Browsing by Subject "chloroplast genome"

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  • Zheng, Shuyu; Poczai, Peter; Hyvönen, Jaakko; Tang, Jing; Amiryousefi, Ali (2020)
    Understanding the complexity of genomic structures and their unique architecture is linked with the power of visualization tools used to represent these features. Such tools should be able to provide a realistic and scalable version of genomic content. Here, we present an online organelle plotting tool focused on chloroplasts, which were developed to visualize the exclusive structure of these genomes. The distinguished unique features of this program include its ability to represent the Single Short Copy (SSC) regions in reverse complement, which allows the depiction of the codon usage bias index for each gene, along with the possibility of the minor mismatches between inverted repeat (IR) regions and user-specified plotting layers. The versatile color schemes and diverse functionalities of the program are specifically designed to reflect the accurate scalable representation of the plastid genomes. We introduce a Shiny app website for easy use of the program; a more advanced application of the tool is possible by further development and modification of the downloadable source codes provided online. The software and its libraries are completely coded in R, available at
  • Rehman, Umar; Sultana, Nighat; Abdullah; Jamal, Abbas; Muzaffar, Maryam; Poczai, Péter (2021)
    Family Phyllanthaceae belongs to the eudicot order Malpighiales, and its species are herbs, shrubs, and trees that are mostly distributed in tropical regions. Here, we elucidate the molecular evolution of the chloroplast genome in Phyllanthaceae and identify the polymorphic loci for phylogenetic inference. We de novo assembled the chloroplast genomes of three Phyllanthaceae species, i.e., Phyllanthus emblica, Flueggea virosa, and Leptopus cordifolius, and compared them with six other previously reported genomes. All species comprised two inverted repeat regions (size range 23,921–27,128 bp) that separated large single-copy (83,627–89,932 bp) and small single-copy (17,424–19,441 bp) regions. Chloroplast genomes contained 111–112 unique genes, including 77–78 protein-coding, 30 tRNAs, and 4 rRNAs. The deletion/pseudogenization of rps16 genes was found in only two species. High variability was seen in the number of oligonucleotide repeats, while guanine-cytosine contents, codon usage, amino acid frequency, simple sequence repeats, synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions, and transition and transversion substitutions were similar. The transition substitutions were higher in coding sequences than in non-coding sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the polyphyletic nature of the genus Phyllanthus. The polymorphic proteincoding genes, including rpl22, ycf1, matK, ndhF, and rps15, were also determined, which may be helpful for reconstructing the high-resolution phylogenetic tree of the family Phyllanthaceae. Overall, the study provides insight into the chloroplast genome evolution in Phyllanthaceae.
  • Mehmood, Furrukh; Abdullah; Ubaid, Zartasha; Bao, Yiming; Poczai, Péter; Mirza, Bushra (2020)
    Within the family Solanaceae, Withania is a small genus belonging to the Solanoideae subfamily. Here, we report the de novo assembled chloroplast genome sequences of W. coagulans, W. adpressa, and W. riebeckii. The length of these genomes ranged from 154,162 to 154,364 base pairs (bp). These genomes contained a pair of inverted repeats (IRa and IRb) ranging from 25,029 to 25,071 bp that were separated by a large single-copy (LSC) region of 85,635-85,765 bp and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 18,457-18,469 bp. We analyzed the structural organization, gene content and order, guanine-cytosine content, codon usage, RNA-editing sites, microsatellites, oligonucleotide and tandem repeats, and substitutions of Withania plastomes, which revealed high similarities among the species. Comparative analysis among the Withania species also highlighted 10 divergent hotspots that could potentially be used for molecular marker development, phylogenetic analysis, and species identification. Furthermore, our analyses showed that even three mutational hotspots (rps4-trnT, trnM-atpE, and rps15) were sufficient to discriminate the Withania species included in current study.
  • Abdullah; Henriquez, Claudia L.; Mehmood, Furrukh; Shahzadi, Iram; Ali, Zain; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Croat, Thomas B; Poczai, Péter; Ahmed, Ibrar (2020)
    The chloroplast genome provides insight into the evolution of plant species. We de novo assembled and annotated chloroplast genomes of four genera representing three subfamilies of Araceae: Lasia spinosa (Lasioideae), Stylochaeton bogneri, Zamioculcas zamiifolia (Zamioculcadoideae), and Orontium aquaticum (Orontioideae), and performed comparative genomics using these chloroplast genomes. The sizes of the chloroplast genomes ranged from 163,770 bp to 169,982 bp. These genomes comprise 113 unique genes, including 79 protein-coding, 4 rRNA, and 30 tRNA genes. Among these genes, 17–18 genes are duplicated in the inverted repeat (IR) regions, comprising 6–7 protein-coding (including trans-splicing gene rps12), 4 rRNA, and 7 tRNA genes. The total number of genes ranged between 130 and 131. The infA gene was found to be a pseudogene in all four genomes reported here. These genomes exhibited high similarities in codon usage, amino acid frequency, RNA editing sites, and microsatellites. The oligonucleotide repeats and junctions JSB (IRb/SSC) and JSA (SSC/IRa) were highly variable among the genomes. The patterns of IR contraction and expansion were shown to be homoplasious, and therefore unsuitable for phylogenetic analyses. Signatures of positive selection were seen in three genes in S. bogneri, including ycf2, clpP, and rpl36. This study is a valuable addition to the evolutionary history of chloroplast genome structure in Araceae.
  • Abdullah; Henriquez, Claudia L.; Croat, Thomas B; Poczai, Péter; Ahmed, Ibrar (2021)
    The co-occurrence among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions-deletions (InDels), and oligonucleotide repeats has been reported in prokaryote, eukaryote, and chloroplast genomes. Correlations among SNPs, InDels, and repeats have been investigated in the plant family Araceae previously using pair-wise sequence alignments of the chloroplast genomes of two morphotypes of one species, Colocasia esculenta belonging to subfamily Aroideae (crown group), and four species from the subfamily Lemnoideae, a basal group. The family Araceae is a large family comprising 3,645 species in 144 genera, grouped into eight subfamilies. In the current study, we performed 34 comparisons using 27 species from 7 subfamilies of Araceae to determine correlation coefficients among the mutational events at the family, subfamily, and genus levels. We express strength of the correlations as: negligible or very weak (0.10-0.19), weak (0.20-0.29), moderate (0.30-0.39), strong (0.40-0.69), very strong (0.70-0.99), and perfect (1.00). We observed strong/very strong correlations in most comparisons, whereas a few comparisons showed moderate correlations. The average correlation coefficient was recorded as 0.66 between "SNPs and InDels," 0.50 between "InDels and repeats," and 0.42 between "SNPs and repeats." In qualitative analyses, 95-100% of the repeats at family and sub-family level, while 36-86% of the repeats at genus level comparisons co-occurred with SNPs in the same bins. Our findings show that such correlations among mutational events exist throughout Araceae and support the hypothesis of distribution of oligonucleotide repeats as a proxy for mutational hotspots.
  • Mehmood, Furrukh; Abdullah; Ubaid, Zartasha; Shahzadi, Iram; Ahmed, Ibrar; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Poczai, Péter; Mirza, Bushra (2020)
    The genus Nicotiana of the family Solanaceae, commonly referred to as tobacco plants, are a group cultivated as garden ornamentals. Besides their use in the worldwide production of tobacco leaves, they are also used as evolutionary model systems due to their complex development history, which is tangled by polyploidy and hybridization. Here, we assembled the plastid genomes of five tobacco species, namely N. knightiana, N. rustica, N. paniculata, N. obtusifolia and N. glauca. De novo assembled tobacco plastid genomes showed typical quadripartite structure, consisting of a pair of inverted repeats (IR) regions (25,323–25,369 bp each) separated by a large single copy (LSC) region (86,510 –86,716 bp) and a small single copy (SSC) region (18,441–18,555 bp). Comparative analyses of Nicotiana plastid genomes showed similar GC content, gene content, codon usage, simple sequence repeats, oligonucleotide repeats, RNA editing sites and substitutions with currently available Solanaceae genomes sequences. We identified twenty highly polymorphic regions mostly belonging to intergenic spacer regions (IGS), which could be appropriate for the development of robust and cost-effective markers to infer the phylogeny of genus Nicotiana and family Solanaceae. Our comparative plastid genome analysis revealed that the maternal parent of the tetraploid N. rustica was the common ancestor of N. paniculata and N. knightiana, and the later species is more closely related to N. rustica. The relaxed molecular clock analyses estimated that the speciation event between N. rustica and N. knightiana appeared 0.56 Ma (HPD 0.65–0.46). The biogeographical analysis showed a south-to-north range expansion and diversification for N. rustica and related species, where N. undulata and N. paniculata evolved in North/Central Peru, while N. rustica developed in Southern Peru and separated from N. knightiana, which adapted to the Southern coastal climatic regimes. We further inspected selective pressure on protein-coding genes among tobacco species to determine if this adaptation process affected the evolution of plastid genes. These analyses indicated that four genes involved in different plastid functions, such as DNA replication (rpoA) and photosynthesis (atpB, ndhD and ndhF), came under positive selective pressure as a result of specific environmental conditions. Genetic mutations of the following genes might have contributed to the survival and better adaptation during the evolutionary history of tobacco species.
  • Sablok, Gaurav; Amiryousefi, Ali; He, Xiaolan; Hyvönen, Jaakko Tapani; Poczai, Péter (2019)
    We report the first plastome sequence of giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida); with this new genome information, we assessed the phylogeny of Asteraceae and the transcriptional profiling against glyphosate resistance in giant ragweed. Assembly and genic features show a normal angiosperm quadripartite plastome structure with no signatures of deviation in gene directionality. Comparative analysis revealed large inversions across the plastome of giant ragweed and the previously sequenced members of the plant family. Asteraceae plastid genomes contain two inversions of 22.8 and 3.3 kb; the former is located between trnS-GCU and trnG-UCC genes, and the latter between trnE-UUC and trnT-GGU genes. The plastid genome sequences of A. trifida and the related species, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, are identical in gene content and arrangement, but they differ in length. The phylogeny is well-resolved and congruent with previous hypotheses about the phylogenetic relationship of Asteraceae. Transcriptomic analysis revealed divergence in the relative expressions at the exonic and intronic levels, providing hints toward the ecological adaptation of the genus. Giant ragweed shows various levels of glyphosate resistance, with introns displaying higher expression patterns at resistant time points after the assumed herbicide treatment.
  • Aubriot, Xavier; Knapp, Sandra; Syfert, Mindy; Poczai, Péter; Buerki, Sven (2018)
    • While brinjal eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is the second most important solanaceaous vegetable crop, we lack firm knowledge of its evolutionary relationships. This in turn limits efficient use of crop wild relatives in eggplant improvement. Here, we examine the hypothesis of linear step-wise expansion of the eggplant group from Africa to Asia. • We use museum collections to generate nuclear and full-plastome data for all species of the eggplant clade. We combine a phylogenomic approach with distribution data to infer a biogeographic scenario for the clade. • The eggplant clade has Pleistocene origins in northern Africa. Dispersions to tropical Asia gave rise to Solanum insanum, the wild progenitor of the eggplant, and to Africa distinct lineages of widespread and southern-African species. Results suggest that spread of species to southern Africa is recent and was likely facilitated by large mammal herbivores feeding on Solanum fruits (African elephant, impala). • Rather than a linear ‘Out Of Africa’ sequence, our results are more consistent with an initial event into Asia, and subsequent wide dispersion and differentiation across Africa driven by large mammalian herbivores. Our evolutionary results will impact future work on eggplant domestication and use of wild relatives in breeding of this increasingly important solanaceous crop.