Browsing by Subject "chemotherapy"

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  • Moyano-Galceran, Lidia; Pietila, Elina A.; Turunen, S. Pauliina; Corvigno, Sara; Hjerpe, Elisabet; Bulanova, Daria; Joneborg, Ulrika; Alkasalias, Twana; Miki, Yuichiro; Yashiro, Masakazu; Chernenko, Anastasiya; Jukonen, Joonas; Singh, Madhurendra; Dahlstrand, Hanna; Carlson, Joseph W.; Lehti, Kaisa (2020)
    Metastatic cancers commonly activate adaptive chemotherapy resistance, attributed to both microenvironment-dependent phenotypic plasticity and genetic characteristics of cancer cells. However, the contribution of chemotherapy itself to the non-genetic resistance mechanisms was long neglected. Using high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) patient material and cell lines, we describe here an unexpectedly robust cisplatin and carboplatin chemotherapy-induced ERK1/2-RSK1/2-EphA2-GPRC5A signaling switch associated with cancer cell intrinsic and acquired chemoresistance. Mechanistically, pharmacological inhibition or knockdown of RSK1/2 prevented oncogenic EphA2-S897 phosphorylation and EphA2-GPRC5A co-regulation, thereby facilitating a signaling shift to the canonical tumor-suppressive tyrosine phosphorylation and consequent downregulation of EphA2. In combination with platinum, RSK inhibitors effectively sensitized even the most platinum-resistant EphA2(high), GPRC5A(high) cells to the therapy-induced apoptosis. In HGSC patient tumors, this orphan receptor GPRC5A was expressed exclusively in cancer cells and associated with chemotherapy resistance and poor survival. Our results reveal a kinase signaling pathway uniquely activated by platinum to elicit adaptive resistance. They further identify GPRC5A as a marker for abysmal HGSC outcome and putative vulnerability of the chemo-resistant cells to RSK1/2-EphA2-pS897 pathway inhibition.
  • Mynttinen, Henri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Pehmytkudossarkoomat (PKS) ovat ryhmä syöpäsairauksia, jotka saavat alkunsa mesenkymaalisista kantasoluista ja esiintyvät tyypillisesti raajoissa ja vartalonseinämässä. Radiokemoterapia (RKT) on aggressiivinen hoitoprotokolla, jolla pyritään entistä säästävämpään kirurgiseen hoitoon sekä parantamaan paikallista tautikontrollia. Aggressiivinen hoitomuoto on toisaalta raskas potilaille sekä sisältää riskin hoitokomplikaatioista. Näihin lukeutuvat hoidon jälkeinen raajajäykkyys sekä leikaushaavojen post-operatiiviset komplikaatiot. Kirjallisuudessa on raportoitu samankaltaisten, mutta ei identtisten protokollien käytön tuloksista. Tämän tutkimuksen päätavoitteina oli tutkia potilaiden selviytymistä ja pitkäaikaiskomplikaatioiden määrää. Tutkimuksessa analysoitiin 89 korkean riskin PKS-potilasta, jotka hoidettiin vuosina 1998-2016 Helsingin yliopistollisessa sairaalassa pehmytkudostuumoriryhmän toimesta. Käytetty RKT-protokolla koostuu kuudesta lomitetusta doksorubisiini-ifosfamidi-solunsalpaajajaksosta sekä jaksotetusta hyperfraktioidusta sädehoidosta. TULOKSET: Potilaista 99 %:lla oli korkean riskin tauti. Hoitomyöntyvyys oli tutkimuksessa hyvä ja suurin osa potilaista sai suunnitellun hoidon kokonaisuudessaan. Paikalliskontrolli 5,4 vuoden seurannassa oli 81 % ja raajan säästävä kirurgia oli mahdollinen 93 %:lla potilaista. DISKUSSIO: Paikalliskontrolli on tyydyttävä aiempiin löydöksiin verrattuna, mutta metastaasiton selviytyminen oli vain 50,3 % kolmen vuoden seurannassa. Aiempien löydösten perusteella säästävä kirurgia ei aina johda parempaan selviytymiseen. Pehmytkudossarkooma on harvinainen ja haastava tauti, jonka hoidosta on vaikea tehdä tilastollisesti vahvaan tutkimusnäyttöön pohjautuvaa suositusta. Tämä tutkimus tuo lisää näyttöä RKT-protokollan hyödyllisyydestä korkean riskin potilaiden hoidossa satunnaistettujen kontrolloitujen hoitotutkimusten puuttuessa. Heikko kokonaisselviytyminen puoltaa uusien hoitomahdollisuuksien tutkimusta sekä kokeilua.
  • Holma, Reetta; Laatikainen, Reijo; Orell, Helena; Joensuu, Heikki; Peuhkuri, Katri; Poussa, Tuija; Korpela, Riitta; Österlund, Pia (2020)
    Chemotherapy-induced mucosal injury of the small intestine may interfere with the enzymes and transporters responsible for the hydrolysis and absorption of dietary carbohydrates causing diarrhoea, abdominal discomfort and pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the consumption of foods rich in FODMAPs (fermentable oligo-, di- and monosaccharides and polyols) and gastrointestinal symptoms in patients receiving adjuvant therapy for colorectal cancer. The patients (n = 52) filled in a 4-day food diary at baseline and during therapy and kept a symptom diary. The intakes of FODMAP-rich foods were calculated as portions and the intakes were divided into two consumption categories. Patients with high consumption of FODMAP-rich foods had diarrhoea more frequently than those with low consumption (for lactose-rich foods the odds ratio (OR) was 2.63, P = 0.03; and for other FODMAP-rich foods 1.82, P = 0.20). Patients with high consumption of both lactose-rich and other FODMAP-rich foods had an over 4-fold risk of developing diarrhoea as compared to those with low consumption of both (OR, 4.18; P = 0.02). These results were confirmed in multivariate models. Conclusion: Consumption of lactose-rich foods results in an increased risk of diarrhoea during adjuvant therapy for colorectal cancer, especially when the consumption of other FODMAP-rich foods is also high.
  • Utriainen, Pauliina; Suominen, Anu; Mäkitie, Outi; Jahnukainen, Kirsi (2019)
    Background: Neuroblastoma is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in children. Intensive therapy including autologous stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) has improved the poor prognosis of high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NBL) but may impair gonadal function. Objectives: To investigate the gonadal function and fertility in long-term survivors of childhood HR-NBL. Design: A cohort including all Finnish (n = 20; 11 females) long-term (> 10 years) survivors of HR-NBL and an age-and sex-matched control group (n = 20) was examined at a median age of 22 (16-30) years. Oncologic treatments, pubertal timing, hormonal therapies and the number of off-spring were recorded, and pituitary and gonadal hormones were measured. Results: Altogether 16/20 of the long-term survivors of HR-NBL entered puberty spontaneously; puberty was hormonally induced in four survivors (three females). Among the 8/11 female survivors with spontaneous puberty, seven had spontaneous menarche, but 5/8 developed ovarian failure soon after puberty. Nine females currently needed estrogen substitution. AMH, a marker of ovarian reserve, was lower in the female survivors than controls (median 0.02 vs. 1.7 mu g/l, p <0.001). As a group, male survivors had smaller testicular size (8.5 vs. 39ml, p <0.001) and lower inhibin B ( Conclusion: Gonadal failure is common in long-term survivors of HR-NBL treated with HSCT. Fertility may be preserved in some survivors treated without total-body irradiation.
  • Taimen, Kirsi; Heino, Samu; Kohonen, Ia; Relas, Heikki; Huovinen, Riikka; Hänninen, Arno; Pirilä, Laura (2020)
    Objective. Patients receiving chemotherapy are prone to neutropoenic infections, presenting with non-specific symptoms such as a high fever and elevated inflammatory parameters. Large-vessel vasculitis (LVV) may have a similar clinical presentation and should be included in differential diagnostics. A few published case reports and adverse event reports suggest a causal association between LVV and the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and chemotherapy. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between LVV, G-CSF and chemotherapy. Methods. Between 2016 and 2018, we identified six patients in Finland with probable drug-induced LVV associated with G-CSF and chemotherapy. All six patients had breast cancer. A systematic literature review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines using comprehensive search terms for cancer, chemotherapy, G-CSF and LVV. Results. The literature search identified 18 similar published case reports, of which most were published after 2014. In all patients combined (n = 24), the time delay from the last drug administration to the LVV symptoms was on average 5 days with G-CSF (range = 1-8 days) and 9 days with chemotherapy (range = 1-21 days). Common symptoms were fever (88%), neck pain (50%) and chest pain (42%). Based on imaging, 17/24 (71%) had vascular inflammation in the thoracic aorta and supra-aortic vessels, but 5/24 (21%) reportedly had inflammation limited to the carotid area. Conclusion. This review suggests that LVV may be a possible serious adverse event associated with G-CSF and chemotherapy. Successful management of drug-induced LVV requires early identification, through diagnostic imaging, and discontinuation of the drug.
  • Lehtomäki, Kaisa; Stedt, Hanna P.; Osterlund, Emerik; Muhonen, Timo; Soveri, Leena-Maija; Halonen, Päivi; Salminen, Tapio K.; Kononen, Juha; Kallio, Raija; Algars, Annika; Heerva, Eetu; Lamminmaki, Annamarja; Uutela, Aki; Nordin, Arno; Lehto, Juho; Saarto, Tiina; Sintonen, Harri; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Ristamäki, Raija; Glimelius, Bengt; Isoniemi, Helena; Osterlund, Pia (2022)
    Simple Summary Metastatic colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death. Long-term survival and cure can be achieved after intensive treatments, including metastasectomy, i.e., the removal of all metastases. We wanted to clarify whether a patient health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was reduced by treatments that aimed to maximise metastasectomy rates, and whether HRQoL of treated patients is comparable to the general population. In a cross-sectional study of 444 patients (1751 questionnaires) in the RAXO-study population, we show that HRQoL of intensively treated patients, sometimes with multiple and multisite metastasectomies-usually combined with systemic therapy-remains at a high level during and after curative treatment and when compared with the general population. Good HRQoL was also seen during non-curative treatment from first- to later-lines, with an impaired HRQoL only at end-of-life. Thus, we should aim at maximising metastasectomies since they give long-term survival and sometimes cure with a high HRQoL. Metastasectomy and/or local ablative therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients often provide long-term survival. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) data in curatively treated mCRC are limited. In the RAXO-study that evaluated repeated resectability, a multi-cross-sectional HRQoL substudy with 15D, EQ-5D-3L, QLQ-C30, and QLQ-CR29 questionnaires was conducted. Mean values of patients in different treatment groups were compared with age- and gender-standardized general Finnish populations. The questionnaire completion rate was 444/477 patients (93%, 1751 questionnaires). Mean HRQoL was 0.89-0.91 with the 15D, 0.85-0.87 with the EQ-5D, 68-80 with the EQ-5D-VAS, and 68-79 for global health status during curative treatment phases, with improvements in the remission phase (disease-free >18 months). In the remission phase, mean EQ-5D and 15D scores were similar to the general population. HRQoL remained stable during first- to later-line treatments, when the aim was no longer cure, and declined notably when tumour-controlling therapy was no longer meaningful. The symptom burden affecting mCRC survivors' well-being included insomnia, impotence, urinary frequency, and fatigue. Symptom burden was lower after treatment and slightly higher, though stable, through all phases of systemic therapy. HRQoL was high in curative treatment phases, further emphasizing the strategy of metastasectomy in mCRC when clinically meaningful.
  • Jamshidi, Maral; Fagerholm, Rainer; Muranen, Taru A.; Kaur, Sippy; Potdar, Swapnil; Khan, Sofia; Netti, Eliisa; Mpindi, John-Patrick; Yadav, Bhagwan; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Heikkilä, Päivi; Saarela, Jani; Bützow, Ralf; Blomqvist, Carl; Nevanlinna, Heli (2021)
  • Pampanini, Valentina; Wagner, Magdalena; Asadi-Azarbaijani, Babak; Oskam, Irma C.; Sheikhi, Mona; Sjödin, Marcus O. D.; Lindberg, Johan; Hovatta, Outi; Sahlin, Lena; Bjorvang, Richelle D.; Otala, Marjut; Damdimopoulou, Pauliina; Jahnukainen, Kirsi (2019)
    STUDY QUESTION: Does first-line chemotherapy affect the quality of ovarian pre-antral follicles and stromal tissue in a population of young patients? SUMMARY ANSWER: Exposure to first-line chemotherapy significantly impacts follicle viability, size of residual intact follicles, steroid secretion in culture and quality of the stromal compartment. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: First-line chemotherapy is considered to have a low gonadotoxic potential, and as such, does not represent an indication for fertility preservation. Studies investigating the effects of chemotherapy on the quality of ovarian tissue stored for fertility preservation in young patients are limited and the results sometimes contradictory. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: We conducted a retrospective cohort study including young patients referred to three centers (Helsinki, Oslo and Tampere) to perform ovarian tissue cryopreservation for fertility preservation between 2003 and 2018. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: A total of 43 patients (age 1-24 years) were included in the study. A total of 25 were exposed to first-line chemotherapy before cryopreservation, whereas 18 patients were not. Density and size of follicles divided by developmental stages, prevalence of atretic follicles, health of the stromal compartment and functionality of the tissue in culture were evaluated and related to age and chemotherapy exposure. Activation of dormant follicles and DNA damage were also assessed. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Patients exposed to first-line chemotherapy showed a significantly higher density of atretic primordial and intermediary follicles than untreated patients. The intact primordial and intermediary follicles were significantly smaller in size in patients exposed to chemotherapy. Production of steroids in culture was also significantly impaired and a higher content of collagen and DNA damage was observed in the stromal compartment of treated patients. Collectively, these observations may indicate reduced quality and developmental capacity of follicles as a consequence of first-line chemotherapy exposure. Neither increased activation of dormant follicles nor elevated levels of DNA damage in oocyte nuclei were found in patients exposed to chemotherapy. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The two groups were not homogeneous in terms of age and the patients were exposed to different treatments, which did not allow us to distinguish the effect of specific agents. The limited material availability did not allow us to perform all the analyses on the entire set of patients. WIDER IMPLICATION OF THE FINDINGS: This study provides for the first time a comprehensive analysis of the effects of first-line chemotherapy on the health, density and functionality of follicles categorized according to the developmental stage in patients under 24 years of age. When exposed to these treatments, patients were considered at low/medium risk of infertility. Our data suggest a profound impact of these relatively safe therapies on ovarian health and encourages further exploration of this effect in follow-up studies in order to optimize fertility preservation for young cancer patients.
  • Takala, Sari; Heikkilä, Päivi; Nevanlinna, Heli; Blomqvist, Carl; Mattson, Johanna (2019)
    Background: Metaplastic breast carcinomas (MpBCs) are rare, aggressive breast cancers. Due to the scant literature of this disease most guidelines do not give recommendation for this entity. The aim of the study was to review the clinicopathologic features, treatment, and outcomes of the patients with MpBC treated at our institution. Material and methods: We searched databases for patients with histologically confirmed MpBC from 2002 to 2016. Results: A total of 78 patients with MpBC were included in the study. All histological material was reviewed by an experienced breast pathologist. Most tumors were grade 3 (83%) and triple negative (85%). Eighty-two percent were node negative. Sixty-four percent received adjuvant chemotherapy. The 5-year disease free survival was 63% and 5-year breast cancer specific overall survival was 61%. Tumor size and mixed metaplastic histology were associated with worse outcome in this patient group. One third of the patients (n = 28) had metastatic disease at initial presentation or developed metastases at follow-up. The lungs were the most common site of first distant recurrence. Half (n = 14) of these patients received palliative chemotherapy. Of those only 6% (n = 2) had partial response and 18% had stable disease as best response to treatment. The median overall survival time with metastatic disease was only 3.4 months. Conclusion: MpBC is an aggressive type of breast cancer with poor outcome despite low nodal involvement and aggressive local and systemic therapy. Tumor response to palliative systemic chemotherapy remains poor for MpBC patients.
  • Bergsland, Christian H.; Bruun, Jarle; Guren, Marianne G.; Svindland, Aud; Bjørnslett, Merete; Smeby, Jørgen; Hektoen, Merete; Kolberg, Matthias; Domingo, Enric; Pellinen, Teijo; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerr, David; Church, David N.; Nesbakken, Arild; Sveen, Anita; Lothe, Ragnhild A. (2020)
    Background There is a need for improved selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy after resection of non-metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Regulator of chromosome condensation 2 (RCC2) is a potential prognostic biomarker. We report on the establishment of a robust protocol for RCC2 expression analysis and prognostic tumour biomarker evaluation in patients who did and did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. Materials and methods RCC2 was analysed in 2916 primary CRCs from the QUASAR2 randomised trial and two single-hospital Norwegian series. A new protocol using fluorescent antibody staining and digital image analysis was optimised. Biomarker value for 5-year relapse-free survival was analysed in relation to tumour stage, adjuvant chemotherapy and the molecular markers microsatellite instability, KRAS/BRAF(V600E)/TP53 mutations and CDX2 expression. Results Low RCC2 expression was scored in 41% of 2696 evaluable samples. Among patients with stage I-III CRC who had not received adjuvant chemotherapy, low RCC2 expression was an independent marker of inferior 5-year relapse-free survival in multivariable Cox models including clinicopathological factors and molecular markers (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.94, p=0.012, N=521). RCC2 was not prognostic in patients who had received adjuvant chemotherapy, neither in QUASAR2 nor the pooled Norwegian series. The interaction between RCC2 and adjuvant chemotherapy for prediction of patient outcome was significant in stage III, and strongest among patients with microsatellite stable tumours (p(interaction)=0.028). Conclusions Low expression of RCC2 is a biomarker for poor prognosis in patients with stage I-III CRC and seems to be a predictive biomarker for effect of adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Karihtala, Peeter; Jääskeläinen, Anniina; Roininen, Nelli; Jukkola, Arja (2020)
    Objectives Although novel early breast cancer prognostic factors are being continuously discovered, only rare factors predicting survival in metastatic breast cancer have been validated. The prognostic role of early breast cancer prognostic factors in metastatic disease also remains mostly unclear. Design and setting Prospective cohort study in a Finnish University Hospital. Participants and outcomes 594 women with early breast cancer were originally followed. Sixty-one of these patients developed distant metastases during the follow-up, and their primary breast cancer properties, such as tumour size, nodal status, oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor expression, grade, proliferation rate, histopathological subtype and breast cancer subtype were analysed as potential prognostic factors for metastatic disease. Results In multivariate analysis, the presence of lymph node metastases at the time of early breast cancer surgery (HR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.09-4.31; p=0.027) and ER status (negative vs positive, HR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.14-4.10; p=0.018) were significant predictors of survival in metastatic disease. Conclusions These results confirm ER status as a primary prognostic factor in metastatic breast cancer. Furthermore, it also suggests that the presence of initial lymph node metastases could serve as a prognostic factor in recurrent breast cancer.
  • Liposits, G; Eshoj, HR; Moller, S; Winther, SB; Skuladottir, H; Ryg, J; Hofsli, E; Shah, CH; Poulsen, LO; Berglund, A; Qvortrup, C; Osterlund, P; Glimelius, B; Sorbye, H; Pfeiffer, P (2021)
    Simple Summary Bowel cancer is one of the leading cancer-types in both sexes worldwide. Despite that most new cases and deaths occur in people aged 70 years or older, few clinical trials have investigated the best way to administer chemotherapy in older or frail patients. The NORDIC9-study established that moderately dose-reduced combination chemotherapy improved survival without extra side-effects compared to full dose single drug therapy. However, many older patients with incurable cancer seem to prefer preserved quality of life rather than longer survival. Therefore, our aim with the current quality of life analysis of the NORDIC9-study was to assess that the more effective chemotherapy was not at the expense of decreased quality of life. Our analyses showed that moderately dose-reduced combination chemotherapy-maintained quality of life, physical functioning, and resulted in less symptoms than treatment with full dose single drug in older patients not tolerating standard combination chemotherapy usually provided to young and fit patients. Quality of life data from randomized trials are lacking in older patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). In the randomized NORDIC9-study, reduced-dose S1+oxaliplatin (SOx) showed superior efficacy compared to full-dose S1 monotherapy. We hypothesized that treatment with SOx does not result in inferior quality of life. Patients with mCRC aged >= 70 years and that were not a candidate for standard combination chemotherapy were included and randomly assigned to receive either S1 or SOx. The EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire was completed at baseline, after 9, and 18 weeks. The primary endpoint was global Quality of Life (QoL) at 9 weeks. For statistical analysis, a non-inferiority design was chosen applying linear mixed effects models for repeated measurements. The results were interpreted according to statistical significance and anchor-based, clinically relevant between-group minimally important differences (MID). A total of 160 patients aged (median (Interquartile range (IQR))) 78 years (76-81) were included. The QLQ-C30 questionnaire was completed by 150, 100, and 60 patients at baseline, at 9, and 18 weeks, respectively. The difference at 9 weeks in global QoL was 6.85 (95%CI-1.94; 15.65) and 7.37 (0.70; 14.05) in the physical functioning domain in favor of SOx exceeding the threshold for MID. At 18 weeks, the between-group MID in physical functioning was preserved. Dose-reduced combination chemotherapy may be recommended in vulnerable older patients with mCRC, rather than full-dose monotherapy.
  • Fagerholm, Rainer; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Khan, Sofia; Rafiq, Sajjad; Tapper, William; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Greco, Dario; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Muranen, Taru A.; Fasching, Peter A.; Janni, Wolfgang; Weinshilboum, Richard; Loehberg, Christian R.; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Keeman, Renske; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Lambrechts, Diether; Wildiers, Hans; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Seibold, Petra; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Hooning, Maartje J.; Jager, Agnes; Shah, Mitul; Perkins, Barbara J.; Luben, Robert; Hamann, Ute; Kabisch, Maria; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Liu, Jianjun; Eccles, Diana; Blomqvist, Carl; Nevanlinna, Heli; kConFab Investigators (2015)
    We have utilized a two-stage study design to search for SNPs associated with the survival of breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Our initial GWS data set consisted of 805 Finnish breast cancer cases (360 treated with adjuvant chemotherapy). The top 39 SNPs from this stage were analyzed in three independent data sets: iCOGS (n=6720 chemotherapy-treated cases), SUCCESS-A (n=3596), and POSH (n=518). Two SNPs were successfully validated: rs6500843 (any chemotherapy; per-allele HR 1.16, 95% C.I. 1.08-1.26, p=0.0001, p((adjusted))=0.0091), and rs11155012 (anthracycline therapy; per-allele HR 1.21, 95% C.I. 1.08-1.35, p=0.0010, p((adjusted))=0.0270). The SNP rs6500843 was found to specifically interact with adjuvant chemotherapy, independently of standard prognostic markers (p((interaction))=0.0009), with the rs6500843-GG genotype corresponding to the highest hazard among chemotherapy-treated cases (HR 1.47, 95% C.I. 1.20-1.80). Upon trans-eQTL analysis of public microarray data, the rs6500843 locus was found to associate with the expression of a group of genes involved in cell cycle control, notably AURKA, the expression of which also exhibited differential prognostic value between chemotherapy-treated and untreated cases in our analysis of microarray data. Based on previously published information, we propose that the eQTL genes may be connected to the rs6500843 locus via a RBFOX1-FOXM1 -mediated regulatory pathway.
  • Pieters, R. J; Slotved, H. C; Møller Mortensen, H.; Arler, L; Finne, J; Haataja, Sauli; Joosten, J. A. F; Branderhorst, H. M; Krogfelt, K. A (2013)