics-ohjelman avulla. Tulokseksi saatiin, että seerumin matriksin metalloproteinaasi 8:n pitoisuus on terveillä korkeampi kuin sairailla, kun tarkastellaan koko väestöä. Ikäryhmittäin tarkasteltuna ikäryhmien sisällä pitoisuus on kuitenkin sairailla korkeampi kuin terveillä. Matriksin metalloproteinaasi 8:n pitoisuus laskee iän myötä. Erot pitoisuudessa terveiden ja sairaiden välillä pienentyvät iän myötä. Viitearvot määritettiin tässä tutkimuksessa, ja ne ovat 5,33-241,2 ng/ml kaikille, naisille 5,61-250,1 ng/ml ja miehille 4,96-217,9 ng/ml. Terveillä ja sairailla tupakoitsijoilla pitoisuudet ovat käytännössä samat. Tupakoinnin lopettaneilla erot pitoisuudessa ovat terveiden ja sairaiden välillä suhteellisen suuret. Henkilöillä, joilla on metabolinen oireyhtymä, on matala matriksin metalloproteinaasi 8:n pitoisuus. Pitoisuus on tilastollisesti merkitsevästi matalampi myöhemmin puhkeavan diabeteksen suhteen. Tässä tutkimuksessa MMP-8:n pitoisuudet olivat sydän- ja verisuonisairauksia sairastavilla tutkittavilla henkilöillä matalat. Matriksin metalloproteinaasi 8:n pitoisuus korreloi positiivisesti CRP:n ja erityisen voimakkaasti fibrinogeenin kanssa. Vaikuttaa siltä, että kroonisesti sairailla pitoisuudet ovat matalat, akuutissa tilanteessa pitoisuudet nousevat ja ajan kuluessa laskevat takaisin mataliksi. Tämä koskee erityisesti sydän- ja verisuonitauteja. Hypoteesi tarvitsisi lisää tutkimusta, jotta pystyisimme MMP-8:n avulla seuraamaan ja ennustamaan taudinkulkua paremmin. (212 sanaa)
  • Jauho, Mikko (2019)
    Risk adopts an ambiguous position between health and illness/disease and is culturally salient in various health-related everyday practices. Previous research on risk experience has mostly focused on the illness/disease side of this risk ambiguity. Persons at risk have typically been defined as patients (of some kind) and their condition as a form of proto-illness. To allow for the cultural proliferation of health risk and to account for the health side of risk ambiguity, I chose to focus on elevated cholesterol, a condition both intensely medicalised and connected to the everyday practice of eating, among participants (n = 14) recruited from a consumer panel and approached not as patients, but as individuals concerned about their cholesterol. Utilising the biographical disruption framework developed by Bury, I show how the risk experience of my participants differed from the chronic illness experience. Instead of patients-in-waiting suffering from a proto-illness, they presented themselves as 'chronically healthy individuals' (Varul 2010), actively trying to avoid becoming patients through a responsible regimen of personal health care. The results call for a more nuanced approach to the risk experience, which accounts for both sides of the risk ambiguity.
  • Rugulies, Reiner; Framke, Elisabeth; Sorensen, Jeppe Karl; Svane-Petersen, Annemette Coop; Alexanderson, Kristina; Bonde, Jens Peter; Farrants, Kristin; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Nyberg, Solja T.; Kivimäki, Mika; Madsen, Ida E. H. (2020)
    Objectives This study aimed to examine the association between job strain and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) in Denmark, while accounting for changes of job strain. Methods We included all employees residing in Denmark in 2000, aged 30-59 years with no prevalent CHD (N=1660 150). We determined exposure to job strain from 1996-2009 using a job exposure matrix (JEM) with annual updates. Follow-up for incident CHD was from 2001-2010 via linkage to health records. We used Cox regression to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between job strain and incident CHD. Results During 16.1 million person-years, we identified 24 159 incident CHD cases (15.0 per 10 000 person-years). After adjustment for covariates, job strain in 2000 predicted onset of CHD during a mean follow-up of 9.71 years (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.07-1.13). When analyzing changes in job strain from one year to the next and CHD in the subsequent year, persistent job strain (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.10), onset of job strain (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.12-1.29) and removal of strain (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.12-1.28) were associated with higher CHD incidence compared to persistent no job strain. Associations were similar among men and women. Conclusions Job strain is associated with a higher risk of incident CHD in Denmark. As we used a JEM, we can rule out reporting bias. However, under- or overestimation of associations is possible due to non-differential misclassification of job strain and residual confounding by socioeconomic position.
  • Ruuth, Maija; Äikäs, Lauri; Tigistu-Sahle, Feven; Käkelä, Reijo; Lindholm, Harri; Simonen, Piia; Kovanen, Petri T.; Gylling, Helena; Öörni, Katariina (2020)
    OBJECTIVE: Plant stanol ester supplementation (2-3 g plant stanols/d) reduces plasma LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol concentration by 9% to 12% and is, therefore, recommended as part of prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In addition to plasma LDL-cholesterol concentration, also qualitative properties of LDL particles can influence atherogenesis. However, the effect of plant stanol ester consumption on the proatherogenic properties of LDL has not been studied. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Study subjects (n=90) were randomized to consume either a plant stanol ester-enriched spread (3.0 g plant stanols/d) or the same spread without added plant stanol esters for 6 months. Blood samples were taken at baseline and after the intervention. The aggregation susceptibility of LDL particles was analyzed by inducing aggregation of isolated LDL and following aggregate formation. LDL lipidome was determined by mass spectrometry. Binding of serum lipoproteins to proteoglycans was measured using a microtiter well-based assay. LDL aggregation susceptibility was decreased in the plant stanol ester group, and the median aggregate size after incubation for 2 hours decreased from 1490 to 620 nm,P=0.001. Plant stanol ester-induced decrease in LDL aggregation was more extensive in participants having body mass index CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of plant stanol esters decreases the aggregation susceptibility of LDL particles by modifying LDL lipidome. The resulting improvement of LDL quality may be beneficial for cardiovascular health. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01315964. GRAPHIC ABSTRACT: A graphic abstract is available for this article.
  • Jansson, Fanny (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Background: The traditional view of inevitable progression from early albuminuria to end-stage renal disease has recently been challenged in type 1 diabetes. However, the characteristics of regression of albuminuria are not widely understood. Particularly little is known about the clinical consequences of regression. Objective: To assess the rate of albuminuria regression, as well as its impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in type 1 diabetes. Methods: A total of 3,642 individuals from the FinnDiane Study were included. Albuminuria stage was categorized using consensus reference limits in two out of three consecutive measurements to normal range, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria. Regression was defined as a change from a higher category of albuminuria pre-baseline to a lower current stage. Data on CVD and vitality status were retrieved from national registries. Individuals were followed over a median of 14.0 years (IQR 11.9–15.9). Results: Altogether 102 (23.3%) individuals with prior microalbuminuria and 111 (23.4%) with prior macroalbuminuria regressed. With those with normal albumin excretion as reference, the age-adjusted HRs (95% CI) for CVD were 1.42 (0.75-2.68) in individuals with regressed microalbuminuria, 2.62 (1.95-3.54) with sustained microalbuminuria, 3.15 (2.02-4.92) with regressed macroalbuminuria, and 5.49 (4.31-7.00) with sustained macroalbuminuria. Findings were similar for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Conclusions: Progression of diabetic nephropathy confers an increased risk of CVD and premature mortality. Notably, regression reduces the risk to the same level as for those who did not progress.
  • Kraus, W.E.; Yates, T.; Tuomilehto, J.; Sun, J.-L.; Thomas, L.; Mcmurray, J.J.V.; Bethel, M.A.; Holman, R.R. (2018)
    Objective: Physical activity is related to clinical outcomes, even after adjusting for body mass, but is rarely assessed in randomized clinical trials. Research design and methods: We conducted an observational analysis of data from the Nateglinide and Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research trial, in which a total of 9306 people from 40 countries with impaired glucose tolerance and either cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors were randomized to receive nateglinide or placebo, in a 2-by-2 factorial design with valsartan or placebo. All were asked to also participate in a detailed lifestyle modification programme and followed-up for a median of 6.4 years with progression to diabetes as a co-primary end point. Seven-day ambulatory activity was assessed at baseline using research-grade pedometers. We assessed whether the baseline amount of physical activity was related to subsequent development of diabetes in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. Results: Pedometer data were obtained on 7118 participants and 35.0% developed diabetes. In an unadjusted analysis each 2000-step increment in the average number of daily steps, up to 10 000, was associated with a 5.5% lower risk of progression to diabetes (HR 0.95, 95%CI 0.92 to 0.97), with >6% relative risk reduction after adjustment. Conclusions: Physical activity should be measured objectively in pharmacologic trials as it is a significant but underappreciated contributor to diabetes outcomes. It should be a regular part of clinical practice as well. © 2018 Author(s) (or their employer(s).
  • Schreier, Nadja; Moltchanova, Elena; Forsen, Tom; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G. (2013)
  • Luotola, Kari; Jyväkorpi, Satu; Urtamo, Annele; Pitkälä, Kaisu H.; Kivimäki, Mika; Strandberg, Timo E. (2020)
    BACKGROUND: statin treatment has increased also among people aged 80 years and over, but adverse effects potentially promoting frailty and loss of resilience are frequent concerns. METHODS: in the Helsinki Businessmen Study, men born in 1919-34 (original n = 3,490) have been followed up since the 1960s. In 2011, a random subcohort of home-living survivors (n = 525) was assessed using questionnaires and clinical (including identification of phenotypic frailty) and laboratory examinations. A 7-year mortality follow-up ensued. RESULTS: we compared 259 current statin users (median age 82 years, interquartile range 80-85 years) with 266 non-users (83; 80-86 years). Statin users had significantly more multimorbidity than non-users (prevalencies 72.1% and 50.4%, respectively, P < 0.0001) and worse glucose status than non-users (prevalencies of diabetes 19.0% and 9.4%, respectively, P = 0.0008). However, there was no difference in phenotypic frailty (10.7% versus 11.2%, P = 0.27), and statin users had higher plasma prealbumin level than non-users (mean levels 257.9 and 246.3 mg/L, respectively, P = 0.034 adjusted for age, body mass index and C-reactive protein) implying better nutritional status. Despite morbidity difference, age-adjusted 7-year mortality was not different between the two groups (98 and 103 men among users and non-users of statins, respectively, hazard ratio 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.72-1.30). CONCLUSIONS: our study suggests that male octogenarian statin users preserved resilience and survival despite multimorbidity, and this may be associated with better nutritional status among statin users.
  • Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors of Chronic D Collaborating Groupiseases; Asia-Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration (APCSC); Diabetes Epidemiology: Collaborative analysis of Diagnostic criteria in Europe (DECODE); Emerging Risk Factor Collaboration (ERFC); Prospective Studies Collaboration (PSC); Miettinen, Tatu; Strandberg, Timo; Tilvis, Reijo (2013)
    BACKGROUND: The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not available. METHODS: We reviewed large cohort pooling projects, evaluating effects of baseline or usual exposure to metabolic risks on ischemic heart disease (IHD), hypertensive heart disease (HHD), stroke, diabetes, and, as relevant selected other CVDs, after adjusting for important confounders. We pooled all data to estimate relative risks (RRs) for each risk factor and examined effect modification by age or other factors, using random effects models. RESULTS: Across all risk factors, an average of 123 cohorts provided data on 1.4 million individuals and 52,000 CVD events. Each metabolic risk factor was robustly related to CVD. At the baseline age of 55-64 years, the RR for 10 mmHg higher SBP was largest for HHD (2.16; 95% CI 2.09-2.24), followed by effects on both stroke subtypes (1.66; 1.39-1.98 for hemorrhagic stroke and 1.63; 1.57-1.69 for ischemic stroke). In the same age group, RRs for 1 mmol/L higher TC were 1.44 (1.29-1.61) for IHD and 1.20 (1.15-1.25) for ischemic stroke. The RRs for 5 kg/m(2) higher BMI for ages 55-64 ranged from 2.32 (2.04-2.63) for diabetes, to 1.44 (1.40-1.48) for IHD. For 1 mmol/L higher FPG, RRs in this age group were 1.18 (1.08-1.29) for IHD and 1.14 (1.01-1.29) for total stroke. For all risk factors, proportional effects declined with age, were generally consistent by sex, and differed by region in only a few age groups for certain risk factor-disease pairs. CONCLUSION: Our results provide robust, comparable and precise estimates of the effects of major metabolic risk factors on CVD and diabetes by age group.