Browsing by Subject "childhood obesity"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-4 of 4
  • Hebestreit, Antje; Intemann, Timm; Siani, Alfonso; De Henauw, Stefaan; Eiben, Gabriele; Kourides, Yiannis A.; Kovacs, Eva; Moreno, Luis A.; Veidebaum, Toomas; Krogh, Vittorio; Pala, Valeria; Bogl, Leonie H.; Hunsberger, Monica; Boernhorst, Claudia; Pigeot, Iris; I Family Consortium (2017)
    The aim of this study was to determine whether an association exists between children's and parental dietary patterns (DP), and whether the number of shared meals or soft drink availability during meals strengthens this association. In 2013/2014 the I. Family study cross-sectionally assessed the dietary intakes of families from eight European countries using 24-h dietary recalls. Usual energy and food intakes from six-to 16-year-old children and their parents were estimated based on the NCI Method. A total of 1662 child-mother and 789 child-father dyads were included; DP were derived using cluster analysis. We investigated the association between children's and parental DP and whether the number of shared meals or soft drink availability moderated this association using mixed effects logistic regression models. Three DP comparable in children and parents were obtained: Sweet & Fat, Refined Cereals, and Animal Products. Children were more likely to be allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP when their fathers were allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP and when they shared at least one meal per day (OR 3.18; 95% CI 1.84; 5.47). Being allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP increased when the mother or the father was allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP and when soft drinks were available (OR 2.78; 95% CI 1.80; 4.28 or OR 4.26; 95% CI 2.16; 8.41, respectively). Availability of soft drinks and negative parental role modeling are important predictors of children's dietary patterns.
  • Häkkänen, Paula; But, Anna; Ketola, Eeva; Laatikainen, Tiina (2020)
    Aim We aimed to identify groups of primary school children with similar overweight development, reveal age-related patterns of overweight development in the resulting groups and analyse overweight-related school healthcare interventions. Methods This retrospective longitudinal register study utilised electronic health records from six primary school years. From a random sample of 2000 sixth graders, we derived a study cohort of 508 children meeting criteria for overweight at least once during primary school. We investigated how many different groups (latent classes) of children with similar weight development would emerge by applying flexible latent class mixed models on body mass index standard deviation score. We also explored the resulting groups with respect to offered overweight-related interventions. Results Per child, the data consisted in median 7 growth measurements over 5.4 years. We identified five overweight development groups for girls and four for boys. The groups converged temporarily around age 10 after which only some continued into obesity. School nurses and physicians offered overweight-related interventions to children with obesity, less to children gaining weight or with overweight. Conclusion Obesity prevention might benefit from awareness of typical overweight development patterns when designing intervention studies or planning and timing multidisciplinary school health check programmes.
  • Loid, Petra; Mustila, Taina; Mäkitie, Riikka E.; Viljakainen, Heli; Kämpe, Anders; Tossavainen, Päivi; Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita; Pekkinen, Minna; Mäkitie, Outi (2020)
    Context: The hypothalamic circuit has an essential role in the regulation of appetite and energy expenditure. Pathogenic variants in genes involved in the hypothalamic leptin-melanocortin pathway, including melanocortin-4-receptor (MC4R), have been associated with monogenic obesity. Objective: To determine the rate and spectrum of rare variants in genes involved in melanocortin pathway or hypothalamic development in patients with severe early-onset obesity (height-adjusted weight >60% before age 10 years). Methods: We used a custom-made targeted exome sequencing panel to assess peripheral blood DNA samples for rare (minor allele frequency Results: We identified a novel frameshift deletion in MC4R (p.V103Afs5*) in two unrelated patients and a previously reported MC4R variant (p.T112M) in one patient. In addition, we identified rare heterozygous missense variants in ADCY3 (p.G1110R), MYT1L (p.R807Q), ISL1 (p.I347F), LRP2 (p.R2479I, and p.N3315S) and a hemizygous missense variant in GRPR (p.L87M) (each in one patient), possibly contributing to the obesity phenotype in these patients. Altogether 8 % (7/92) of the subjects had rare pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in the studied genes. Conclusions: Rare genetic variants within the hypothalamic circuit are prevalent and contribute to the development of severe early-onset obesity. Targeted exome sequencing is useful in identifying affected subjects. Further studies are needed to evaluate the variants' clinical significance and to define optimal treatment.
  • Rosas, Charlotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Background and aims: Childhood obesity has increased worldwide and is a public health concern. Overweight and obese children have a higher risk of being obese and having adverse health outcomes also later in life. Obesity can also have an adverse effect on the quality of life in children and can reduce life expectancy. One of the main risk factors for childhood obesity is lifestyle such as poor diet quality and lack of physical activity. Maternal lifestyle factors, obesity and gestational diabetes (GDM) during pregnancy are also associated with a higher risk of obesity and adverse health outcomes in the offspring. One potential explanation is the theory of developmental programming and epigenetic mechanisms. There is a need for effective methods for preventing childhood obesity in the society. The aim of this thesis was to examine the association between overall diet quality and adiposity in children aged 4—6 years in a cross-sectional analysis. The other aim was to explore in a prospective analysis if maternal pre-pregnancy BMI modifies this association. Material and methods: The data used in this thesis is from the RADIEL-study (The Finnish Gestational Diabetes Prevention Study). It was a multi-center randomized intervention study that recruited women at high risk for GDM before or in early pregnancy. The 720 women that participated had a BMI≥30 kg/m2 and/or a history of GDM. The study also includes a follow-up cohort study five years after delivery with 379 participating mother-child pairs. The follow-up visit included measurements of anthropometrics and body composition, as well as laboratory analyses from both mothers and children. Food records and background questionnaires were also collected. In this thesis, diet was measured with 3-day food records. The overall diet quality of the children was measured with the Finnish Children Healthy Eating Index (FCHEI). The indicators describing offspring adiposity were body fat percentage ((BF%) measured with bioimpedance method), ISO-BMI, and waist circumference (WC). The association between FCHEI and variables for adiposity were tested with multivariate linear regression models. To examine if the maternal pre-pregnancy BMI modifies this association the interaction between maternal BMI and FCHEI for the adiposity indicators were examined. If an interaction was found, the associations were analysed in two groups based on the BMI of the mother (BMI<30 and BMI≥30 kg/m2). The models were adjusted for age, sex, education of the mother, total family income, and energy intake. The association between the separate food groups included in the FCHEI and indicators of adiposity were also analysed in the whole group and adjusted for covariates. Results: A positive association between the FCHEI-score (points) and BF% (β 0,11; 95 % CI 0,01, 0,21) was found. There was also a positive association between FCHEI (points) and ISO-BMI (no unit) (β 0,08; 95 % CI 0,02, 0,14) and between FCHEI (points) and WC (cm) (β 0,08; 95 % CI 0,01, 0,15). Maternal BMI modified the association between FCHEI and BF% (p for interaction = 0,048). A positive association between FCHEI (points) and BF% was found in the group with maternal BMI≥30 kg/m2 (β 0,18; 95 % CI 0,05, 0,30) but not in the group with maternal BMI <30 kg/m2 (p>0,05). The consumption of skimmed milk (food group, points) was associated with higher BF% (standardized β 0,12; 95 % CI 0,00, 0,54), ISO-BMI (no unit) (standardized β 0,18; 95 % CI 0,10, 0,43), and WC (cm) (standardized β 0,13; 95 % CI -0,41, 1,75) in the whole group. No other associations were found between food groups and adiposity indicators. Conclusion: A higher FCHEI score was associated with higher BF%, ISO-BMI, and WC in 4-6-year-old children. The association between FCHEI and BF% was modified by maternal BMI before pregnancy. The consumption of skimmed milk was associated with higher adiposity.