Browsing by Subject "cerebrovascular disease"

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  • Rasmus, Enni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Backround Returning to work (RTW) is an essential part of stroke patients’ wellbeing. According to previous literature, severity of stroke is the most consistent predictor of RTW. However, the role of neuropsychological rehabilitation and cognitive deficits in the context of RTW is less clear. Closer examination of the predictors of RTW could enable the identification of stroke patients who are in a greater risk of unsuccessful RTW. Analyzing the connections between rehabilitation and RTW could help to provide better treatment. We studied whether RTW could be predicted by acute cognitive deficits, duration and different elements of neuropsychological rehabilitation. Methods Participants were 79 stroke patients (33% women) who had received outpatient neuropsychological rehabilitation. Prior to stroke, all patients had been either full or part time working or studying. Patients were neuropsychologically assessed in the acute phase. Logistic regression was used to assess variables associated with RTW. Results Of the patients, 49% had returned to work. Deficits in attention and processing speed predicted poorer likelihood to RTW. Fewer outpatient visits and more straightforward content of the rehabilitation were associated with RTW, possibly due to lesser stroke severity. Finally, most of the aspects of neuropsychological rehabilitation were associated with RTW. Conclusions According to this study, RTW of stroke patients can partly be predicted by acute cognitive performance. Results regarding attention and processing speed are in congruence with previous research. Additional research is needed to clarify the relations of cognitive performance and neurorehabilitation to RTW.
  • Zhu, Yueqi; Zhang, Hongbo; Zhang, Yiran; Wu, Huayin; Wei, Liming; Zhou, Gen; Zhang, Yuezhou; Deng, Lianfu; Cheng, Yingsheng; Li, Minghua; Almeida Santos, Helder; Cui, Wenguo (2019)
    Cerebrovascular disease involves various medical disorders that obstruct brain blood vessels or deteriorate cerebral circulation, resulting in ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Nowadays, platinum coils with or without biological modification have become routine embolization devices to reduce the risk of cerebral aneurysm bleeding. Additionally, many intracranial stents, flow diverters, and stent retrievers have been invented with uniquely designed structures. To accelerate the translation of these devices into clinical usage, an in‐depth understanding of the mechanical and material performance of these metal‐based devices is critical. However, considering the more distal location and tortuous anatomic characteristics of cerebral arteries, present devices still risk failing to arrive at target lesions. Consequently, more flexible endovascular devices and novel designs are under urgent demand to overcome the deficiencies of existing devices. Herein, the pros and cons of the current structural designs are discussed when these devices are applied to the treatment of diseases ranging broadly from hemorrhages to ischemic strokes, in order to encourage further development of such kind of devices and investigation of their use in the clinic. Moreover, novel biodegradable materials and drug elution techniques, and the design, safety, and efficacy of personalized devices for further clinical applications in cerebral vasculature are discussed.
  • Zheng, Danni; Sato, Shoichiro; Arima, Hisatomi; Heeley, Emma; Delcourt, Candice; Cao, Yongjun; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S.; INTERACT2 Investigators; Scheperjans, Filip; Kaste, Markku (2016)
    Background: The kidney-brain interaction has been a topic of growing interest. Past studies of the effect of kidney function on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) outcomes have yielded inconsistent findings. Although the second, main phase of the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial (INTERACT2) suggests the effectiveness of early intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering in improving functional recovery after ICH, the balance of potential benefits and harms of this treatment in those with decreased kidney function remains uncertain. Study Design: Secondary analysis of INTERACT2, which randomly assigned patients with ICH with elevated systolic BP (SBP) to intensive (target SBP <140 mm Hg) or contemporaneous guideline-based (target SBP, 180 mm Hg) BP management. Setting & Participants: 2,823 patients from 144 clinical hospitals in 21 countries. Predictors: Admission estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) of patients were categorized into 3 groups based on the CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) creatinine equation: normal or high, mildly decreased, and moderately to severely decreased (>90, 60-90, and Outcomes: The effect of admission eGFR on the primary outcome of death or major disability at 90 days (defined as modified Rankin Scale scores of 3-6) was analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression model. Potential effect modification of intensive BP lowering treatment by admission eGFR was assessed by interaction terms. Results: Of 2,623 included participants, 912 (35%) and 280 (11%) had mildly and moderately/severely decreased eGFRs, respectively. Patients with moderately/severely decreased eGFRs had the greatest risk for death or major disability at 90 days (adjusted OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.28-2.61). Effects of early intensive BP lowering were consistent across different eGFRs (P = 0.5 for homogeneity). Limitations: Generalizability issues arising from a clinical trial population. Conclusions: Decreased eGFR predicts poor outcome in acute ICH. Early intensive BP lowering provides similar treatment effects in patients with ICH with decreased eGFRs. Am J Kidney Dis. 68(1): 94-102. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the National Kidney Foundation, Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.
  • Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Eriksson, Johan G. (2017)
    BACKGROUND: Women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes later in life. Offspring born from these hypertensive pregnancies have increased levels of cardiovascular risk factors; whether they are at an increased risk of type 2 diabetes is not known. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the investigation was to study the risk of type 2 diabetes in the adult offspring exposed to maternal preeclampsia or gestational hypertension in utero. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 5335 members of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who were born between 1934 and 1944 and who lived in Finland in 1995 when the National Medication Purchase Register was initiated. We ascertained gestational hypertension and preeclampsia according to modern criteria by using maternal and birth records. We defined type 2 diabetes through purchases of antidiabetic medication recorded in the comprehensive National Medication Purchase Register, excluding the 31 subjects who had purchased only insulin. We used Cox regression to assess hazard ratios for type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: A total of 590 men (21.6%) and 433 women (16.9%) had purchased medication for diabetes. The hazard ratio for type 2 diabetes for offspring exposed to any maternal hypertension in pregnancy was 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.29; n = 1780). For maternal gestational hypertension, it was 1.15 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.33; n = 1336) and for preeclampsia 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.71-1.34; n = 231). For type 2 diabetes with first medication purchase before 62 years, the corresponding hazard ratios were 1.25 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.51); 1.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.58), and 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.84). The hazard ratios were similar when adjusted for birthweight SD score for gestation, length of gestation, maternal body mass index in late pregnancy, height, age, and parity and for childhood or adult socioeconomic position. An increased risk of type 2 diabetes was also associated with low birthweight SD score, independent of the association with gestational hypertension. CONCLUSION: Offspring exposed to maternal gestational hypertension in utero have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in late adult life. This finding underlines the role of the whole spectrum of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy as risk factors of offspring disease throughout life. It also reinforces previous suggestions that adult health care providers should incorporate birth histories when evaluating an individual's risk to develop type 2 diabetes.
  • Remes, Tiina Maria; Suo-Palosaari, Maria Helena; Koskenkorva, Päivi K. T.; Sutela, Anna K.; Toiviainen-Salo, Sanna-Maria; Arikoski, Pekka M.; Arola, Mikko O.; Heikkilä, Vesa-Pekka; Kapanen, Mika; Lähteenmäki, Päivi Maria; Lönnqvist, Tuula R. I.; Niiniviita, Hannele; Pokka, Tytti M-L; Porra, Liisa; Riikonen, V. Pekka; Seppälä, Jan; Sirkiä, Kirsti H.; Vanhanen, Antti; Rantala, Heikki M. J.; Harila-Saari, Arja H.; Ojaniemi, Marja K. (2020)
    Background. Cranial radiotherapy may damage the cerebral vasculature. The aim of this study was to understand the prevalence and risk factors of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) in childhood brain tumors (CBT) survivors treated with radiotherapy. Methods. Seventy CBT survivors who received radiotherapy were enrolled in a cross-sectional study at a median 20 years after radiotherapy cessation. The prevalence of and risk factors for CVD were investigated using MRI, MRA, and laboratory testing. Tumors, their treatment, and stroke-related data were retrieved from patients' files. Results. Forty-four individuals (63%) had CVD at a median age of 27 years (range, 16-43 years). The prevalence rates at 20 years for CVD, small-vessel disease, and large-vessel disease were 52%, 38%, and 16%, respectively. Ischemic infarcts were diagnosed in 6 survivors, and cerebral hemorrhage in 2. Lacunar infarcts were present in 7, periventricular or deep WMHs in 34 (49%), and mineralizing microangiopathy in 21 (30%) survivors. Multiple pathologies were detected in 44% of the participants, and most lesions were located in a high-dose radiation area. Higher blood pressure was associated with CVD and a presence of WMHs. Higher cholesterol levels increased the risk of ischemic infarcts and WMHs, and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein and higher waist circumference increased the risk of lacunar infarcts. Conclusions. Treating CBTs with radiotherapy increases the risk of early CVD and WMHs in young adult survivors. These results suggest an urgent need for investigating CVD prevention in CBT patients.
  • Ijäs, Petra (2022)
    Pregnancy is a female-specific risk factor for stroke. Although pregnancy-associated stroke (PAS) is a rare event, PAS leads to considerable maternal mortality and morbidity. It is estimated that 7.7–15% of all maternal deaths worldwide are caused by stroke and 30–50% of surviving women are left with persistent neurological deficits. During last decade, several studies have reported an increasing incidence of PAS. The objective of this review is to summarize studies on time trends of PAS in relation to trends in the prevalence of stroke risk factors in pregnant women. Seven retrospective national healthcare register-based cohort studies from the US, Canada, UK, Sweden, and Finland were identified. Five studies from the US, Canada, and Finland reported an increasing trend of PAS. Potential biases include more sensitive diagnostics and improved stroke awareness among pregnant women and professionals toward the end of the study period. However, the concurrent increase in the prevalence of several stroke risk factors among pregnant women, particularly advanced age, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, diabetes, and obesity, indicate that the findings are likely robust and should be considered seriously. To reduce stroke in pregnancy, increased awareness among all medical specialties and pregnant women on the importance of risk-factor management during pregnancy and stroke symptoms is necessary. Important preventive measures include counseling for smoking cessation and substance abuse, treatment of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, use of aspirin in women at high risk for developing preeclampsia, and antithrombotic medication and pregnancy surveillance for women with high-risk conditions. Epidemiological data from countries with a high risk-factor burden are largely missing. National and international registries and prospective studies are needed to increase knowledge on the mechanisms, risk factors, management, and future implications for the health of women who experience this rare but devastating complication of pregnancy.