Browsing by Subject "cattle"

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  • Martikainen, K.; Tyrisevä, A. M.; Matilainen, K.; Pösö, J.; Uimari, P. (2017)
    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data enable the estimation of inbreeding at the genome level. In this study, we estimated inbreeding levels for 19,075 Finnish Ayrshire cows genotyped with a low-density SNP panel (8K). The genotypes were imputed to 50K density, and after quality control, 39,144 SNPs remained for the analysis. Inbreeding coefficients were estimated for each animal based on the percentage of homozygous SNPs (F-PH), runs of homozygosity (F-ROH) and pedigree (F-PED). Phenotypic records were available for 13,712 animals including non-return rate (NRR), number of inseminations (AIS) and interval from first to last insemination (IFL) for heifers and up to three parities for cows, as well as interval from calving to first insemination (ICF) for cows. Average F-PED was 0.02, F-ROH 0.06 and F-PH 0.63. A correlation of 0.71 was found between F-PED and F-ROH, 0.66 between F-PED and F-PH and 0.94 between F-ROH and F-PH. Pedigree-based inbreeding coefficients did not show inbreeding depression in any of the traits. However, when F-ROH or F-PH was used as a covariate, significant inbreeding depression was observed; a 10% increase in F-ROH was associated with 5days longer IFL0 and IFL1, 2weeks longer IFL3 and 3days longer ICF2 compared to non-inbred cows.
  • Martikainen, K.; Sironen, A.; Uimari, P. (2018)
    Inbreeding increases homozygosity, which in turn increases the frequency of harmful recessive alleles, resulting in inbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression on fertility reduces the profitability of dairy farming by decreasing the lifetime milk production of cows and by increasing insemination and veterinary costs. Continuous homozygous segments, called runs of homozygosity (ROH), are currently considered to provide an effective measure of genomic inbreeding. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of increased intrachromosomal homozygosity for female fertility in the Finnish Ayrshire population using ROH and haplotype analysis. Genotypes were obtained from 13,712 females with the Illumina BovineLD v.2 BeadChip low-density panel (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) and imputed to 50K density. After quality control, 40,554 single nucleotide polymorphisms remained for the analysis. Phenotypic data consisted of records for nonreturn rate, intervals from first to last insemination (IFL), and intervals from calving to first insemination. The raw phenotypic values were preadjusted for systematic effects before statistical analyses. The ROH-based inbreeding coefficients (F-ROH) were used as covariats in the mixed model equation to estimate the association between inbreeding and inbreeding depression on female fertility. First, we estimated the effect of increased chromosomal F-ROH. We detected significant inbreeding depression on IFL. Based on our results, a 10% increase in F-ROH on chromosomes 2, 18, and 22 were associated with IFL of heifers lengthening by 1.6, 0.9, and 0.7 d, respectively. Similarly, a 10% increase in F-ROH on chromosome 15 was associated with IFL of second-parity cows increasing by 2.3 d. Next, we located the regions within the chromosomes showing inbreeding depression. Our analysis revealed regions near the beginning of chromosome 2 and toward the ends of chromosomes 15, 18, and 22 that were associated with inbreeding depression on IFL. Last, we performed a haplotype analysis for the detected regions. The most promising haplotypes of each region were associated with IFL of heifers increasing by 4.4, 3.2, and 4.1 d on chromosomes 2, 18, and 22, respectively. The haplotype on chromosome 15 associated with IFL of second-parity cows increasing by 7.6 d. Overall, the breeding program requires inbreeding control, as increased genomic inbreeding in our study was associated with reduced reproductive ability in Finnish Ayrshire cattle.
  • Väärikkälä, Sofia; Koskela, Tarja; Hänninen, Laura; Nevas, Mari (2020)
    EU legislation requires the violations of animal welfare standards to be sanctioned. Our aim was to evaluate criminal sanctions concerning violations of cattle and pig welfare on Finnish farms. We analysed 196 court cases heard in Finnish district courts from 2011 to 2016. Almost all the cases (95%) concerned the violations of cattle welfare, of which 61% occurred on small farms. The lack of cleanliness and inadequate feeding and watering were the most common reported violations. The median time span from the known start date of the crime to the judgement was nearly two years. Of the cases, 96% resulted in conviction. The court did not perceive the violations as being highly blameworthy as a small fine and a short conditional imprisonment were the most often imposed sanctions. A ban on the keeping of animals was used as a precautionary measure in half of the cases. Veterinarians were shown to have an important role in the initiation of criminal procedures, providing evidence for the police and acting as witnesses. Therefore, it is crucial to achieve a well-functioning collaboration between veterinarians and the police and prosecutors. The expertise of these authorities on animal welfare legislation should also be emphasized to improve the efficacy of the criminal procedures.
  • Väärikkälä, S.; Artukka, S-M; Hänninen, L.; Nevas, M. (2018)
    The aim of this study was to broaden the understanding of Finnish cattle and pig farmers' perceptions of the on-site animal welfare inspections carried out by official authorities in livestock farms. The study was conducted using an electronic questionnaire, aimed at 500 Finnish cattle and 500 pig farmers. Responses were received from 96 cattle farmers and 105 pig farmers, of which 20 and 55, respectively, had undergone an animal welfare inspection. It was found that most of the farmers recognised the need for animal welfare inspections, but also that a more negative attitude was prevalent among farmers who had undergone these inspections. The inspection itself was a far more negative experience if the farmer had not understood the reason for the inspection, no opportunity existed to be heard, or the findings of the report were found to be unclear. The results suggest that although the farmers generally approve of inspections, their own negative experiences affect their perceptions. Moving forward, efforts should be made by inspectors to enhance the level of communication, thereby ensuring the findings of the report are clear to the farmer.
  • Jaakkonen, Anniina; Castro, Hanna; Hallanvuo, Saija; Ranta, Jukka; Rossi, Mirko; Isidro, Joana; Lindström, Miia; Hakkinen, Marjaana (2019)
    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Campylobacter jejuni are notable health hazards associated with the consumption of raw milk. These bacteria may colonize the intestines of asymptomatic cattle and enter bulk tank milk via fecal contamination during milking. We studied the frequency of STEC O157:H7 and C. jejuni contamination in tank milk (n = 785) and the in-line milk filters of milking machines (n = 631) versus the frequency of isolation from cattle feces (n = 257) on three Finnish dairy farms for 1 year. Despite simultaneous isolation of STEC O157:H7 (17%) or C. jejuni (53%) from cattle, these bacteria were rarely isolated from milk filters (2% or = 11 months, and several other C. jejuni types were detected sporadically. The stx gene carried by STEC was detected more frequently from milk filters (37%) than from milk (7%), suggesting that milk filters are more suitable sampling targets for monitoring than milk. A questionnaire of on-farm practices suggested lower stx contamination of milk when major cleansing in the barn, culling, or pasturing of dairy cows was applied, while a higher average outdoor temperature was associated with higher stx contamination. Because pathogen contamination occurred despite good hygiene and because pathogen detection from milk and milk filters proved challenging, we recommend heat treatment for raw milk before consumption. The increased popularity of raw milk consumption has created demand for relaxing legislation, despite the risk of contamination by pathogenic bacteria, notably STEC and C. jejuni. However, the epidemiology of these milk-borne pathogens on the herd level is still poorly understood, and data are lacking on the frequency of milk contamination on farms with cattle shedding these bacteria in their feces. This study suggests (i) that STEC contamination in milk can be reduced, but not prevented, by on-farm hygienic measures while fecal shedding is observable, (ii) that milk filters are more suitable sampling targets for monitoring than milk although pathogen detection from both sample matrices may be challenging, and (iii) that STEC and C. jejuni genotypes may persist in cattle herds for several months. The results can be utilized in developing and targeting pathogen monitoring and risk management on the farm level and contributed to the revision of Finnish legislation in 2017.
  • Xu, Hongen; Pausch, Hubert; Venhoranta, Heli; Rutkowska, Karolina; Wurmser, Christine; Rieblinger, Beate; Flisikowska, Tatiana; Frishman, Dmitrij; Zwierzchowski, Lech; Fries, Ruedi; Andersson, Magnus; Kind, Alexander; Schnieke, Angelika; Flisikowski, Krzysztof (2017)
    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is caused by dysregulation of placental metabolism. Paternally inherited IUGR mutations in the fetus influence maternal physiology via the placenta. However, it is not known whether the maternal placenta also affects the extent of IUGR in such fetuses. In cattle and other ruminants, maternal-fetal communication occurs primarily at the placentomes. We previously identified a 3 deletion in the noncoding MER1 repeat containing imprinted transcript 1 (MIMT1) gene that, when inherited from the sire, causes IUGR and late abortion in Ayshire cattle with variable levels of severity. Here, we compared the transcriptome and genomic imprinting in fetal and maternal placentome components of wild-type and MIMT1(Del/WT) fetuses before IUGR became apparent, to identify key early events. Transcriptome analysis revealed fewer differentially expressed genes in maternal than fetal MIMT1(Del/WT) placentome. AST1, within the PEG3 domain, was the only gene consistently reduced in IUGR in both fetal and maternal samples. Several genes showed an imprinting pattern associated with IUGR, of which only secernin 3 (SCRN3) and paternally expressed 3 (PEG3) were differentially imprinted in both placentome components. Loss of strictly monoallelic, allele-specific expression (similar to 80:20) of PEG3 in the maternal MIMT1(Del/WT) placenta could be associated with incomplete penetrance of MIMT1(Del). Our data show that dysregulation of the PEG3 domain is involved in IUGR, but also reveal that maternal placental tissues may affect the penetrance of the paternally inherited IUGR mutation.
  • Lehtonen, Anna (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    Munasarjarakkula on yksi naudan tavallisimmista hedelmällisyyshäiriöistä, ja se aiheuttaa tiinehtymättömyyden ja pidentyneiden poikimavälien kautta taloudellisia tappioita karjanomistajille. Rakkulan hoidossa käytetään monia erilaisia hormonikäsittelyjä. Kliinisessä käytössä olevista hoidoista on vähän tietoa siitä, kuinka nopeasti eläimet keskimäärin kunkin hoidon jälkeen tiinehtyvät. Työn tavoitteena on selvittää rakkulan hoitoon käytettävien hormonihoitojen tehoa ja eläinten tiinehtymistä hoitojen jälkeen. Rakkula on follikkelimainen, halkaisijaltaan vähintään 2,5 cm rakenne, joka ei ovuloidu, vaan säilyy munasarjassa vähintään kymmenen päivää. Samanaikaisesti munasarjoissa ei ole toimivaa keltarauhasta. Rakkulat jaetaan follikulaari- ja luteaalirakkuloihin, jotka eroavat toisistaan rakenteensa ja erittämänsä progesteronin määrän perusteella. Rakkuloiden kehittyminen on voitu yhdistää ikään, runsaaseen maidontuotantoon sekä poikimisen jälkeisiin sairauksiin. Patogeneesi on edelleen epäselvä. Nykyisin hyväksyttävänä teoriana pidetään hypotalamus–aivolisäke-akselin endokriinistä epätasapainoa. Diagnoosiin päästään tavallisesti munasarjojen rehtaalipalpaatiolla. Ultraäänitutkimuksen yhdistäminen plasman progesteronipitoisuuden määrittämiseen antaa varmimman tuloksen rakkulatyyppien erottamiseksi toisistaan. Rakkulan hoidossa käytetään gonadotropin releasing -hormonia (GnRH) agonisteineen, prostaglandiini F2α:aa (PGF2α), progesteronia tai näiden erilaisia yhdistelmähoitoja. Myös ovulaation synkronointi -ohjelmaa (Ovsynch-ohjelma) voidaan käyttää rakkulan hoidossa. GnRH:ta käytetään, koska se saa aikaan LH:n vapautumisen aivolisäkkeestä. PGF2α:n on havaittu tehoavan hyvin luteaalirakkuloihin, mutta follikulaarirakkuloihin tehoa ei ole. GnRH-PGF2α-yhdistelmähoidolla on saatu hyviä tuloksia, koska se nopeuttaa kiimaantuloa pelkkään GnRH-hoitoon verrattuna. Progesteronikierukkahoidot on todettu tehokkaaksi rakkulan hoitovaihtoehdoksi. Progesteroni palauttaa LH:n eritystä säätelevän estradiolin feedback-systeemin ennalleen ja aiheuttaa uuden follikkeliaallon kasvuunlähdön. Tutkimusosiossa käytettiin 15 tilan hedelmällisyyskontrollikäyntien materiaalia vuosilta 2000–2008. Aineisto sisälsi 273 rakkulatapausta. Lehmien tiedot saatiin Maatalouden laskentakeskuksesta. Hoidetuista lehmistä tiinehtyi 78 prosenttia. Lehmät siemennettiin keskimäärin 30 ± 20 vrk ja tiinehtyivät 65±60 vrk hoidosta. GnRH:lla hoidetut tiinehtyivät paremmin kuin progesteronikierukalla hoidetut (84 vs. 55 %), mutta progesteronihoidon saaneet lehmät siemennettiin aikaisemmin (12 ± 2 vs. 35 ± 23 vrk) ja tiinehtyivät nopeammin (60 ± 50 vs. 67 ± 63 vrk) kuin GnRH:lla hoidetut. Tutkimuksen tuloksia voidaan käyttää valittaessa soveltuvinta rakkulahoitoa kussakin tapauksessa ja annettaessa hoitojen jatko-ohjeistusta.
  • Jaakkonen, A.; Salmenlinna, S.; Rimhanen-Finne, R.; Lundström, H.; Heinikainen, S.; Hakkinen, M.; Hallanvuo, S. (2017)
    Shiga toxin-producing, sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157 (SF O157) has emerged as a cause of severe human illness. Despite frequent human findings, its transmission routes and reservoirs remain largely unknown. Foodborne transmission and reservoir in cattle have been suspected, but with limited supporting evidence. This study describes the outbreak of SF O157 that occurred in Finland in 2012. The outbreak originated from a recreational farm selling unpasteurized milk, as revealed by epidemiologic and microbiological investigations, and involved six hospitalized children and two asymptomatic adults with culture-confirmed infection. An identical strain of SF O157 was isolated from patients, cattle and the farm environment, and epidemiologic analysis suggested unpasteurized milk as the vehicle of transmission. This study reports the first milkborne outbreak of SF O157, provides supporting evidence of cattle as a reservoir and highlights the health risks related to the consumption of unpasteurized milk.
  • Norring, Marianna; Mintline, Erin M.; Tucker, Cassandra B. (2017)
    Castration is painful for calves. Castrating at an earlier age is often recommended, but little is known about how this affects the healing process or the pain experienced. We compared incision closure, swelling and pain sensitivity of beef calves surgically castrated at 3 (range 0 to 8 d; n = 16) or 73 (range 69 to 80 d; n = 15) d of age. Closure of the incision, as measured with a 5-point scale (1 = fresh wound, 5 = no longer visible), weight gain, and inflammation (skin temperature and swelling, as measured by scrotal circumference) were recorded on d 1, 3, 7, 11, 15, 18, 21, 25, 32, 39, 45, 61, and 77 after the procedure, until all incisions were fully healed. On these same days, pain sensitivity was assessed by applying a known and increasing force with von Frey hairs (0.02 to 300 g-force) at the edge of the castration wound and at a control site, approximately 2 to 5 cm anterior to the teats, until animals showed a behavioral response or the highest force was reached. The incisions of younger calves healed more quickly than older ones [fully healed, median (95% confidence interval); 39 (32 to 61) vs. 61 (61 to 77) d; P = 0.002], however, they had relatively more swelling in the days after castration (P < 0.001). Younger animals reacted to lighter pressure of von Frey hairs compared to older calves especially in the first stages of healing process (P < 0.001), and there were other signs indicative of inflammation processes in this region at this time. However, there was no difference in the control site for either age group. In addition, it took longer for older calves to recover their daily weight gain after the procedure (P < 0.001). Taken together, these results paint a mixed picture about the effects of age of surgical castration. Calves castrated soon after birth experience more tissue swelling and show more signs of pain, but their incisions heal sooner and their weight gain is less affected, when compared to animals castrated around 73 d of age.
  • Ylä-Ajos, Maria; Ruusunen, Marita; Puolanne, Eero (Elsevier, 2006)
    The purpose of the study was to examine the activity of glycogen debranching enzyme, GDE, in porcine and bovine muscles differing in rate of contraction and in oxidative capacity. The activity of GDE, the activity of phosphorylase, total glucose content, lactate content and pH were measured from meat samples taken 35 min post-mortem and ultimate pH 24 or 48 h post-mortem. Both GDE and phosphorylase are needed for the complete degradation of glycogen. In porcine muscles the activities of these glycogen degrading enzymes were higher than in bovine muscles. The activities were increasing with the increasing fast twitch and glycolytic character of a muscle of a given species. However, the increase in the activity of phosphorylase was greater than the increase in the activity of GDE. It was concluded that the GDE may restrict the rate of glycolysis in fast twitch muscles.
  • EFSA Panel Anim Hlth Welf AHAW; Nielsen, Soren Saxmose; Winckler, Christoph (2020)
    The killing of cattle for human consumption (slaughtering) can take place in a slaughterhouse or on farm. The processes of slaughtering that were assessed for welfare, from the arrival of cattle until their death (including slaughtering without stunning), were grouped into three main phases: pre-stunning (including arrival, unloading from the truck, lairage, handling and moving of cattle); stunning (including restraint); and bleeding. Stunning methods were grouped into two categories: mechanical and electrical. Twelve welfare consequences that cattle may be exposed to during slaughter were identified: heat stress, cold stress, fatigue, prolonged thirst, prolonged hunger, impeded movement, restriction of movements, resting problems (inability to rest or discomfort during resting), social stress, pain, fear and distress. Welfare consequences and their relevant animal-based measures are described. In total, 40 welfare hazards that could occur during slaughter were identified and characterised, most of them related to stunning and bleeding. Staff were identified as the origin of 39 hazards, which were attributed to the lack of appropriate skill sets needed to perform tasks or to fatigue. Measures to prevent and correct hazards were identified, and structural and managerial measures were identified as those with a crucial role in prevention. Outcome tables linking hazards, welfare consequences, animal-based measures, origin of hazards, and preventive and corrective measures were developed for each process. Mitigation measures to minimise welfare consequences are proposed. (C) 2020 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.