Browsing by Subject "change"

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  • Ojapalo, Mia (2008)
    In this thesis I concentrate on questions around open communications. Weblogs and other social media provide a whole new approach to the use of dialogic communications. As the hierarchs of organisations are falling down, there is a move in the paradigms of working places as well. The context of the thesis is the merger of a network communications company. The company has its customer base in over 160 countries across five continents, with tens of thousands of employees all over the world. Theoretical framework of the thesis is based on two main concepts. Dialogic communications theory provides an understanding of how communality and atmosphere of trust can be created in an organisation by dialogical intercourse. In the context of change, I do not see it as such a satisfactory explanation by itself: conflicts, disagreements, distrust and power games are also visible during the cultural clashes. Therefore I combine with it the theory of communications double function. First function emphasizes the integrative role of communications as the other function refers to uncontrolled and unleaded dissipative communications. My empirical material is mainly based on the debates and discussions in a virtual environment, meaning Web 2.0- based applications such as Weblogs. This is an important exclusion to the thesis, as Web 2.0 is a rather new tool for large companies to handle their communications. In my case company, Weblogs are used in a way that makes, in my view, a difference to the culture and communications of the company. My research problem focuses on the possibilities open online communications creates within the context of a merger. Research questions are the following: 1. How can open online communications be built via Web 2.0 applications in organisations? 2. What kind of arguments, nuances and themes do the discussions bring out in the context of a merger and during the integration process? 3. Are there differences within the views of employees of former organisations A and B and if so, are they due to differences within proceedings of the legacy cultures? The answers to these questions were the result of a literature review and quantitative analysis of discussions in three different Web 2.0 applications. To deepen my view further, I used theme interviews and survey results from the surveys the case company had made itself. My conclusions were for example the following. To start with, open online communications will be inevitable part of large companies in the future. It is an efficient tool for giving feedback both in top-down and down-top directions, and allows participation in decision-making in a large scale. It is a good way to develop an informal and possibly anonym discussion forum between employees and upper management. Furthermore, collegial support is sought after in these forums, when facing challenges in the work place. Main references: Aula, P. 1999. Organisaation kaaos vai kaaoksen organisaatio? Helsinki: Lokikirjat and Pekka Aula. Juholin, Elisa 2007. Työelämän muutos haastaa työyhteisöviestinnän ajatusmallit. Tiedotustutkimus, (2)2007. Tammer-Paino Oy, 2007. Kent & Taylor 2002. Towards a dialogic theory of public relations. Public Relations Review, vol 28, no 1, p.21-37 Tapscott A.D. & Williams, D. 2006. Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything. Penguin Group. United States of America.
  • Segercrantz, Beata (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2011)
    Many Finnish IT companies have gone through numerous organizational changes over the past decades. This book draws attention to how stability may be central to software product development experts and IT workers more generally, who continuously have to cope with such change in their workplaces. It does so by analyzing and theorizing change and stability as intertwined and co-existent, thus throwing light on how it is possible that, for example, even if ‘the walls fall down the blokes just code’ and maintain a sense of stability in their daily work. Rather than reproducing the picture of software product development as exciting cutting edge activities and organizational change as dramatic episodes, the study takes the reader beyond the myths surrounding these phenomena to the mundane practices, routines and organizings in product development during organizational change. An analysis of these ordinary practices offers insights into how software product development experts actively engage in constructing stability during organizational change through a variety of practices, including solidarity, homosociality, close relations to products, instrumental or functional views on products, preoccupations with certain tasks and humble obedience. Consequently, the study shows that it may be more appropriate to talk about varieties of stability, characterized by a multitude of practices of stabilizing rather than states of stagnation. Looking at different practices of stability in depth shows the creation of software as an arena for micro-politics, power relations and increasing pressures for order and formalization. The thesis gives particular attention to power relations and processes of positioning following organizational change: how social actors come to understand themselves in the context of ongoing organizational change, how they comply with and/or contest dominant meanings, how they identify and dis-identify with formalization, and how power relations often are reproduced despite dis-identification. Related to processes of positioning, the reader is also given a glimpse into what being at work in a male-dominated and relatively homogeneous work environment looks like. It shows how the strong presence of men or “blokes” of a particular age and education seems to become invisible in workplace talk that appears ‘non-conscious’ of gender.
  • Tuominen-Soini, Heta; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Niemivirta, Markku (2010)
    Tässä tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan ajallista pysyvyyttä ja sukupuolieroja yhdeksäsluokkalaisten ja lukiolaisten tavoiteorientaatioissa. Kahdessa pitkittäistutkimuksessa hyödynnettiin henkilösuuntautunutta lähestymistapaa ja tutkittiin nuorten tavoiteorientaatioiden pysyvyyttä ja muutosta lukuvuoden sisällä (9. luokan aikana, N = 530) ja lukuvuosien välillä (siirryttäessä lukion 2. luokalta 3. luokalle, N = 519). Nuoret voitiin jakaa neljään ryhmään heidän motivationaalisen orientaationsa mukaan (sitoutumattomat, menestysorientoituneet, oppimisorientoituneet ja välttämisorientoituneet) ja samankaltaiset ryhmät löydettiin molemmista opiskelukonteksteista. Ryhmät olivat hyvin pysyviä sekä 9. luokalla että lukiossa. Yleisesti ottaen pojat korostivat tyttöjä enemmän suhteellista menestymistä, mutta pyrkivät samalla selviämään koulutöistä mahdollisimman vähällä. Tytöt sen sijaan näyttäytyivät poikia oppimishakuisempina ja he korostivat koulussa menestymistä. Sukupuolierot tavoiteorientaatioissa olivat johdonmukaiset, mutta pienet ja ne korostuivat lukiolaisten otoksessa enemmän kuin yhdeksäsluokkalaisten otoksessa. Suurin ero liittyi poikien tyttöjä voimakkaampaan välttämisorientaatioon.
  • Kuoppakangas, Päivikki; Lindfors, Juha; Stenwall, Jari; Kinder, Tony; Talonen, Antti (2020)
    During 2020, the COVID-19 crisis expanded the use of digital tools in public health and social care. The aim of this qualitative, single-case study was to scrutinize how homecare professionals experienced meaningfulness in their work in the midst of a crisis and with the utilization of the videophone in long-term homecare service provision. The empirical data consisted of 20 thematic interviews carried out among homecare professionals and their managers in the city of Tampere, Finland. The results indicated that the videophone can generate significance, self-realization and broader purposes among homecare professionals, thus providing meaningfulness for work in the midst of a crisis and continuous work-related changes. In addition, a crisis may support change in the meaningfulness of e-welfare in work-related tasks and aid in overcoming reluctance amongst public-sector social care (homecare) professionals towards an e-welfare initiative: the videophone (VideoVisit).
  • Purtonen, Henni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Managing uncertainty in change: a case study on communication and uncertainty in the Gulf of Finland Coast Guard District Besides the changes that have occurred in the Finnish security authorities’ operational environment, cuts in the financial resources of the Finnish Border Guard have intensified internal pressures for change in the line-and-staff organisation and the need to create new modes of operation. In this Master’s Thesis, the relationship between the uncertainty associated with change and the internal communication of the organisation was examined from the viewpoint of the complexity theory. The purpose of this case study was to extend our understanding of the phenomenon of uncertainty and to try and find better ways of managing uncertainty arising from change in the communication processes of the Finnish Border Guard. From the perspective of the philosophy of science, this study is based on hermeneutical thinking, in which knowledge is constructed through interpretation, layer by layer, from preliminary understanding to conclusions. The empirical data consist of eleven themed interviews of employees of the Gulf of Finland Coast Guard District, which were analysed by means of theory-led content analysis. The interview data were supplemented with documentary material, including a plan for economic and financial adjustment drawn up within the Finnish Border Guard. The perceptions of the interviewees were structured as narratives formed at different administrative levels of the organisation and were examined through the lenses of uncertainty, complexity, and change. The attained understanding of the uncertainty arising from change was deepened by means of a complexity-theoretical framework and the concept of sensemaking. It was found that the problem of managing a complex communication network and dynamic organisational processes boils down to information and interaction amongst the various actors. The experience of uncertainty is situative and subjective. Regardless of whether uncertainty in the organisation was examined from the point of view of external or internal change, uncertainty was seen as a factor impairing the organisation’s performance. The conclusion was drawn in the study that the uncertainty arising from change can be managed more effectively if the narrative of change is created from the points of view of both the organisation and the individual employee. Other helpful measures are ensuring the continuity of the communicative narrative and promoting multifaceted dialogue and interaction amongst the administrative levels. The results indicate that the organisation’s problem-solving ability is largely based on the management of uncertainty, i.e., that the organisation lends a sensitive ear to the dynamism of social systems and harnesses the information transmitted through the feedback processes into a part of the narrative of change-management communication. When communication is understood as an ever-changing and evolving narrative process, the management of uncertainty becomes closely linked with the management of complexity and the strengthening of the organisation’s resilience. This study supplements the scholarly discourse on the management of uncertainty and functions as an empirical window into the application of complexity-theoretical concepts to organisation research.
  • Lintuvuori, Meri (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    The number of Finnish pupils attending special education has increased for more than a decade (Tilastokeskus 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2004, 2005a, 2006b, 2007b, 2008b, 2008e, 2009b; Virtanen ja Ratilainen 1996). In the year 2007 nearly third of Finnish comprehensive school pupils took part in special needs education. According to the latest statistics, in the autumn of 2008 approximately 47 000 pupils have been admitted or transferred to special education and approximately 126 000 pupils received part-time special education during the 2007-2008 academic year. (Tilastokeskus 2008b, 2009b.) The Finnish special education system is currently under review. The Reform, both in legislation and in practice, began nationwide in the year 2008 (e.g. Special education strategy document, November 2007 and the development project Kelpo). The aim of the study was the statistical description of the Finnish special education system and on the other hand to gain a deeper understanding about the Finnish special education system and its quantitative increase, by analysis based on the nationwide statistical information. Earlier studies have shown that the growth in special education is affected by multiple independent variables and cannot be solely explained by the pupil characteristics. The statistical overview and analysis have been carried out in two parts. In the first part, the description and analysis were based on statistical time series from the academic year 1979-1980 until 2008. While, in the second, more detailed description and analysis, based on comparable time series from 1995 to 2008 and from 2001-2002 to 2007-2008, is presented. Historical perspective was one part of this study. There was an attempt to find reasons explaining the observed growth in the special needs education from late 1960s to 2008. The majority of the research was based on the nationwide statistics information. In addition to this, materials including educational legislation literature, different kind of records of special education and preceding studies were also used to support the research. The main results of the study, are two statistical descriptions and time series analysis of the quantitative increase of the special needs education. Further, a summary of the plausible factors behind the special education system change and its quantitative increase, is presented. The conclusions coming from the study can be summarised as follows: the comparable statistical time series analysis suggests that the growth in special education after the year 1999 could be a consequence of the changes in the structure of special education and that new group of pupils have been directed to special needs education.
  • Kärki, Elisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objectives. Many studies, activities, processes, services, and even individual products in sustainability (sustainable development) aim at change either only explicitly or only implicitly. However, change often remains unnecessarily modest considering the severity of the problems. This tendency exists in the field of craft science, fashion and more broadly. The research assignment is to describe, analyse and interpret change for sustainability in the field of fashion. The research task is to analyse the philosophical concept meliorism’s potential to produce new insight to this central question of sustainability. The aim is to examine change and understand with meliorism those conditions in which highly challenging and complex information could still be received without paralysis and acted on in consistent and constructive manners. Methods. The chosen data Fashion Transparency Index is compiled by the world’s leading fashion and sustainability campaign: Fashion Revolution. The index is a comparative review on fashion brands’ transparency on sustainability issues from year 2020. The analysis was done in stages. First it was mainly data-driven content analysis where the phenomenon’s concrete manifestations were more prominent. Towards the end theory-driven analysis with the help of concept of meliorism was in focus. Results and conclusions. In Fashion Transparency Index change for sustainability in the field of fashion remains mostly as vague hope, transparency tool making and optimistic descriptions of the sustainability activities of big fashion brands. However, based on further results of this study, it can be tentatively claimed that if meliorism’s active take on making a difference, the preconditions for change for sustainability could be met. In other words if we are not to sink into hopeless pessimism nor give into unfounded optimism but we actively absorb inaccessible, incomplete and even anxiety provoking information and act in accordance to that information, we have an opportunity to improve the presence and above all the future of fashion field.
  • Salojärvi, Sari (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2005)
    Economics and Society
    This study explores the role and nature of knowledge management (KM) in small and medium-sized companies (SMEs). Even though the role of knowledge as a competitive advantage is commonly recognized in the SME sector, almost no attention has been paid to the managing and developing of knowledge in SMEs. This thesis consists of three different sub-studies that were reported in four individual essays. The results of the questionnaire study indicate that nearly all companies that responded to the questionnaire (N = 108) found intangible assets, i.e. knowledge resources to be their main source of competitive advantage. However, only less than a third of the companies actively deal with knowledge management. The results also indicate a significant correlation between activity in knowledge management and sustainable organic growth of the company. The interview study (N = 10) explored the context and motives of the SMEs for managing their intangible assets, and the concrete practices of knowledge management. It turned out that KM facilitated change management, clarification of the vision and new strategy formulation. All the interviewed companies were aiming at improved innovation process, new ways of doing business and attaining an increased “knowledge focus” in their business. Nearly all also aspired to grow significantly. Thus, KM provides a strategy for these SMEs to guarantee their survival and sustainability in the turbulent markets. The action research was a process to assess and develop intangible resources in three companies. The experienced benefits were the clarification of future focus and strategy, creation of a common language to discuss strategic issues within the company, as well as improved balance of different categories of intangible assets. After the process all the case companies had developed in the chosen key areas. Thus, by systematic knowledge management the implementation of new strategic orientation (knowledge focusing) was facilitated. The findings can be summarized in two main points. First, knowledge management seems to serve the purpose of change, renewal and new strategic orientation in the SMEs. It also seems to be closely related to organic growth and innovation. All of these factors can be considered dimensions of entrepreneurship. Second, the conscious development of intangible assets can increase the balance of different categories of intangible assets and the overall knowledge focusing of business. In the case companies, this in turn facilitated the path to the improved overall performance.
  • Saarentaus, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This study focused on the relations of interest and self-efficacy beliefs of students. The aim was to specify how interest and self-efficacy beliefs are independently and reciprocally related to mathematical performances, and conversely, how changes in achievements influence changes in motivation. Theories that support the developmental tendencies of interest and self-efficacy are emphasized in the theoretical frame. Previous studies have shown that individual levels of interest and self-efficacy beliefs significantly influence learning. Research concerning the interaction effects of the factors has been scarce. In addition, the research on the motivational factors has mostly been quantitative. This study aims to complement the existing conceptual and methodological approaches. The study was conducted by qualitative methodological principles. Six (6) students participated for the interviews. They were selected from a larger sample of student participants based on their achievements in mathematics. The interviews were executed with a semi-structured interview method. The data were analyzed by using content analysis. The research was explorative within its topic and hence, the analysis was not based on any preconceived hypotheses. The individual manifestations of interest and self-efficacy in relation to students' mathematical performances were highlighted in the explorative analysis of this study. The experiences reflected the interactive relationships of the particular motivational factors; with each other and in respect of math performances. According to the views of the students, changes in one phenomenological factor commonly result in changes in another. Within the individual perspectives of this study, no general conclusions can be drawn. However, the previously empirically established significances of interest and self-efficacy in learning were reflected in the experiences of the interviewed students. The interconnection of the motivational factors in relation to mathematics is essential to consider in education. Their predisposition for change offers opportunities to generate new learning experiences, which then again, may improve the feelings of interest and self-efficacy of even older students in relation to mathematical learning.
  • Kukkamäki, Katriina (Helsingfors universitet, 2007)
    The purpose of this study was to describe and get a deep understanding of pedagogical change process. The phases of pedagogical change process and the nature and the role of teacher's pedagogical thinking in it were mapped. The change process as a whole was also modeled. The previous research of teaching change process has had been scarce on an individual teacher level, but on a school level it has been investigated abundantly. The theoretical background of this study consists of theories of teacher's pedagogical thinking and action and how their thinking and action change and develop. Teacher change has been researched from the point of view of both school change and professional development. The basic principle in the theoretical frame is that change in teacher's thinking leads to change in action. Three men teachers and a woman teacher who have put change into practice took part in this study. The data consisted of two parts: teachers' essays of their change process and interviews that were based on the essays. The data was analysed by content analysis. The categorizations of both parts of the data were made separately but they were interpreted together. In this way a deep understanding of pedagogical change process could be reached. The results of this study were descriptions of the phases of pedagogical change process and the nature and the role of teacher's pedagogical thinking in it. In addition a model of pedagogical change process was presented. Pedagogical change process started up because of disorder in teacher's pedagogical thinking and action. The disorder leads to an absolute necessity to change the activities. Change activities stabilize throughout intuitive experiments and reflection-on-action. The change in a teacher's thinking is a prerequisite for the start of the process but also, a teacher's thinking develops as a result of the process. Thus, the whole process results in a real, deep level change in instruction and in the teacher's thinking. That is why pedagogical change processes are visible, significant and they have wide and extensive effects. The study gives out information of controlling the change processes. Consequently, the results of this study encourage teachers to confront change and put their new ideas into practice.
  • Turusenaho, Päivi (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Changing work as well as changing expertise requirements are an often discussed topic in our current public discussion. In this study, the main interests were the conceptions of expertise and experiences of changing work and expertise requirements. The participants of the study (n=12) were a group of professionals working in a company providing language services. The aim of the study was to analyse how the participants understand expertise and what kind of changes and new expertise requirements they have experienced at their work. The main analytical concept of the study is expertise, and the theoretical framework consists of research literature on expertise on individual and collective dimensions which were compared to the conceptions of expertise among the sample group. The changes the research subjects have experienced at work were thematically analyzed by mirroring their views against some viewpoints on changing work and the historical work types. The study is based on a qualitative research strategy and the material was analysed by applying phenomenographic content analysis. The material was collected through one-to-one interviews. The work related expertise as described by the participants is presented through examples, whereas the phenomenographic analysis focuses on the participants' conceptions of expertise and on experiences of changes of work. To conclude, the results of the study were collected to categories of description. The results clearly showed that the contextual dimension of expertise as experience in the professional field was considered as one of the most important element of expertise. In addition to knowledge, skills, self-awareness and education, expertise was also related to learning new things as a prerequisite for expertise development. Also, knowing the customer was seen as expertise. In addition, respect from others was also seen as part of being an expert. In this material, expertise was portrayed more as an individual rather than a collective quality, even though the work was considered a team effort. The changes at work were related to increasing customer demands, changing technology and financial pressures. Despite these changes, the underlying nature of work was seen as unchanged and overall, the changes were not considered to lead to any completely new expertise requirements.
  • Laakso, Outi (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Aims. In the year 2010, the Finnish national core curriculum for basic education went through some amendments and additions when it comes to support for learning and schooling. A new three-step support model was introduced. The new support model contained general, intensified and special support. The aim of this thesis is to find out how primary school teachers execute the three-step support model at Vantaa: what support measures are most valued and who fills out the support model's pedagogical documents? The support model's aims and goals are also examined. The last aim is to compare the three-step support model to the idea of an inclusive school. Can we say that our education system is now more inclusive than what it was before? Methods. The research began with an interview with the person who is responsible for the planning of education in Vantaa. After the interview, part of the primary school teachers of Vantaa (N=61) answered to a questionnaire about the three-step support model. The research was conducted as a mixed method research because it has elements from both qualitative and quantitative research. The interview answers were analyzed by using content analysis. Quantitative methods were used while analyzing the questionnaire answers with the IBM SPSS Statistics 20-program. Results and conclusions. The study showed that the primary school teachers value differentiation, collaboration between school and home and part-time special education the most. Special education was valued as a part of the special support. Pedagogical documents were most likely filled by the class teacher or the special needs teacher although the work is assigned to class teachers . Collaboration between teachers was valued when filling the pedagogical documents. It's difficult to estimate how the goals of the three-step support model have been achieved. During the time of this research the new model had been used only for six months. The teachers admitted that more pupils are studying in mainstream education because of the new support model. Nevertheless the teachers felt that the education system needs special education schools and classes. They did not agree with the idea of shutting down all the special education schools.
  • Härkönen, Heidi (2013)
    The efforts of the Cuban socialist state to create a ‘New Man’ shared basic characteristics with endeavours in Eastern European and Soviet state socialisms, including the promotion of gender equality and stable marital relationships. In Cuba, this also included the goal of creating greater stability in the largely matrifocal family relationships. Ethnographic evidence from contemporary Havana suggests that Cubans have widely embraced some aspects of the state’s notions of socialist marital relationships, but insecurities still play a significant role in love relationships. Infidelity, ‘plotting’ and shaky trust in their romantic partner are of constant concern for Cubans. Exploring how Cubans negotiate doubts and trust in love relationships, this paper relates jealousy to uncertainties endemic in the transformations of contemporary Cuban socialism. The material deficiencies and dissatisfactions of post-Soviet Cuba, indissociable from a major increase in international tourism, intertwine with local notions of masculinity and femininity and fuel insecurities in relationships. While Caribbean family relationships have for long been described as fragile and unstable, this paper examines new insecurities that have emerged in post-Soviet Havana as part of important changes in contemporary Cuban socialism rather than of longue-durée.
  • Repo, Joona (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    The formation of urban structure is a complicated process and its outcome, that cannot be easily forecast, is not necessarily optimal. This creates a need to understand the process and gives a reason to control it by urban planning. As the circumstances are in constant change, the plans have to anticipate the time to come – partly far into the future. Research is needed to support planning to understand the factors that affect the urban structure better. Accessibility, that seems to be one of the key factors in the processes of land use change, seems to provide a suitable tool for planning and research: when suitably defined, it can connect the properties of transport and land use systems as well as the economic, social and environmental goals. The availability of services is closely connected to the quality of living environment, so studying the accessibility of them can produce new notable information for the needs of urban planning. The aim of this study was to explain how changes in urban structure cause changes in the accessibility of services by walking, mass transit and car in the long term, and study how these changes could affect the use of the services both from the perspectives of the users' possibilities and the potential the services produce. The public library network in Helsinki region was studied as an example. Studying the accessibility of public libraries is useful as such, as they provide many types of positive impacts, but public libraries are also a convenient example in studying the accessibility of services as they are a service actively used in everyday life and information about the use is available. Distances in the accessibility measures were measured as travel time. Accessibility was measured both in travel times to the nearest library and in potentials of making a library trip calculated by library trip forecasting models based on the real behaviour of their users. Comparison was made between the years 2014 and 2050, during which the population and the transport system are expected to change as in the created scenarios, which are based on the new Helsinki City Plan. In addition, the possible effects to the accessibility of the public libraries by possible cost cuts in the service network were inspected by simulating the effects of the cuts. Based on the results the public libraries in the study area seem to be relatively well accessible by all the inspected transport modes. The changes in the transport systems seem to have minor effects on the accessibility when measured in travel time to the nearest library, but when the effects are measured in the potentials of making a library trip, they seem to be a bit more significant – by mass transit, accessibility would improve and by car, it would deteriorate. The forecast change in the population would increase the number of people accessing the nearest library in half an hour, but the proportion of this group to the total population in the area would be smaller than before. The attraction of libraries affect to the potentials they produce, but the impacts are concentrated on the surrounding areas of the libraries and on the traffic routes, where the accessibility is relatively good to begin with. Even though excluding some of the smallest libraries from the service network would have relatively small effects on the accessibility in the aggregate, the effects on individual level and for sustainable accessibility could be significant. Based on the study results more significant than the changes in the transport system or in the attraction of the services seem to be how near population and services are located each other: the prerequisites for multimodal accessibility cannot necessarily be guaranteed if the distances are long. Based on the study results, to prevent the deterioration of the preconditions of the goals of Finnish regional planning and the qualifications for sustainable accessibility due to the forecast population change – in other words to keep the current standard of service – some changes in the service network would be needed. However, as there was only one type of service inspected in this study and as there is uncertainty if the scenarios will happen in the future, the conclusions that can be drawn from the results are restricted. Still, studying the accessibility of a single service is useful as such as the needs for different type of services are different, and if it will give some hints of the future accessibility of services in general at the same time, even though just in a few scenarios, it can be easier to be prepared for the future.
  • Ilomäki, Liisa; Stefanova, Stela; Vasileva, Tania (2020)
    This exploratory case study was conducted in two upper secondary schools in Finland and Bulgaria. The aim of the study was to investigate how to apply trialogical design principles could be used to improve students' knowledge work competence, and teachers' re-structured obligatory courses following pedagogical design principles for knowledge creation practices. The courses were organised in the form of students' collaborative inquiry and project work. The research questions focused on the implementation of the design principles, students' self-assessed learning of knowledge work competencies and the experiences of students and teachers. The main data consisted of students' self-evaluation answers to a pre-questionnaire (N = 76) and a post-questionnaire N = 52), and teachers' (N = 4) plans and interviews. The results showed that students' experiences were positive, but they also found shortcomings in their knowledge work competences. The teachers were also satisfied with the experiences, but they found problems in teachers' collaborative planning at the end of the process (in Finland) and in organising student teamwork and in reporting the contributions (in Bulgaria). The set of design principles was useful as a collaborative guidance tool for the teachers' planning, and in these two cases, the form of an inquiry learning and project work. However, the teachers need practical guidelines to implement the trialogical design principles.
  • Ståhlberg, Jenny; Tuominen, Heta; Pulkka, Antti-Tuomas; Niemivirta, Markku (2021)
    In this study, we examined what kind of perfectionistic profiles (i.e., different patterns of perfectionistic strivings and concerns) can be identified among general upper‐secondary school students, how stable those profiles are over the school year, and how they are connected with students' motivation (i.e., achievement goal orientations). Four distinct profiles were identified. Students with high strivings and low concerns had their focus mainly on mastery, while students with an opposite profile emphasized performance‐avoidance and work‐avoidance orientations. Students with high strivings and concerns favored both performance‐ and mastery‐related goals, whereas students characterized by low strivings and low concerns did not display a dominant tendency toward any orientation. Perfectionistic profiles were relatively stable over time, with the majority of students reporting similar tendencies across the measurements, and with no extreme changes observed. Some indications of more students displaying less adaptive perfectionistic tendencies by the end of the school year were nevertheless found. Our findings demonstrate not only stability in perfectionistic tendencies, but also their motivational relevance in the academic context where students' goals and performance concerns play an important role.
  • Riley, Anna (2006)
    The institution of diplomacy in its traditional form has found itself challenged in recent decades. The forces of both globalization and regionalisation have placed new demands upon diplomats, who are now required to balance their work against that of a plethora of new actors operating internationally, and at various levels. The European Union offers an operating environment considerably at odds with the international environment from which the institution of diplomacy developed. The Westphalian state order - a state-centric system where war was perceived as a constant threat - formed the backdrop to the evolution of diplomacy as an institution. Diplomacy became the means to mediate the security threat through inter-state dialogue, conducted by diplomats. The absence of a security threat within the EU today calls into question the role of diplomacy and the career diplomat. No longer required to conduct high-level bilateral negotiations, nor mediate a security threat, the diplomat must adapt to the new working environment and identify new roles and tasks to justify their existence. This thesis studies the changing role of bilateral diplomacy within the EU through the experience of Finland, with the aim of identifying the ways in which Finland's bilateral diplomatic practice vis-a-vis fellow member states has changed since entry to the Union in 1995. The research is conducted primarily in the form of interviews with civil servants and career diplomats, as well as consultation of official foreign ministry documents. The choice of the interview method is largely attributable to the fact that there has been very little study previously conducted on the topic at hand. The material collected is analysed using a theoretical framework rooted in the new institutionalist perspective, and elaborated by Jozef Batora. Two categories are selected that may define the direction that the institution of diplomacy is moving in - a change in diplomacy and a change of diplomacy (metamorphosis) - and the evidence collected through research is analysed according to its relevance to either of these two categories of change. This study covers the experiences of both the foreign ministry (with particular emphasis on the bilateral department and bilateral missions), and the sectoral ministries. The evidence collected indicates that a change in the role of Finland's foreign ministry within the EU context has taken place, in addition to changes in the roles attributed to the diplomats at Finland's bilateral missions. The London embassy is taken as a case study, and demonstrates a focal shift from high-level bilateral negotiations to public diplomacy and cultural work, in the name of lobbying for Finland's broader interests in EU decision-making. The sectoral ministries exhibit a variety of experiences since entry to the EU, but a trend appears to be emerging of a decreasing need for the foreign ministry and the services of its embassies, and a preference at the sectoral ministries for conducting their own bilateral dialogue. The evidence collected through this study suggests that the institution of diplomacy is capable of adaptation, and that adaptive measures are being undertaken, quite feasibly paving the way to an entirely new form of diplomacy within the EU.
  • Wendelin, Robert (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2004)
    Economics and Society
    A focus on cooperative industrial business relationships has become increasingly important in studies of industrial relationships. If the relationships between companies are strong it is usually a sign that companies will cooperate for a longer time and that may affect companies’ competitive and financial strength positively. As a result the bonds between companies become more important. This is due to the fact that bonds are building blocks of relationships and thus affect the stability in the cooperation between companies. Bond strength affect relationship strength. A framework regarding how bonds develop and change in an industrial business relationship has been developed in the study. Episodes affect the bonds in the relationship strengthening or weakening the bonds in the relationship or preserving status quo. Routine or critical episodes may lead to the strengthening or weakening of bonds as well as the preservation of status quo. The method used for analyzing bond strength trying to grasp the nature and change of bonds was invented by systematically following the elements of the definitions of bonds. A system with tables was drawn up in order to find out if the bond was weak, of medium strength or strong. Bonds are important regulators of industrial business relationships. By influencing the bonds one may have possibilities to strengthen or weaken the business relationship. Strengthen the business relationship in order to increase business and revenue and weaken the relationship in order to terminate business where the revenue is low or where there may be other problems in the relationship. By measuring the strength of different bonds it can be possible to strengthen weak bonds in order to strengthen the relationship. By using bond management it is possible to strategically strengthen or weaken the bonds between the cooperating companies in order to strengthen the cooperation and tie the customer or supplier to the company or weaken the cooperation in order to terminate the relationship. The instrument for the management of bonds is to use the created bond audit in order to know which bonds resources should be focused on in order to increase or decrease their strength.
  • Vishnjakova, Olga (2004)
    This is a study of contemporary Russian urban celebration. Specifically, a highly popular celebration of a City Day – an event commemorating the birthday of a town or a city is analyzed. The general issues of celebration are examined through a prism of a local event, the 850th jubilee of a small mid-Russian town of Kasimov. Contemporary celebration is contextualised by looking at the historical development of mass urban festivity in Russia. This study is an attempt to reach an understandingof the character of collective Russian celebrations, the role they play in shaping of social relationships and reflecting the attitudes and values of society. The symbolic dimension of City Days is analysed to provide insights into a broader cultural framework. The study examines the different dimensions and genres of a spectacular celebrations, as well as the profound effects of the festivities both on the people and the town itself. Methodologically the study relies on participant observation and anthropological fieldwork that I have conducted in the town of Kasimov and utilises qualitative research methods. Main sources are unstructured interviews, local and regional press clippings, photographs, as well as video footage and local television programmes. Theoretically the study relies on anthropological discussion of collective representations, rituals, festivals, myths and symbols. Mass celebrations stress and define contemporary Russian values and embody the myths structuring the reality of the society. Contemporary celebrations are a syncretistic mixture of traditional, modern, pre-revolutionary and Soviet elements. Myths often present the actual in terms of the ideal, thus celebrations are mythologised and idealised collective representations portraying the local people as they themselves want to be seen.
  • Puukka,Ilkka (2001)
    The objective of this study was the exercise of power and the politics related to it in the reform and change processes that have been carried out in a bureaucratic organization that belongs to the public administration. The study attempts to find out what happens when reforms deal with paradigrnatic models of activity that are related to bureaucratic procedures, and which factors activate resistance to change and in what conditions activity based on rational decision-making is maintained. This is a multiple-case study. The cases (4) dealt with the core functions and supportive functions of the Finnish Defense Forces. The basic material of the cases was formed out of notes the author had made on personal experiences; the notes have been supplemented with relevant document material. The cases took place between 1987 and 1999. Bureaucracy theory was used as the theoretical fl=ework, and on this basis the cases were analyzed from four different viewpoints: rational and incremental viewpoints and the viewpoints of power and interpretation. The cases showed that the better a reform can be justified with the help of the prevailing organization culture, the better the reform is accepted. Conceming the behavior of the actors, the study showed that officials, using various political and administrative channels, tend to try to break up decisions unfavorable to them. The institutional power exercised by the highest body of officials, allied with different interest groups, p-oved to be a strong opposing force to a minister exercising political power. The intertwining of rational strivings and bureaucratic politics meant that decisions in the change processes described by the cases began to tum into random outcomes of "various games". The organizations being studied acted strongly to interventions directed at their areas of operations. In all cases, an influential characteristic turned out to be interpretation and the incremental progression of changes. The cases can be seen to have shown that in refonns directed at the paradigrnatic models of activity in the defense administration a successful execution requires the ability and means to penetrate three paradigmatic walls that reject change. These walls are the wall of bureaucracy, the wall of military culture and the wall of professionalism. In the rational progression of the change process, a critical factor was found to be the top leadership's shared view of scenarios, visions and strategies as well as the principies of the management of change. The study showed that when reforins touch upon paradigrnatic models of activity related to bureaucratic procedures, the generation and management of a refortn project without the commitment of political decision-makers and the top body of officials brings with it phenomena and procedures related to bureaucratic politics. The cases also show that in change situations there is reason to pay attention not only to structures and organizations, but also to the attitudes of the individual and also that a change situation must also be approached from a psychological point of view. The development of change management in the defense administration requires the finding of the means and tools needed to break the prevailing paradigmatic walls and procedural reforms related to the execution of change. The study showed that when managing deepreaching changes that touch upon the entire field of administration, the behavior and activities of the minister become decisively important faetors. The minister can therefore be seen as a value leader and in this role he must become strongly involved in the game of bureaucratic politics played by officials.