Browsing by Subject "child labour"

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  • Sallinen, Maarit (2008)
    General objective of the study is try to understand and explain as of why the child labour persists in India amidst the high economic growth rates experienced in the post-1991 economic reform era. The examination has a dual focus. At first, the nature of economic growth in the post-1991 reform period is studied in terms of its ability to reduce the supply and demand factors that cause child labour. Poverty reduction, economic inequalities, social sector expenditure and changes in the production structure of the economy are in the main focus. Second, the aim is to analyse the impact of Indian social structure in the post-1991 reform period on the persistence of child labour. Finally, a case study of Karur district in Tamil is used to compliment the analysis. The methods of qualitative research are applied and as such the thesis will not attempt to provide accurate quantitative interrelationships between factors that cause child labour in India but rather to provide explanations and proposals as of why this might be. The study and the case study shows that in terms of its impact on eradication of child labour, the impact of ten years of gradualist economic reforms sends a mixed picture. Poverty reduction has been uneven with great disparities between states and regions, in particular the disparities between rural and urban areas persist. Even as economy has been booming, many public services have worsened. In some sectors there has been impressive progress made but the differences in terms access to these services along caste and regional lines are remarkable. The development in provision of public services such as education and health care also suffer from regional and sectoral bias. In terms of education, for a developing country India still spends far more money on tertiary education than on primary education. The growth of industrial production requires educated labour force, therefore improving the quality of education would be essential for the future of India.The economic growth in India has in particular fuelled the capital-intensive sectors, at the expense of the labour-intensive industries which would bring employment and incomes for the poor. Agricultural sector has suffered from lack of government investments. In addition to these factors, and probably in part behind all these factors are the social and cultural factors. Most of the child workers of India belong to the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes or to the Muslim community. Despite the fact that economic growth in India proceeds, caste-based discrimination continues in India and access to education and social status are still determined by the individuals caste status. The case study of rural Karur district confirms many of these notions.
  • Doftori, Mojibur (2004)
    This study is an investigation into the role of Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) in education of child labourers in Bangladesh and Nepal. It is guided by semi-structured and structured interviews as well as observations and analyzing texts and documents. It analyzes diverse approaches of NGOs in education sector in improving the living conditions of child labourers. It also analyzes to what extent the NGO approaches fit with the broader national goals of education sector development. The data used in the study were collected from a total ten NGOs in Bangladesh and Nepal during the fieldwork in 1999. A total 100 cases of child labourers was gathered during the fieldwork. Sociological theories of education have been used for this study to shed light on educational possibilities of child labourers. I find resistance theory and particularly the work of Paulo Freire as central to explain educational possibilities of child labourers in Bangladesh and Nepal. Extensive literature review and empirical data are used to explain historical developments and contexts of child labour and primary education, conceptions of childhood, role of NGOs in development in general and education sector in particular in Bangladesh and Nepal. Children’s ‘agency’ has been given importance in the study to give children’s own perspective on their work and education. The study reveals that it is possible to educate child labourers even under poverty and hardships if the needs and contexts of child labourers are taken into account when designing educational projects/programs. It also reveals that individual NGO projects may help children to improve their capability to cope with their situations. However, lack of linking of NGO work on education with the work of other actors is an impediment in achieving maximum impact. One of the conclusions reached in the study is that cooperation and synergy between education projects/programs of NGOs and government is a must to have maximum positive impact on living conditions of child labourers and achieving the national goal of ‘Education for All’. There is a need for both NGOs and governments of developing countries to reconsider some of their policies on education sector to reduce child labour.
  • Nerg, Liisa (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Street children is a broad topic that has been studied by various researchers often focusing on some more specific part, for example street life and activities in the street. In the previous years, the voices of the children themselves have been increasingly taken into account. In this study the focus is on the ways of helping the children and how to support them to get out of the street. The aim is to find the best practices to support the children and to see if the strategies of the centres meet the needs of the children. Therefore, it is important to study why the children have ended up in the street at the first place and what kind of survival strategies they have. Also the reasons for them to run away back to the street again are discussed. The study is an ethnographic case study. The methods used for data collection were interviews and participant observation. The field study was conducted in Lusaka, Zambia, in three different centres for street children. Some participant observation was done in the street too. For clarity’s sake the perceptions of the children and the strategies of the centres are analysed and discussed in different chapters. The findings show that there are various push factors for children ending up in the street, for example poverty and violence at home. Also not having anywhere to go to and the need to survive are pushing children to the street. Running away from the centres is linked to violence but also to freedom, addiction to drugs and alcohol as well as peer pressure. In the street the most usual activity is begging, which is considered as a mean of survival. Aside of begging, children do different kinds of piece works. Street life is hard and unsafe: there is violence, hunger, theft and addiction to glue and drugs. The friends in the street were seen as an important thing in order to survive. Among the children, the centres are generally considered as a good way to get out of the street, alongside education. However, the violence used in some centres is criticised and the child’s willingness to go to the centre is considered as important. Children who are willing to come to the centres can be found through street outreach. From the point of view of the centre staff children working and staying in the street is problematic because these children are deprived of their rights, for example right to education. Often the children do have parents or relatives but they are working in the street in order to support the families. The domestic work is considered as a normal thing whereas the work in the street is seen as abuse and exploitation. Sometimes the parents even send the children to the street to earn money. Work in the street often prevents the children from going to school but sometimes the work can help them to afford going to school. However, children working in the street are often taken advantage of. Both the street life and the work in the street has a lot of consequences for the child’s health and well-being, both physical and psychological. Despite the hardships in the street, there is also friends, belonging and freedom. A simple solution to tackle the street child phenomenon is to stop giving money to the children in the street and direct them to the facilities, where they can obtain education and life skills. The staff of the centres have a consensus of home being the best place for the child. The children’s perceptions are somewhat similar to the strategies of the centres when discussing the best ways to help the children. One simple solution is to stop giving the children money in the street. For the child to integrate to the society he/she needs a place he/she can consider as home, family or guardians, rehabilitation and education. Also the government’s intervention would be important in order to support the families to get help from the social welfare and to send the children to school. This study contributes to the discussion of street children, their lives in the street and how to help them, both from the point of views of the children and the staff of the centres.