Browsing by Subject "citizenship education"

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  • Kivipelto, Johanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Objectives: In my thesis, I studied the fourth, the fifth and the sixth graders views about the conceptions of the influence at school. In the thesis it was also surveyed what kind of matters the pupils wanted to influence at school. Furthermore, it was studied what kind of influencing skills pupils thought they have. The theory part of the thesis consisted in an overview to the children's and youth's different kind of needs for participation as well as an overview to the curriculum system which forms the base of the school work was studied. In addition, in the theory part of the thesis the democracy expressed at school and the awakening of the children's interest in civic matters were studied. Methods: The thesis was a survey-research and structured questionnaires were used when information was collected. The research group consisted of 112 pupils who studied at the fourth, the fifth and the sixth grades in the primary school situated in the Southern part of Finland. The data was analyzed with the quantitative research program SPSS. At first different numbers such as averages and standard deviations were examined and after that factor analyses were used. Correlation examination was also used. Results and conclusions: The results showed that the pupils had a positive image about their own influencing skills and they trusted their own opinions. They felt that it was important to have influence on they own matters as well as on the common matters at school. However many of the pupils felt that they didn't have possibilities to influence what happens at school during the school day. In addition, the pupils didn't want the teachers or the headmaster to decide solely how the work at school was carried out. The things that the pupils wanted to influence the most were the lunch and the snack at school, the seating arrangement in the classroom, the visits carried out at school and the optional subjects. According to the results it's possible to draw a conclusion that the pupils' participation at school is necessary. The pupils value the possibilities to take part in and seem to understand that it is needed them to contribute themselves so that it is possible to enjoy more the time spend at school. It's also possible to draw a conclusion that although the possibilities to participate are valued there is a lack of real enthusiasm to participate. This is why it seems that there is a need for different kinds of ways to participate since the current ways to participate at school lack to motivate many pupils. Also the work of student body needs to be improved since many of the pupils didn't want to participate to the work of student body although they thought the work done by the student body was important.
  • Wolde, Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This thesis studies the development of Ethiopian education policy discourse from na-tion-building perspective. Nation-building is examined from three supplementary as-pects: technologies of truth, governmentality and historical change, to describe how it has been discussed in chosen policy documents. Ethiopian Education and Training Policy (ETP) and Education Sector Development Pro-grams I–V (ESDP) between 1994 and 2015 were analyzed with Michel Foucault’s con-cepts for analytics of governance: power, knowledge and subjectivity, and governmen-tality. Critical discourse analysis with Foucauldian concepts was used as a methodologi-cal framework in this research. Nationhood is produced in the education policy documents from one side with integra-tive strategies and civics education, and from other side with regional language and de-centralization policies. Education policy discourse appears to seek balance between ‘one nation’ and ‘multination’ perspectives. The national subjectivity ethos is described with expectations for acquired attitudes and values on individual level. Unified nation-ality is presented in the documents’ visualizations. It was found out that integrationist programs are aiming primarily at equity in education system instead of promoting com-mon nationhood. Educational language policies support cultural diversity and regional differentiation. The findings of this research show that nationality ethos appears ambig-uously formed and fragmented in Ethiopian education policy discourse. Nation-building aim has faded in Ethiopian education policy discourse and the primary role of education has shifted into being an instrument for economic growth. This re-search raises concerns about the social sustainability of current policies with weakened nation-building aims and regional disparity. Strengthened democratization of the society and civic education play an important role in influencing national subjectivity for-mation. Further research about citizenship education and its effectiveness in Ethiopia is needed.
  • Tujula, Mikko (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    In my thesis, I studied the conceptions of the teachers who supervise school councils in primary schools. The purpose of this study was to examine the aims of school councils, how the aims are actualised, and how the school councils are organised and enhanced at the school level. The concern about the social passivity of children and the young has been raised to public discussion after the millennium. School councils have been considered to be a solution for decreasing social passivity. School democracy has not been a popular topic since the 1980 s, but during the 21st century, it has become more popular, and nowadays, many primary schools have their own school councils. Nevertheless, school councils have not been a popular research subject. In this study, the perspective to school world is societal, and the supervising teachers' conceptions are reflected to democracy, participation and citizenship education using the writings by Dewey, Freire and Biesta. The research data was collected from ten thematic interviews. The interviewees were ten teachers from Espoo, who were responsible for supervising the school councils at their schools. The interviews were analysed using research methods typical for a phenomenographic study. According to the study, the teachers are mainly very satisfied with school councils. School councils were considered to be such places in which pupils learn useful knowledge and skills. In addition, the teachers thought that school councils enhance the communality of schools as well as the participation of pupils. The role of school councils as an organiser of events was considered to be very strong. Via school councils, pupils have been able to affect schools' equipment and conventions, for example, the equipment that can be used during breaks, and school catering. Even though school councils were considered very positive, the interviewed teachers found many things to improve. For example, the teachers thought that pupils and teachers should be more active. In addition, it was considered that even though school councils provide a model of democracy and active citizenship, the pupils' possibilities to impact matters at their school were only minor. School councils were considered to be led by teachers and coordinated from above. School councils could be improved by shifting the focus on school democracy from school councils to classrooms. In classrooms, every student would have an opportunity to learn useful knowledge and skills and to gain experience if they could impact matters at school.