Browsing by Subject "castration"

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  • Graves, Meggan T.; Schneider, Liesel; Cox, Sherry; Caldwell, Marc; Krawczel, Peter; Lee, Amanda; Lear, Andrea (2020)
    The mitigation of pain associated with common management procedures is a rising concern among veterinarians, producers and consumers. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are vital compounds for this purpose due to their cost, convenience, and efficacy. A transdermal formulation of flunixin meglumine (FM) was approved for the treatment of pain in cattle; however, the efficacy has yet to be determined for small ruminants. The current study had two aims: 1) to determine the pharmacokinetics of transdermal flunixin meglumine (TD FM) in bucklings and 2) to evaluate pain mitigation by TD FM following castration. To evaluate pharmacokinetics, 12 male goats (mean age = 6 mo) received 2.2 mg/kg of FM IV (n = 6) or 3.3 mg/kg TD FM (n = 6). Plasma FM concentrations were measured. The mean C-max, T-max, and harmonic mean half-life for TD FM were 1.09 +/- 0.65 mu g/ mL, 5.50 +/- 2.95 h, and 7.16 +/- 2.06 h, respectively. To evaluate the efficacy of pain mitigation, 18 goats were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: 1) TD FM and castration (FM CAST) (n = 6); 2) transdermal placebo and castration (PL CAST) (n = 6); and 3) TD FM and sham castration (SHAM) (n = 6). Plasma samples were collected at 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 h to assess cortisol and prostaglandin E-2 (PGE(2)). Daily dry matter intake (DMI) was recorded and body weight was measured at the beginning and end of the study. Thermography (IRT) images of the scrotum, as well as heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and rectal temperature, were taken twice daily. Separate mixed analysis of variance models were used to test the effects of treatment, time, and their interaction on mean body temperature, IRT, HR, and RR. Autoregressive covariance structure was utilized to account for repeated measures and individual goat DMI prior to the study was added as a covariate. There were no differences in vital parameters, IRT measurements, cortisol, or PGE(2) in animals receiving either TD FM or placebo following castration (P > 0.05). DMI had a treatment by hour interaction and was significantly higher in FM CAST and SHAM groups than the PL CAST group (P = 0.04). Goats in the SHAM group gained weight throughout the study, whereas goats in all other groups lost weight (P = 0.02). Results indicate that TD FM may mitigate pain as demonstrated by increased DMI; however, a single dose may not be sufficient to reduce physiological indicators of pain associated with castration in goats.
  • Meani, Davide; Solarić, Mladen; Visapää, Harri; Rosén, Rose-Marie; Janknegt, Robert; Soče, Majana (2018)
    Background:Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists is well established for the treatment of men with metastatic prostate cancer. As clear differences in efficacy, safety, or tolerability between the available LHRH agonists are lacking, the healthcare management team needs to look to practical differences between the formulations when selecting therapy for their patients. Moreover, as the economic burden of prostate cancer rises alongside earlier diagnosis and improved survival, the possibility for cost savings by using products with specific features is growing in importance.Methods:A review was conducted to summarize the information on the different LHRH agonist formulations currently available and offer insight into their relative benefits and disadvantages from the perspectives of physicians, a pharmacist, and a nurse.Results:The leuprorelin acetate and goserelin acetate solid implants have the advantage of being ready to use with no requirement for refrigeration, whereas powder and microsphere formulations have to be reconstituted and have specific storage or handling constraints. The single-step administration of solid implants, therefore, has potential to reduce labor time and associated costs. Dosing frequency is another key consideration, as administering the injection provides an opportunity for face-to-face interaction between the patient and healthcare professionals to ensure therapy is optimized and give reassurance to patients. Prostate cancer patients are reported to prefer 3- or 6-monthly dosing, which aligns with the monitoring frequency recommended in European Association of Urology guidelines and has been shown to result in reduced annual costs compared with 1-month formulations.Conclusions:A number of practical differences exist between the different LHRH agonist preparations available, which may impact on clinical practice. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware and carefully consider these differences when selecting treatments for their prostate cancer patients.
  • Norring, Marianna; Mintline, Erin M.; Tucker, Cassandra B. (2017)
    Castration is painful for calves. Castrating at an earlier age is often recommended, but little is known about how this affects the healing process or the pain experienced. We compared incision closure, swelling and pain sensitivity of beef calves surgically castrated at 3 (range 0 to 8 d; n = 16) or 73 (range 69 to 80 d; n = 15) d of age. Closure of the incision, as measured with a 5-point scale (1 = fresh wound, 5 = no longer visible), weight gain, and inflammation (skin temperature and swelling, as measured by scrotal circumference) were recorded on d 1, 3, 7, 11, 15, 18, 21, 25, 32, 39, 45, 61, and 77 after the procedure, until all incisions were fully healed. On these same days, pain sensitivity was assessed by applying a known and increasing force with von Frey hairs (0.02 to 300 g-force) at the edge of the castration wound and at a control site, approximately 2 to 5 cm anterior to the teats, until animals showed a behavioral response or the highest force was reached. The incisions of younger calves healed more quickly than older ones [fully healed, median (95% confidence interval); 39 (32 to 61) vs. 61 (61 to 77) d; P = 0.002], however, they had relatively more swelling in the days after castration (P < 0.001). Younger animals reacted to lighter pressure of von Frey hairs compared to older calves especially in the first stages of healing process (P < 0.001), and there were other signs indicative of inflammation processes in this region at this time. However, there was no difference in the control site for either age group. In addition, it took longer for older calves to recover their daily weight gain after the procedure (P < 0.001). Taken together, these results paint a mixed picture about the effects of age of surgical castration. Calves castrated soon after birth experience more tissue swelling and show more signs of pain, but their incisions heal sooner and their weight gain is less affected, when compared to animals castrated around 73 d of age.