Browsing by Subject "case study"

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  • Finch, Susanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The study examined a bilingual child's agency in the context of a bilingual school. Previous research has shown that supporting a pupil's agency improves his or her motivation and engagement towards school and hence also enhances learning results. The traditional roles of teacher and pupil can be changed by encouraging pupils to agency. Bilingualism is a pervasive phenomenon in the world and affects the Finnish school worlds as well. The need for language proficiency and the demands for bilingual education increase perpetually. The study sees language as a base for human action and that it is used as a tool in the expressions of agency. The study strived to find out how children express agency and how they use their mother tongues if they have two mother tongues instead of just one. The goal of the study is to examine how the agency of an English?Finnish-bilingual child is expressed through verbal communication in a classroom. The study also strived to investigate what kinds of tasks the two mother tongues are used for in interaction. The case study centers on one 11-year-old American Finnish focus student who speaks English and Finnish as her mother tongues. The data of the study were collected by videotaping in a fifth grade of a bilingual school. In addition, a semistructured interview was used to interview the focus student and her mother in order to find out what kind of language choices the child makes and how was the development of the child's bilingualism and two mother tongues supported. The data consisted of approximately 8 hours of video material. Agency and language were examined from the viewpoint of the sociocultural framework. The results were interpreted using qualitative discourse analysis. The main result of the study is that the focus student's agency was expressed in verbal communication in a classroom through three different ways: through expertise, providing humor, and playing with institutional roles. Another finding was that agency was created partly through language. The focus student used her two mother tongues consistently for different tasks, of which communicating with family, friends, and teachers was the most significant one.
  • Rajakallio, Maria; Jyväsjärvi, Jussi; Muotka, Timo; Aroviita, Jukka (Blackwell, 2021)
    Journal of Applied Ecology 58: 7, 1523-1532
    1. Growing bioeconomy is increasing the pressure to clear-cut drained peatland forests. Yet, the cumulative effects of peatland drainage and clear-cutting on the biodiversity of recipient freshwater ecosystems are largely unknown. 2. We studied the isolated and combined effects of peatland drainage and clear-cutting on stream macroinvertebrate communities. We further explored whether the impact of these forestry-driven catchment alterations to benthic invertebrates is related to stream size. We quantified the impact on invertebrate biodiversity by comparing communities in forestry-impacted streams to expected communities modelled with a multi-taxon niche model. 3. The impact of clear-cutting of drained peatland forests exceeded the sum of the independent effects of drainage and clear-cutting, indicating a synergistic interaction between the two disturbances in small streams. Peatland drainage reduced benthic biodiversity in both small and large streams, whereas clear-cutting did the same only in small streams. Small headwater streams were more sensitive to forestry impacts than the larger downstream sites. 4. We found 11 taxa (out of 25 modelled) to respond to forestry disturbances. These taxa were mainly different from those previously reported as sensitive to forestry-driven alterations, indicating the context dependence of taxonomic responses to forestry. In contrast, most of the functional traits previously identified as responsive to agricultural sedimentation also responded to forestry pressures. In particular, taxa that live temporarily in hyporheic habitats, move by crawling, disperse actively in water, live longer than 1 year, use eggs as resistance form and obtain their food by scraping became less abundant than expected, particularly in streams impacted by both drainage and clear-cutting. 5. Synthesis and applications. Drained peatland forests in boreal areas are reaching maturity and will soon be harvested. Clear-cutting of these forests incurs multiple environmental hazards but previous studies have focused on terrestrial ecosystems. Our results show that the combined impacts of peatland drainage and clear-cutting may extend across ecosystem boundaries and cause significant biodiversity loss in recipient freshwater ecosystems. This information supports a paradigm shift in boreal forest management, whereby continuous-cover forestry based on partial harvest may provide the most sustainable approach to peatland forestry.
  • Lonkila, Annika (SAGE Publications, 2021)
    Cultural Geographies 28: 3, 479-493
    Although ethical questions are at the core of more-than-human geographies, more attention needs to be paid on researchers’ ethical responsibilities to more-than-human research subjects in social scientific research. In this paper I critically analyze my empirical work on Finnish dairy farms from the perspective of multispecies research ethics. I suggest that the concept of care is useful in understanding more-than-human research ethics. Attending to the needs of others can work as a starting point for making difficult ethical decisions in the field. However, in contested moments, different needs are often in conflict. Here, situated ethical responses might be needed in relation to the practices of fieldwork, for example to avoid causing harm to research subjects. Importantly, researchers have to care for their research subjects also through their analysis; addressing the questions related to research ethics also in terms of knowledge politics. When the ethics of care is complemented with the notion of ethics of exclusion, it has potential to tease out broader responsibilities both in interactions and knowledge about other animals and more-than-human research settings.
  • Heikkinen, Panu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This thesis is a case study that examines the reasons for the lack of citizen participation in the planning process of Kalasataman keskus, and, more generally, in the planning of megaprojects. The main observation of this thesis is that there are several reasons for this. Based on the interviews of main characters taking part in the planning of Kalasataman keskus and the planning documents of Kalasataman keskus (as well as the previous research on the topic) the reasons for lack of citizen participation were: the location of planning area with few inhabitants, the large size of the planning project, technical difficulty of the planning project, the weight on the commercial aspects of the planning, and the view of the planners (relying on experts in the planning). When these results were viewed together with the previous research, it was noted that, as the previous research suggests, the traditional practices of urban planning hinder citizen participation in planning. (For example, seeing that urban planning relies on the technical knowledge of experts.) Moreover, based on the findings of the thesis as well as the previous research, it is possible to see that when the tradition, which emphasizes expert knowledge, is paired with a planning project where the city has a commercial partner, the structures and procedures of planning tend to exclude citizens’ views from the planning process. Partly based on such findings, the thesis suggests that, if the intention is to strengthen citizen participation in, especially large, planning projects, the city should aim to strengthen, for example, local community organizations.
  • Golik Klanac, Natasa (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2008)
    Economics and Society
    During past years, we have witnessed the widespread use of websites in communication in business-to-business relationships. If developed appropriately, such communication can result in numerous positive implications for business relationships, amplifying the importance of designing website communication that meet customer needs. In doing that, an understanding of value of website communication for customers is crucial. The study develops a theoretical framework of customer value of website communication in business-to-business relationships. Theoretically, the study builds on the interaction approach to industrial marketing, different approaches to customer value and inter-organisational communication theory. The empirical part involves a case study with a seller and nine different customer companies in the elevator industry. The data collection encompasses interviews and observations of representatives from the customer companies, interviews with the seller and an analysis of various reports of the seller. The continuous iteration between the theory and the case study resulted in the integrated approach to customer value and in the holistic theoretical framework of customer value of website communication in business-to-business relationships. The framework incorporates and elicits meanings of different components of customer value: website communication characteristics that act as drivers of customer value, customer consequences – both benefits and sacrifices, customer end-states as the final goals that lead customer actions, and different types of linkages between these components. Compared to extant research on customer value, the study offers a more holistic framework of customer value that depicts its complexity and richness. In addition, it portrays customer value in the neglected context of website communication. The findings of the study can be used as tools in any analysis of customer value. They are also of relevance in designing appropriate website communication as well as in developing effective website communication strategies. Nataša Golik Klanac is associated with the Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management (CERS) at Hanken.
  • Lehtoranta, Virpi; Louhi, Pauliina (Elsevier Science, 2021)
    Environmental Science & Policy 124, 226-234
    Non-market values pose a challenge in decision making. In a contribution to the issue, the study assesses the potential positive impact on residents’ wellbeing of improving the ecological status of water bodies making up the Saarijärvi watercourse in Central Finland, a region with numerous Natura areas. The benefits provided by the aquatic environment and the factors affecting them were assessed using the contingent valuation method (CVM). A split-sample design made it possible to analyse expressed uncertainty with two payment vehicles: in one, the question of uncertainty was included in the willingness-to-pay (WTP) questions (multiple bounded discrete choice, MBDC); in the other, it was queried separately after the payment card (PC) question. Where respondents saw added value in Natura 2000 sites and received new information on water management, they experienced increased wellbeing from improved water quality. Perceived importance of sustainable hydropower and water regulation also figured in a desire to improve the ecological status of waters in the region. The results show that there is a noticeable positive WTP among residents (N = 473) for improved water status and that estimated WTP differs according to uncertainty: mean WTP every year per individual fell in the range EUR 29.70 to EUR 75.50. Improvement of water status and protection of Natura 2000 sites were found to be mutually reinforcing goals. Higher net social benefits could be realized if implementation of the applicable directives were more closely coupled to regional planning.
  • Shu, Song; Liu, Hongxing; Beck, Richard A.; Frappart, Frédéric; Korhonen, Johanna; Lan, Minxuan; Xu, Min; Yang, Bo; Huang, Yan (Copernicus Publications / European Geosciences Union, 2021)
    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 25:3
    A total of 13 satellite missions have been launched since 1985, with different types of radar altimeters on board. This study intends to make a comprehensive evaluation of historic and currently operational satellite radar altimetry missions for lake water level retrieval over the same set of lakes and to develop a strategy for constructing consistent long-term water level records for inland lakes at global scale. The lake water level estimates produced by different retracking algorithms (retrackers) of the satellite missions were compared with the gauge measurements over 12 lakes in four countries. The performance of each retracker was assessed in terms of the data missing rate, the correlation coefficient r, the bias, and the root mean square error (RMSE) between the altimetry-derived lake water level estimates and the concurrent gauge measurements. The results show that the model-free retrackers (e.g., OCOG/Ice-1/Ice) outperform the model-based retrackers for most of the missions, particularly over small lakes. Among the satellite altimetry missions, Sentinel-3 gave the best results, followed by SARAL. ENVISAT has slightly better lake water level estimates than Jason-1 and Jason-2, but its data missing rate is higher. For small lakes, ERS-1 and ERS-2 missions provided more accurate lake water level estimates than the TOPEX/Poseidon mission. In contrast, for large lakes, TOPEX/Poseidon is a better option due to its lower data missing rate and shorter repeat cycle. GeoSat and GeoSat Follow-On (GFO) both have an extremely high data missing rate of lake water level estimates. Although several contemporary radar altimetry missions provide more accurate lake level estimates than GFO, GeoSat was the sole radar altimetry mission, between 1985 and 1990, that provided the lake water level estimates. With a full consideration of the performance and the operational duration, the best strategy for constructing long-term lake water level records should be a two-step bias correction and normalization procedure. In the first step, use Jason-2 as the initial reference to estimate the systematic biases with TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason-3 and then normalize them to form a consistent TOPEX/Poseidon–Jason series. Then, use the TOPEX/Poseidon–Jason series as the reference to estimate and remove systematic biases with other radar altimetry missions to construct consistent long-term lake water level series for ungauged lakes.
  • Outinen, Okko; Bailey, Sarah A.; Broeg, Katja; Chasse, Joël; Clarke, Stacey; Daigle, Rémi M.; Gollasch, Stephan; Kakkonen, Jenni E.; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Normant-Saremba, Monika; Ogilvie, Dawson; Viard, Frederique (Elsevier, 2021)
    Journal of Environmental Management 293 (2021), 112823
    The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention) aims to mitigate the introduction risk of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens (HAOP) via ships’ ballast water and sediments. The BWM Convention has set regulations for ships to utilise exceptions and exemptions from ballast water management under specific circumstances. This study evaluated local and regional case studies to provide clarity for situations, where ships could be excepted or exempted from ballast water management without risking recipient locations to new introductions of HAOP. Ships may be excepted from ballast water management if all ballasting operations are conducted in the same location (Regulation A-3.5 of the BWM Convention). The same location case study determined whether the entire Vuosaari harbour (Helsinki, Finland) should be considered as the same location based on salinity and composition of HAOP between the two harbour terminals. The Vuosaari harbour case study revealed mismatching occurrences of HAOP between the harbour terminals, supporting the recommendation that exceptions based on the same location concept should be limited to the smallest feasible areas within a harbour. The other case studies evaluated whether ballast water exemptions could be granted for ships using two existing risk assessment (RA) methods (Joint Harmonised Procedure [JHP] and Same Risk Area [SRA]), consistent with Regulation A-4 of the BWM Convention. The JHP method compares salinity and presence of target species (TS) between donor and recipient ports to indicate the introduction risk (high or low) attributed to transferring unmanaged ballast water. The SRA method uses a biophysical model to determine whether HAOP could naturally disperse between ports, regardless of their transportation in ballast water. The results of the JHP case study for the Baltic Sea and North-East Atlantic Ocean determined that over 97% of shipping routes within these regions resulted in a high-risk indication. The one route assessed in the Gulf of Maine, North America also resulted in a high-risk outcome. The SRA assessment resulted in an overall weak connectivity between all ports assessed within the Gulf of the St. Lawrence, indicating that a SRA-based exemption would not be appropriate for the entire study area. In summary, exceptions and exemptions should not be considered as common alternatives for ballast water management. The availability of recent and detailed species occurrence data was considered the most important factor to conduct a successful and reliable RA. SRA models should include biological factors that influence larval dispersal and recruitment potential (e.g., pelagic larval duration, settlement period) to provide a more realistic estimation of natural dispersal.
  • Ramirez Lahti, Jacinto; Tuovinen, Antti-Pekka; Mikkonen, Tommi (IEEE, 2021)
    Technical debt has become a common metaphor for the accumulation of software design and implementation choices that seek fast initial gains but that are under par and counterproductive in the long run. However, as a metaphor, technical debt does not offer actionable advice on how to get rid of it. To get to a practical level in solving problems, more focused mechanisms are needed. Commonly used approaches for this include identifying code smells as quick indications of possible problems in the codebase and detecting the presence of AntiPatterns that refer to overt, recurring problems in design. There are known remedies for both code smells and AntiPatterns. In paper, our goal is to show how to effectively use common tools and the existing body of knowledge on code smells and AntiPatterns to detect technical debt and pay it back. We present two main results: (i) How a combination of static code analysis and manual inspection was used to detect code smells in a codebase leading to the discovery of AntiPatterns; and (ii) How AntiPatterns were used to identify, characterize, and fix problems in the software. The experiences stem from a private company and its long-lasting software product development effort.
  • Römer-Paakkanen, T. (Helsingin yliopisto, taloustieteen laitos, 2002)
    Julkaisuja
    In this thesis the focus is on how do the K-retailers and their wives cope in connecting family life, family entrepreneurship and cooperation with the chain organization. The entrepreneur’s household and the firm form a socio-economic unit called householdenterprise- complex which interacts with its environment. The interaction within the household-enterprise complex and the interaction between the complex and the chain organization form the general framework for this empirical investigation. The research problem is examined by seeking answers for the next more detailed research questions: 1. How does the K-retailer's household-enterprise-complex cope between multiple needs and challenges? 2. How do the household and the family firm interact economically? 3. How do the gender roles influence in the household-enterprise-complex of K-retailers? 4. How does the household-enterprise-complex interact with the chain? 5. How do the entrepreneurial couples experience their way of life? Familyentrepreneurship as a life style is examined as the entrepreneurial couple experience it themselves. The study is based to the empirical data that is collected in qualitative semi-structured-interviews of 10 retailers and 8 wives in the capital area of Finland. The interviews were conducted in spring 1999. There were two cases from each of the retail chains of Kesko (Rimi discount stores, K-neighborhood stores, Ksupermarkets, K-superstores and Citymarket hypermarkets). Most of all the interaction between household and enterprise is affected by characteristics of the family and the firm, by the life cycle of the family and the firm, by the size of the family and the firm, by the division of labor and gender roles within the family. The complex operates on the basis of its values, sets of goals and available resources. The family’s "soft" values and culture has to be connected to the "hard" values and culture of the firm and chain. The economic stage of a family firm changes over time and the economic interaction between household and enterprise follows the life cycle stages. When starting a family business the retailer and his/her family usually invest all the private property to the firm and from that day the household and the firm are economically overlapping as long as the enterprise exists. There may be some periods of time when the household and the firm can be quite self-supporting but when the store needs some renewals the retailer has to invest again to his/her business. The family gives its labor and also the private property to the use of the family firm. The chain brings the logistic efficiency and information to the use of the retailer. And the retailer as a promoter connects all the resources and tries to create the family business so that it can fulfill all the tasks that the different interest groups ask for. One of the most important results of this study is that the family entrepreneurship can provide one solution to the problem of connecting work and family as the division of labor is quite flexible in business families. The case families can be divided into three main categories (copreneurs, equal partners, patriarchal families) according to their division of labor but as the families move on in their life cycle stage they can also move to another category of division of labor. The respondents in this study see the cooperation with the chain more as cooperation between the retailers. All the respondents feel that it is good and safe to be K-retailer. The economies of scale and the joint purchasing are the most important motives to belong to the chain.
  • Häyrinen, Liina; Toppinen, Anne; Toivonen, Ritva (2020)
    Wood as a renewable construction material presents positive human health, well-being and sustainability-related features. Several studies have indicated its lower carbon footprint compared to the main alternative construction materials and its physiological and psychological characteristics have positive impacts on human health. The objective of this study is to investigate how young adults perceive the health, well-being and sustainability impacts of wooden interior materials. The findings from the four focus groups indicate that generally the image of wooden materials is positive although some concerns were identified. Further, wood as an interior material is perceived to have mainly positive psychological impacts on human health and well-being. From a sustainability perspective, participants recognized both negative and positive impacts of wooden materials mainly relating to environmental sustainability. Findings also revealed that although participants appreciate health and sustainability in the contexts of housing and particularly interior materials, still the materials' appearance and the financial situation of young participants' households dictate their criteria for choosing housing. The study results suggest that positive health impacts of wood, as well as its broader sustainability impacts, should be better acknowledged and promoted more broadly in society. This could result in greater appreciation towards wood and wooden materials among consumers.
  • Väyrynen, Sai; Hietanen, Lenita (2018)
    While several studies focus on university students’ participation in their educational paths, fewer studies deal with students’ participation in the processes of curriculum design and implementation. This qualitative case study explores how more equal practices can be implemented at universities, using the Framework for Participation (Black-Hawkins, 2010) and the case of music studies in primary teacher education. Inclusion, participation and culturally relevant curricula are keys to promote sustainable social development. This is particularly important in the sparsely populated northern areas, and we need develop ways in which we can engage our student teachers in this exploration. The first part of the data was collected and analysed in the spring semester 2013 focusing on the ways in which the students were involved in the different phases of the curriculum: enacted and experienced curriculum. Based on the findings of the first part, during the curriculum renewal period, and after participating in developing a music course curriculum, the second data were collected in the autumn semester 2017. Our findings indicate that students’ experiences of participation vary, for example, according to their opportunities to use, challenge and develop their musical skills in action.
  • Hakoniemi, Mervi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Equal education is a fundamental human right that each child is entitled to. Education and gender equality benefit all individuals and promote both social and economic development. However, despite numerous legal instruments and practical measures taken by the international community, as well as by national governments, the right to education remains unclaimed universally for all children and inequality in education is pervasive all over the world. As a legacy of colonization Peruvian society suffers from persistent multifaceted inequalities that are manifested and reproduced in the education system in multiple ways. These inequalities are seen, amongst others, between genders, but also intersect with other individual characteristics such as poverty, rurality and indigeneity. This Master’s thesis explores gender equality in education in Peru and how gender is mainstreamed in the country program of Save the Children Peru. To do so, it explores how legal instruments, policy documents and the country programme of the organization address gender (in)equality and attempt to mainstream gender; and analyses how an education project that the organization implemented among indigenous Aymara adolescents between 2015 and 2018 managed to mainstream gender. This thesis is a qualitative case study. It follows the rights-based 4A framework by Katarina Tomaševski, which encompasses availability, accessibility, acceptability, and adaptability as key aspects of quality of education. The data for it consists of normative documents, literature on inequality in education, institutional documents of Save the Children International and transcribed interviews with key informants from Save the Children Peru. These were analysed by using interpretive analysis and then considered in the light of the model of Caroline Moser on different stages of gender mainstreaming. The results of the study demonstrate that despite recent achievements, gender inequalities in education persist in Peru, but focus has shifted from quantitative to qualitative disparities. Many stakeholders consider gender mainstreaming a rather ambiguous concept, and challenging to both implement and assess, which is why it often remains on a rhetoric level. This yields in a need for the organizations to provide the necessary tools and capacity building, not only for the monitoring personnel but for the whole staff. Promoting gender equality across the whole program cycle must be an institutional commitment, gender mainstreaming must permeate the whole organization and adequate resources must be allocated for it.
  • Garcia, Leandro; Johnson, Rob; Johnson, Alex; Abbas, Ali; Goel, Rahul; Tatah, Lambed; Damsere-Derry, James; Kyere-Gyeabour, Elvis; Tainio, Marko; de Sá, Thiago H.; Woodcock, James (Pergamon, 2021)
    Environment International 155, 106680
    Background: Health impact assessments of alternative travel patterns are urgently needed to inform transport and urban planning in African cities, but none exists so far. Objective: To quantify the health impacts of changes in travel patterns in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana. Methods: We estimated changes to population exposures to physical activity, air pollution, and road traffic fatality risk and consequent health burden (deaths and years of life lost prematurely – YLL) in response to changes in transportation patterns. Five scenarios were defined in collaboration with international and local partners and stakeholders to reflect potential local policy actions. Results: Swapping bus and walking trips for car trips can lead to more than 400 extra deaths and 20,500 YLL per year than travel patterns observed in 2009. If part of the rise in motorisation is from motorcycles, we estimated an additional nearly 370 deaths and over 18,500 YLL per year. Mitigating the rise in motorisation by swapping long trips by car or taxi to bus trips is the most beneficial for health, averting more than 600 premature deaths and over 31,500 YLL per year. Without significant improvements in road safety, reduction of short motorised trips in favour of cycling and walking had no significant net health benefits as non-communicable diseases deaths and YLL benefits were offset by increases in road traffic deaths. In all scenarios, road traffic fatalities were the largest contributor to changes in deaths and YLL. Conclusions: Rising motorisation, particularly from motorcycles, can cause significant increase in health burden in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area. Mitigating rising motorisation by improving public transport would benefit population health. Tackling road injury risk to ensure safe walking and cycling is a top priority. In the short term, this will save lives from injury. Longer term it will help halt the likely fall in physical activity.
  • Tang, Jin; Sipilainen, Timo; Fu, Gang (2020)
    Social responsibility is a natural obligation of cooperatives, and fulfilling social responsibility is of great meaning to the sustainable development of cooperatives and society. This article constructs a "life cycle-cooperative social responsibility framework (LC-CoopSRF)" and analyzes the framework with the case of Chongxin Apiculture Specialized Cooperative of Sichuan Province, China. The research results show that cooperatives should respect the law of life cycle, consider conditions such as operational capabilities and ethical expectations, and fulfill social responsibility in a reasonable manner. The successful cooperative highlights the bottom-line responsibility in the establishment phase, internal responsibility in the growth phase, system responsibility in the maturity phase, and the differentiation phase is the phase of system responsibility.
  • Ruismäki, Heikki; Ruokonen, Inkeri (2013)
  • Moilanen, Fanni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Sustainability transitions literature addresses societal challenges relating to sustainability and offers alternative visions as solutions. Transition of the energy system is central in mitigating climate change and attaining sustainability. District heating is a fundamental part of the Finnish energy system, and the majority of heat is produced with fossil fuels. This case study investigates the low temperature and two-way district heating experiment of Skanssi in Turku. Transitions evolve from local experiments i.e. niche innovations, which propose visions of sustainable alternatives. The implementation and diffusion of these alternatives is challenged by various hindrances, such as institutionalized practices. The aim of the study is to investigate the district heating experiment of Skanssi by utilizing sustainability transition literature. In addition, the study examines the institutions that hampered the implementation of the local niche innovation. The research data was collected by interviewing the central actors related to the development and implementation of the local district heating experiment. The interview data was analyzed using theory-guided content analysis. Internet based material of the case was utilized as secondary data. The local district heating experiment was initiated by the regional energy company in cooperation with the city of Turku. The experiment was expected to decrease greenhouse gas emissions and to provide decentralized heat production in the Skanssi area. The implementation of the experiment had halted in 2018, and a two-way heating system had not been realized. Slow construction of the houses in the area hindered the implementation of the experiment. In addition various regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive institutions effected the planning and implementation of the experiment. The lack of regulation concerning two-way heating systems increased uncertainty around the experiment. Furthermore, the experiment did not suit the practices, roles and interests of both the inhabitants and housing developers. The findings show that two-way district heating systems are still highly uncommon, and thus their implementation is inert and uncertain. After the data collection of this study there have been changes in the district heat sector, which may have influenced the development of the experiment in Skanssi. Since local experiments are essential in advancing the energy transition, it would be important to continue implementation of the local district heating experiment.
  • Sandhu, Maqsood (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2005)
    Economics and Society
    The driving force behind this study is the gap between the reality of the firms engaged in project business and the available studies covering project management and business process development. Previous studies show that project-based organizations were ‘immature’ in terms of the project-management ‘maturity model’, as few firms were found to be optimizing processes. Even within those, very little attention was paid to combine inter-organizational and intra-organizational perspectives. In this study an effort is made to elaborate some thoughts and views on project management, which interrelate firms’ external and internal activities. In line with the integration, the dissertation uses an approach to the management of project-business interdependencies in the networks of actors, activities and resources. Firstly, the study develops an understanding for inter-organizational perspectives by exploring the complementarities of process activities in the basic development of project business. It presents a framework that is elaborated on the basis of the reciprocal interactions of activities within and outside the organization—thus providing a coherent basis for continuous business-process improvement. In addition, the study presents new tools that can be used to develop project-business processes in each of its functional areas. The research demonstrates how project-business activities can be optimized using the right resources at the right time with the right actors and the right actions. The selected five articles included in this dissertation explain the basic framework for the development of project business. Each paper covers various aspects of inter-organizational and intra-organizational perspectives for project management. The study develops a valuable and procedural model for business-process improvement using the Delphi method that can be used not only in academia but also as a guide for practitioners that takes them through a series of well-defined steps when making informed, consistent and efficient changes to their business processes.
  • Angelstam, Per; Fedoriak, Mariia; Cruz, Fatima; Muñoz-Rojas, José; Yamelynets, Taras; Manton, Michael; Washbourne, Carla-Leanne; Dobrynin, Denis; Izakovičova, Zita; Jansson, Nicklas; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Kanka, Robert; Kavtarishvili, Marika; Kopperoinen, Leena; Lazdinis, Marius; Metzger, Marc J.; Özüt, Deniz; Gjorgjieska, Dori Pavloska; Sijtsma, Frans J.; Stryamets, Nataliya; Tolunay, Ahmet; Turkoglu, Turkay; Moolen, Bert van der; Zagidullina, Asiya; Zhuk, Alina (2021)
    Ecology and Society 26 (1): 11
    Achieving sustainable development as an inclusive societal process in rural landscapes, and sustainability in terms of functional green infrastructures for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services, are wicked challenges. Competing claims from various sectors call for evidence-based adaptive collaborative governance. Leveraging such approaches requires maintenance of several forms of social interactions and capitals. Focusing on Pan-European regions with different environmental histories and cultures, we estimate the state and trends of two groups of factors underpinning rural landscape stewardship, namely, (1) traditional rural landscape and novel face-to-face as well as virtual fora for social interaction, and (2) bonding, bridging, and linking forms of social capital. We applied horizon scanning to 16 local landscapes located in 18 countries, representing Pan-European social-ecological and cultural gradients. The resulting narratives, and rapid appraisal knowledge, were used to estimate portfolios of different fora for social interactions and forms of social capital supporting landscape stewardship. The portfolios of fora for social interactions were linked to societal cultures across the European continent: “self-expression and secular-rational values” in the northwest, “Catholic” in the south, and “survival and traditional authority values” in the East. This was explained by the role of traditional secular and religious local meeting places. Virtual internet-based fora were most widespread. Bonding social capitals were the strongest across the case study landscapes, and linking social capitals were the weakest. This applied to all three groups of fora. Pan-European social-ecological contexts can be divided into distinct clusters with respect to the portfolios of different fora supporting landscape stewardship, which draw mostly on bonding and bridging forms of social capital. This emphasizes the need for regionally and culturally adapted approaches to landscape stewardship, which are underpinned by evidence-based knowledge about how to sustain green infrastructures based on both forest naturalness and cultural landscape values. Sharing knowledge from comparative studies can strengthen linking social capital.
  • Lyytimäki, Jari; Benighaus, Ludger; Gómez, Javier; Benighaus, Christina; Kauppi, Sari; Kotilainen, Juha M.; Mononen, Tuija; del Rio, Virginia (Springer Nature, 2021)
    Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration 38 (2021), 1831–1843
    The understanding of public debates over mineral exploration and mining largely originates from exceptional situations such as mining accidents of conflicts. Less is known about how mining is portrayed and understood under more conventional settings. What storylines dominate the local day-to-day public debate? This article presents results from a comparative case study focusing on newspaper coverage of mineral exploration and mining in three European countries representing different geological and socio-economic contexts. Newspaper articles from the Geyer-Erzgebirge region in Germany, the Andalusia region in Spain, and Northern Finland are studied. The sample looks into the period between September 2018 and February 2020 and shows that regional newspapers report about mining issues relatively intensively even in the absence of major accidents or other media events causing peaks of attention. The tone of the articles is generally neutral to positive towards mining activities, reflecting the specific local settings, historical experiences, and future expectations. Despite the different contexts of the three countries, there were considerable similarities to the topics highlighted, including common themes of mining revival, mining events and social interaction, history of mining, and damages related to mining. Past, present, and future employment opportunities related directly or indirectly to the mining sector are key storylines. Another recurrent underlying theme is the need to balance environment and safety risks and socio-economic prosperity, typically covered through ordinary disputes among the mining sector, public authorities, regional non-governmental organizations, and local initiatives.