Browsing by Subject "cartilage"

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  • Ainola, Mari; Tomaszewski, Waclaw; Ostrowska, Barbara; Wesolowska, Ewa; Wagner, H. Daniel; Swieszkowski, Wojciech; Sillat, Tarvo; Peltola, Emilia; Konttinen, Yrjo T. (2016)
    The aim was to develop a hybrid three-dimensional-tissue engineering construct for chondrogenesis. The hypothesis was that they support chondrogenesis. A biodegradable, highly porous polycaprolactone-grate was produced by solid freeform fabrication. The polycaprolactone support was coated with a chitosan/polyethylene oxide nanofibre sheet produced by electrospinning. Transforming growth factor-3-induced chondrogenesis was followed using the following markers: sex determining region Y/-box 9, runt-related transcription factor 2 and collagen II and X in quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, histology and immunostaining. A polycaprolactone-grate and an optimized chitosan/polyethylene oxide nanofibre sheet supported cellular aggregation, chondrogenesis and matrix formation. In tissue engineering constructs, the sheets were seeded first with mesenchymal stem cells and then piled up according to the lasagne principle. The advantages of such a construct are (1) the cells do not need to migrate to the tissue engineering construct and therefore pore size and interconnectivity problems are omitted and (2) the cell-tight nanofibre sheet and collagen-fibre network mimic a cell culture platform for mesenchymal stem cells/chondrocytes (preventing escape) and hinders in-growth of fibroblasts and fibrous scarring (preventing capture). This allows time for the slowly progressing, multiphase true cartilage regeneration.
  • Salonius, Eve; Kontturi, Leena; Laitinen, Anita; Haaparanta, Anne-Marie; Korhonen, Matti; Nystedt, Johanna; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Muhonen, Virpi (2020)
    Cell therapy combined with biomaterial scaffolds is used to treat cartilage defects. We hypothesized that chondrogenic differentiation bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in three-dimensional biomaterial scaffolds would initiate cartilaginous matrix deposition and prepare the construct for cartilage regeneration in situ. The chondrogenic capability of human BM-MSCs was first verified in a pellet culture. The BM-MSCs were then either seeded onto a composite scaffold rhCo-PLA combining polylactide and collagen type II (C2) or type III (C3), or commercial collagen type I/III membrane (CG). The BM-MSCs were either cultured in a proliferation medium or chondrogenic culture medium. Adult human chondrocytes (ACs) served as controls. After 3, 14, and 28 days, the constructs were analyzed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and confocal microscopy and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were measured. The differentiated BM-MSCs entered a hypertrophic state by Day 14 of culture. The ACs showed dedifferentiation with no expression of chondrogenic genes and low amount of GAG. The CG membrane induced the highest expression levels of hypertrophic genes. The two different collagen types in composite scaffolds yielded similar results. Regardless of the biomaterial scaffold, culturing BM-MSCs in chondrogenic differentiation medium resulted in chondrocyte hypertrophy. Thus, caution for cell fate is required when designing cell-biomaterial constructs for cartilage regeneration.
  • Pérez, Alejandro Garcia; Nieminen, Heikki J.; Finnilä, Mikko; Salmi, Ari; Pritzker, Kenneth P. H.; Lampsijärvi, Eetu; Paulin, Tor; Airaksinen, Anu J.; Saarakkala, Simo; Haeggström, Edward (2018)
    Localized delivery of drugs into articular cartilage (AC) may facilitate the development of novel therapies to treat osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated the potential of spark-gap-generated sound to deliver a drug surrogate, i.e., methylene blue (MB), into AC. In vitro experiments exposed bovine AC samples to either simultaneous sonication and immersion in MB (Treatment 1; n = 10), immersion in MB after sonication (Control 1; n = 10), solely immersion in MB (Control 2; n = 10), or neither sonication nor immersion in MB (Control 3; n = 10). The sonication protocol consisted of 1,000 spark-gap -generated pulses. Delivery of MB into AC was estimated from optical absorbance in transmission light microscopy. Optical absorbance was significantly greater in the treatment group up to 900 mu m depth from AC surface as compared to all controls. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), histological analysis, and digital densitometry (DD) of sonicated (n = 6) and non-sonicated (n = 6) samples showed no evidence of sonication-induced changes in proteoglycan content or collagen structure. Consequently, spark-gap -generated sound may offer a solution for localized drug delivery into AC in a non-destructive fashion. Further research on this method may contribute to OA drug therapies.
  • Puhakka, Jani; Afara, Isaac O.; Paatela, Teemu; Sormaala, Markus J.; Timonen, Matti A.; Viren, Tuomas; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Toyras, Juha; Kiviranta, Ilkka (2016)
    Objective. Accurate arthroscopic evaluation of cartilage lesions could significantly improve the outcome of repair surgery. In this study, we investigated for the first time the potential of intra-articular ultrasound as an arthroscopic tool for grading cartilage defects in the human shoulder joint in vivo and compared the outcome to results from arthroscopic evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Design. A total of 26 sites from 9 patients undergoing routine shoulder arthroscopy were quantitatively evaluated with a clinical intravascular (40MHz) ultrasound imaging system, using the regular arthroscopy portals. Reflection coefficient (R), integrated reflection coefficient (IRC), apparent integrated backscattering (AIB), and ultrasound roughness index (URI) were calculated, and high-resolution ultrasound images were obtained per site. Each site was visually graded according to the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) system. "Ultrasound scores" corresponding to the ICRS system were determined from the ultrasound images. Magnetic resonance imaging was conducted and cartilage integrity at each site was classified into 5 grades (0 = normal, 4 = severely abnormal) by a radiologist. Results. R and IRC were lower at sites with damaged cartilage surface (P = 0.033 and P = 0.043, respectively) and correlated with arthroscopic ICRS grades (r (s) = -0.444, P = 0.023 and r (s) = -0.426, P = 0.03, respectively). Arthroscopic ICRS grades and ultrasound scores were significantly correlated (rs = 0.472, P = 0.015), but no significant correlation was found between magnetic resonance imaging data and other parameters. Conclusion. The results suggest that ultrasound arthroscopy could facilitate quantitative clinical appraisal of articular cartilage integrity in the shoulder joint and provide information on cartilage lesion depth and severity for quantitative diagnostics in surgery.
  • Barreto, Goncalo; Manninen, Mikko; Eklund, Kari K. (2020)
    Osteoarthritis (OA) has long been viewed as a degenerative disease of cartilage, but accumulating evidence indicates that inflammation has a critical role in its pathogenesis. In particular, chondrocyte-mediated inflammatory responses triggered by the activation of innate immune receptors by alarmins (also known as danger signals) are thought to be involved. Thus, toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their signaling pathways are of particular interest. Recent reports suggest that among the TLR-induced innate immune responses, apoptosis is one of the critical events. Apoptosis is of particular importance, given that chondrocyte death is a dominant feature in OA. This review focuses on the role of TLR signaling in chondrocytes and the role of TLR activation in chondrocyte apoptosis. The functional relevance of TLR and TLR-triggered apoptosis in OA are discussed as well as their relevance as candidates for novel disease-modifying OA drugs (DMOADs).