Browsing by Subject "celiac disease"

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  • Kivelä, Laura; Euren, Anna; Repo, Marleena; Huhtala, Heini; Kaukinen, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle (2022)
    PurposeWe evaluated adherence to a gluten-free diet and associated factors in adult celiac disease patients diagnosed in childhood. MethodsComprehensive medical data on 955 pediatric celiac disease patients was collected and study questionnaires sent to 559 who were now adults. All variables were compared between strictly adherent and non-adherent patients. ResultsAltogether 237 adults (median age 27 years, 69% women) responded to the questionnaires a median of 18 (range 3-51) years after the childhood diagnosis. Altogether 78% were reportedly adherent and 22% non-adherent. The non-adherent patients had more concomitant type 1 diabetes (18% vs. 4%, p = 0.003), whereas the groups did not differ in demographic data or clinical and histological features at diagnosis, or in short-term dietary adherence. In adulthood, non-adherent patients found gluten-free diet more challenging (39% vs. 17%, p < 0.001) and had higher prevalence (39% vs. 19%, p = 0.004) and severity of symptoms. The main motivation factors for dietary adherence were attempts to avoid symptoms and complications, but these were considered less important and price of gluten-free products more important among non-adherent patients. Adherent and non-adherent patients did not differ in socioeconomic or lifestyle factors, comorbidities other than type 1 diabetes, self-reported general health, health concerns, follow-up, or in quality of life. ConclusionMost originally pediatric celiac disease patients reported strict dietary adherence in adulthood. However, particularly those with concomitant type 1 diabetes, persistent symptoms or financial issues may require attention during the transition from pediatric to adult care.
  • Leinonen, Heini; Kivelä, Laura; Lähdeaho, Marja-Leena; Huhtala, Heini; Kaukinen, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle (2019)
    The prevalence and associated factors of daily life restrictions due to a gluten-free diet in adult celiac disease patients diagnosed in childhood are poorly known. We investigated these issues by collecting the medical data of 955 pediatric patients and sending questionnaires evaluating various health outcomes to the 559 patients who had reached adulthood. Of the 231 respondents, 46% reported everyday life restrictions caused by dietary treatment. Compared with those without restrictions, they more often had anemia at diagnosis (37% vs. 22%, p = 0.014), but the groups were comparable in other diagnostic features. In adulthood, patients with restrictions reported more overall symptoms (32% vs. 17%, p = 0.006), although the symptoms measured with the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale questionnaire were comparable. Despite strict dietary adherence in both groups, the experience of restrictions was associated with dietary challenges (34% vs. 9%, p <0.001), health concerns (22% vs. 13%, p = 0.050), and lower vitality scores in the Psychological General Well-Being questionnaire. The groups did not differ in their current age, socioeconomic status, family history of celiac disease, general health or health-related lifestyle, the presence of co-morbidities, or regular follow up. Our results encourage healthcare professionals to discuss the possible health concerns and dietary challenges with patients to avoid unnecessary daily life restrictions, especially when young patients start to take responsibility for their treatment.
  • Lammi, Anne; Arikoski, Pekka; Hakulinen, Arja; Schwab, Ursula; Uusitupa, Matti; Heinonen, Seppo; Savilahti, Erkki; Kinnunen, Tuure; Ilonen, Jorma (2016)
    Objective. The development of gliadin-specific antibody and T-cell responses were longitudinally monitored in young children with genetic risk for celiac disease (CD). Material and methods. 291 newborn children positive for HLA-DQB1*02 and -DQA1*05 alleles were followed until 3-4 years of age by screening for tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA) by using a commercial ELISA-based kit and antibodies to deamidated gliadin peptide (anti-DGP) by an immunofluorometric assay. Eighty-five of the children were also followed for peripheral blood gliadin-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses by using a carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester-based in vitro proliferation assay. Results. The cumulative incidence of tTGA seropositivity during the follow-up was 6.5%. CD was diagnosed in nine of the tTGA-positive children (3.1%) by duodenal biopsy at a median 3.5 years of age. All of the children with confirmed CD were both IgA and IgG anti-DGP positive at the time of tTGA seroconversion and in over half of the cases IgG anti-DGP positivity even preceded tTGA seroconversion. Peripheral blood T-cell responses to deamidated and native gliadin were detected in 40.5% and 22.2% of the children at the age of 9 months and these frequencies decreased during the follow-up to the levels of 22.2% and 8.9%, respectively. Conclusions. Anti-DGP antibodies may precede tTGA seroconversion and thus frequent monitoring of both tTGA and anti-DGP antibodies may allow earlier detection of CD in genetically susceptible children. Peripheral blood gliadin-specific T-cell responses are relatively common in HLA-DQ2-positive children and are not directly associated with the development of CD.
  • Yohannes, Dawit A.; de Kauwe, Andrea; Kaukinen, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle; Mäki, Markku; Anderson, Robert P.; Linnarsson, Sten; Greco, Dario; Saavalainen, Päivi (2020)
    The pathological mechanisms that lead to the onset and reactivation of celiac disease (CD) remain largely unknown. While gluten free diet (GFD) improves the intestinal damage and associated clinical symptoms in majority of cases, it falls short of providing full recovery. Additionally, late or misdiagnosis is also common as CD presents with a wide range of symptoms. Clear understanding of CD pathogenesis is thus critical to address both diagnostic and treatment concerns. We aimed to study the molecular impact of short gluten exposure in GFD treated CD patients, as well as identify biological pathways that remain altered constitutively in CD regardless of treatment. Using RNAseq profiling of PBMC samples collected from treated CD patients and gluten challenged patient and healthy controls, we explored the peripheral transcriptome in CD patients following a short gluten exposure. Short gluten exposure of just three days was enough to alter the genome-wide PBMC transcriptome of patients. Pathway analysis revealed gluten-induced upregulation of mainly immune response related pathways, both innate and adaptive, in CD patients. We evaluated the perturbation of biological pathways in sample-specific manner. Compared to gluten exposed healthy controls, pathways related to tight junction, olfactory transduction, metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids (such as arachidonic acid), metabolism of amino acids (such as cysteine and glutamate), and microbial infection were constitutively altered in CD patients regardless of treatment, while GFD treatment appears to mostly normalize immune response pathways to "healthy" state. Upstream regulator prediction analysis using differentially expressed genes identified constitutively activated regulators relatively proximal to previously reported CD associated loci, particularly SMARCA4 on 19p13.2 and CSF2 on 5q31. We also found constitutively upregulated genes in CD that are in CD associated genetic loci such as MEF2BNB-MEF2B (BORCS8-MEF2B) on 19p13.11 and CSTB on 21q22.3. RNAseq revealed strong effects of short oral gluten challenge on whole PBMC fraction and constitutively altered pathways in CD PBMC suggesting important factors other than gluten in CD pathogenesis.
  • Oikarinen, Maarit; Puustinen, Leena; Lehtonen, Jussi; Hakola, Leena; Simell, Satu; Toppari, Jorma; Ilonen, Jorma; Veijola, Riitta; Virtanen, Suvi M.; Knip, Mikael; Hyöty, Heikki (2021)
    Enterovirus and adenovirus infections have been linked to the development of celiac disease. We evaluated this association in children who developed biopsy-proven celiac disease (N = 41) during prospective observation starting from birth, and in control children (N = 53) matched for the calendar time of birth, sex, and HLA-DQ genotype. Enterovirus and adenovirus infections were diagnosed by seroconversions in virus antibodies in longitudinally collected sera using EIA. Enterovirus infections were more frequent in case children before the appearance of celiac disease-associated tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies compared to the corresponding period in control children (OR 6.3, 95% CI 1.8-22.3; p = 0.005). No difference was observed in the frequency of adenovirus infections. The findings suggest that enterovirus infections may contribute to the process leading to celiac disease.
  • Viitasalo, Liisa; Iltanen, Sari; Huhtala, Heini; Saavalainen, Päivi; Kaukinen, Katri; Lindfors, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle (2020)
    Risk of celiac disease (CD) is increased in relatives of CD patients due to genetic and possible environmental factors. We recently reported increased seropositivity to anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA), Pseudomonas fluorescens-associated sequence (anti-I2) and Bacteroides caccae TonB-linked outer membrane protein (anti-OmpW) antibodies in CD. We hypothesized these markers also to be overrepresented in relatives. Seropositivity and levels of ASCA, anti-I2 and anti-OmpW were compared between 463 first-degree relatives, 58 untreated and 55 treated CD patients, and 80 controls. CD-associated human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haplotypes and transglutaminase (tTGab) and endomysium (EmA) antibodies were determined. One or more of the microbial antibodies was present in 75% of relatives, 97% of untreated and 87% of treated CD patients and 44% of the controls. The relatives had higher median ASCA IgA (9.13 vs. 4.50 U/mL, p <0.001), ASCA IgG (8.91 vs. 5.75 U/mL, p <0.001) and anti-I2 (absorbance 0.74 vs. 0.32, p <0.001) levels than controls. There was a weak, positive correlation between tTGab and ASCA (r = 0.31, p <0.001). Seropositivity was not significantly associated with HLA. To conclude, seropositivity to microbial markers was more common and ASCA and anti-I2 levels higher in relatives of CD patients than controls. These findings were not associated with HLA, suggesting the role of other genetic and environmental factors.
  • Airaksinen, Laura; Laurikka, Pilvi; Huhtala, Heini; Kurppa, Kalle; Salmi, Teea; Saavalainen, Päivi; Kaukinen, Katri; Lindfors, Katri (2020)
    The clinical phenotype of celiac disease varies considerably among patients and the dosage of HLA-DQ2.5 alleles has been suggested to be a contributing factor. We investigated whether HLA-DQ2.5 allele dosage is associated with distinct clinical parameters at the time of diagnosis and with patients' response to a gluten-free diet. The final cohort included 605 carefully phenotyped non-related Finnish celiac disease patients grouped as having 0, 1 or 2 copies of HLA-DQ2.5. Clinical data at the time of diagnosis and during gluten-free diet were collected systematically from medical records and supplementary interviews. An increasing HLA-DQ2.5 dose effect was detected for celiac disease antibody positivity at diagnosis (p = 0.021) and for the presence of any first-degree relatives with celiac disease (p = 0.011 and p = 0.031, respectively). Instead, DQ2.5-negative patients were suffering most often from classical symptoms at diagnosis (p = 0.007 between HLA groups). In addition, during follow-up they were most often symptomatic despite a gluten-free diet (p = 0.002 between groups). Our results thus suggest that increasing HLA-DQ2.5 dose only has a minor effect on the clinical picture of celiac disease. However, HLA-DQ2.5-negative patients should not be overlooked in clinical practice and particular attention should be paid to this patient group during gluten-free diet.
  • Ylonen, Venla; Lindfors, Katri; Repo, Marleena; Huhtala, Heini; Fuchs, Valma; Saavalainen, Päivi; Musikka, Alex; Laurila, Kaija; Kaukinen, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle (2020)
    Non-biopsy diagnosis of celiac disease is possible in children with anti-transglutaminase 2 antibodies (TGA) > 10x the upper limit of normal (ULN) and positive anti-endomysial antibodies (EMA). Similar criteria have been suggested for adults, but evidence with different TGA assays is scarce. We compared the performance of four TGA tests in the diagnosis of celiac disease in cohorts with diverse pre-test probabilities. Serum samples from 836 adults with either clinical suspicion or family risk of celiac disease were tested with four commercial TGA assays, EmA and celiac disease-associated genetics. The diagnosis was set based on duodenal lesion or, in some cases, using special methods. 137 (57%) patients with clinical suspicion and 85 (14%) of those with family risk had celiac disease. Positive predictive value (PPV) for 10xULN was 100% in each TGA test. The first non-diagnostic investigations were encountered with ULN 1.0x-5.1x in the clinical cohort and 1.3x-4.9x in the family cohort, respectively. Using the assays' own cut-offs (1xULN) the PPVs ranged 84-100%. Serology-based diagnosis of celiac disease was accurate in adults using different commercial kits and pre-test probabilities using 10xULN. The results also suggest that the ULN threshold for biopsy-omitting approach could be lower.
  • Huang, Xin; Ahola, Hanna Gabriela; Daly, Matthew; Nitride, Chiara; Mills, Clare; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula (2022)
    Pure oats are generally accepted to be safe for most celiac patients, and consumption of oats provides advantageous dietary fibers. However, oats can be contaminated by gluten proteins from wheat, barley, and/or rye. The analytical challenge lies in the reliability of the quantification method and how to maintain the contamination level under a gluten-free food threshold of 20 mg/kg. In this study, we investigated barley-spiked oat flour samples at four levels using four gluten ELISA kits. The largest recovery variance was with the R5 kit that gave 5-6 times overestimation; the G12 kit cross-reacted with oat proteins and gave 4-5 times overestimation at all spiked levels. The Total Gluten and Morinaga kits gave satisfactory recoveries. Total barley hordeins were isolated and characterized to be used as a common calibrator in all four kits aiming at harmonizing the results and to test the kits' performance. Immunoblotting of total hordein isolate revealed that Total Gluten and Morinaga antibodies provided an overall detection, while R5 and G12 antibodies recognized specific hordein groups leading to a larger difference when wheat and barley were used as the calibrant. Calibration with total hordein isolate corrected the overestimation problem and decreased the variability between the four gluten kits.
  • Kauma, Saana; Kaukinen, Katri; Huhtala, Heini; Kivelä, Laura; Pekki, Henna; Salmi, Teea; Saavalainen, Päivi; Lindfors, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle (2019)
    The factors determining the presentation of celiac disease are unclear. We investigated the phenotypic concordance and the distribution of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) risk haplotypes in affected siblings. One hundred sibling pairs were included. Clinical and histological parameters and HLA haplotypes were compared between the first diagnosed indexes and their siblings. The phenotype was categorized into gastrointestinal, extra-intestinal, malabsorption/anemia, and asymptomatic. The phenotype was fully concordant in 21 pairs. The most common concordant phenotype was gastrointestinal (14 pairs). Indexes had more anemia/malabsorption and extra-intestinal symptoms than siblings (45% vs. 20%, p <0.001 and 33% vs. 12%, p <0.001, respectively). Twenty siblings and none of the indexes were asymptomatic. The indexes were more often women (81% vs. 63%, p = 0.008). They were also more often seronegative (11% vs. 0%, p = 0.03) and younger (37 vs. 43 year, p <0.001), and had more severe histopathology (total/subtotal atrophy 79% vs. 58%, p = 0.047) at diagnosis. The indexes and siblings were comparable in other disease features. Pairs with discordant presentation had similar HLA haplotypes more often than the concordant pairs. The phenotype was observed to vary markedly between siblings, with the indexes generally having a more severe presentation. HLA did not explain the differences, suggesting that non-HLA genes and environmental factors play significant roles.
  • Virta, Johannes; Hannula, Markus; Lindfors, Katri; Tamminen, Ilmari; Taavela, Juha; Huhtala, Heini; Kaukinen, Katri; Saavalainen, Päivi; Hyttinen, Jari; Kurppa, Kalle (2022)
    BackgroundDuodenal histology remains the diagnostic reference standard in celiac disease. However, traditional methods have suboptimal sensitivity and reproducibility for early mucosal changes and research purposes. We validated a recently introduced micro-CT imaging method for an accurate digital evaluation of duodenal histomorphometry and mucosal surface areas. MethodsEndoscopic biopsies from 58 individuals were utilized for the micro-CT imaging, selecting histological changes ranging from normal to severely damaged mucosa. The imaging protocol was optimized for practicability and resolution. The Bland-Altman method was applied to test intra- and interobserver variations in the blinded measurements. ResultsThe 3D micro-CT reconstructions enabled easy and precise digital cutting with optimal orientation and computer-assisted measurement of the surface area. Intraobserver analysis of morphological measurements showed a mean difference of 0.011 with limits of agreement (LA) from -0.397 to 0.375 and a standard deviation (SD) of 0.197. The corresponding figures for interobserver analysis were 0.080, from -0.719 to 0.537 and 0.320, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for the intraobserver and interobserver variations were 0.981 and 0.954, respectively. Intraobserver surface area analysis yielded a mean difference of 0.010, LA from -0.764 to 0.785 and an SD of 0.395, and an interobserver analysis mean difference of 0.028, LA from -0.642 to 0.698 and SD of 0.342. The respective ICCs for the intra- and interobserver variations were 0.963 and 0.972. ConclusionsMicro-CT showed excellent accuracy and reproducibility in the evaluation of mucosal morphometry and surface areas. The improved sensitivity for histological changes is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of celiac disease and for clinical and pharmacological studies.