Browsing by Subject "citizenship"

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  • Treumuth, Getter Kristen (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    This thesis focuses on the case study of the Estonian diaspora in Abkhazia, the breakaway region of Georgia, and their claim to the Estonian citizenship by birth. This claim is based on the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty Article IV, that allowed people living on both sides of the signing parties (the Russian Soviet Federative Republic, and the newly independent Estonian Republic) to obtain the citizenship of either countries. Focusing on the way the Estonian citizenship policy has impacted the process of obtaining citizenship by birth for the descendants of the optants, the study is based on the role of securitization in the matter. The thesis makes use of televised interviews and written news reports on the case study by Estonian news reporters. Moreover, the sources are analysed with qualitative methods, particularly political and critical discourse analysis, and discourse-historical analysis. The information is gathered by using qualitative methods. Furthermore, securitization theory, societal security and constructivism are used as the base the study. The key findings of the thesis are that distrust towards the optants and worries for security are presented in the media by state officials. However, opposing arguments in support of the Abkhaz Estonians often brush over the matters of security altogether, highlighting the ‘absurdity’ of the situation and the valid claim of citizenship by these individuals. These findings could prove beneficial for those aiming to understand the phenomena better and serve as basis of further research, especially in media analysis.
  • Renvik (Mähönen), Tuuli Anna; Manner, Joel; Vetik, Raivo; Sam, David; Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga (2020)
    This survey study utilized a person-oriented approach to explore the patterns of socio-political integration among Russian-speaking minority group members in three neighboring countries in the Baltic area: Estonia (n = 482), Finland (n = 252), and Norway (n = 215). Three profiles were obtained in all countries: critical integration, separation, and assimilation. In the whole sample, critical integration was the most common acculturation profile. After the profiles were established, they were examined vis-a-vis citizenship and integration context to see, whether and to what extent, the objective (i.e., citizenship) and subjective (i.e., perceived social status and sense of belonging) socio-political integration of Russian-speakers corresponded with each other. Critical integration and separation were the most common profiles among participants holding national citizenship of the country of residence, while foreign citizenship was not related to any specific profile. Separation was rare among participants holding dual citizenship, but it was the most common profile among participants with undetermined citizenship. Also, intergroup context was associated with socio-political integration: critical integration and separation were the most common profiles of Russian-speakers in Estonia, critical integration and assimilation profiles in Finland, and assimilation profile in Norway. The results are discussed in relation to previous variable-oriented research and official integration policies of the countries studied.
  • Uljas, Laila Irene (2007)
    The Estonian national and collective identity is heavily affected by a history of foreign intrusion and occupation. During the Soviet era a large population of Russian-speaking immigrants migrated to Estonia in hope of a better life. Now after independence, there has been tension and difficulty in creating a collective identity, which encompasses both the ethnic Estonians and Russian-speaking minority. My research shows that there are three main challenges that are present in the Estonian society. The three issues that need to be addressed are the citizen and language issue, the self-confidence and identity of the Estonians and the restructuring of civil society which has been weak after independence. These challenges are also the keys to a realistic model of solution which includes creating a stronger civil society that allows both ethnic Estonians and the Russian-speaking minority to participate in. My research shows that language is a very important part of Estonian identity and part of the barrier that exists between the two groups. Resolving the language issue and boosting the Estonian identity would improve joint participation in the civil society. This in turn would reinforce self-confidence of both groups and help build their collective identity. These three key aspects offer an avenue for helping the two groups live together, and not separately. The EU brings new perspectives to the issue, adding a new layer of identity but meanwhile also strengthening the Estonian identity. It allows Estonia to clearly belong to the west, cutting its umbilical cord with Russia.
  • Manner, Joel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This thesis explores the integration of the Russian-speaking minorities in Norway (n = 215), Finland (n = 252), and Estonia (n = 482) through the use of person-oriented methods encompassing socio-political measures central to several forms of integration. Economic situation, socio-demographics as well as variables tapping the perceived social status and sense of belonging of referents were used in multiple-correspondence and cluster analysis, producing three profiles of distinctive kinds of integration, namely: critical integration, separation, and assimilation. The citizenship status of cases within these profiles were then examined in order to find patterns corresponding with differing contexts of integration. Across national contexts, critical integration was the most common profile, and was connected along with the separation profile to those possessing citizenship of their respective nation. In the separation cluster, undetermined citizenship was most common, and dual citizenship most rare and almost exclusively associated with the critical integration profile. National contexts showed differences among proportions of cases in the identified profiles, with the critical integration and assimilation profiles being most common in Norway and Finland, and critical integration and separation profiles in Estonia.
  • Obeng-Odoom, Franklin (2019)
  • Poulter, Saila (2017)
    The aim of this paper is to explore the history of Finnish religious education (RE) from the perspective of civic education. The research is based on a historical and content analysis of the data, which consist of written pedagogical and curricular material on Lutheran RE from the last 150 years. The analysis, which employs the Foucauldian concept of governmentality to explore the changes in the relationship between citizenship and religion, morality and power, demonstrates that RE has been a powerful tool in shaping civic identities throughout its history. However, the justifications for RE have differed markedly according to the social conditions of the day. This study further claims that liberalisation and individualisation are the main ideological and moral concepts that describe the change in the notion of citizenship. The main contribution of this analysis is to address the importance of understanding how the formation of civic identity is always shaped by historical and ideological currents and particularly how the externally controlling power of the nation state has been replaced by less visible ways of governing the liberal subject.
  • Hellman, Carin Matilda Emelie; Katainen, Anu Hannele; Seppänen, Janne (2018)
    This study examines gender constructs in advertising in European beer commercials (N = 59). It employs a lens of “citizenship” for discerning techniques by which male and female realms are portrayed as nonrelated, competing, and of unequal worth. This lens provides an explanation for why the connotations are problematic from a public health perspective. The citizenship-related tensions that the commercials entailed concerned taking the lead versus being governed, being free versus being controlled, being seen as a threat versus being welcomed as a friend, and being worthy of solidarity versus being excluded from group bonding. The article argues that these tensions not only involve the ethical issue of encouraging the consumption of potentially harmful substances (alcohol) and reproducing repellent gender stereotypes. The controlling, moralizing, and dull female characters are construed as infringing on the knowledgeable, skillful, and free alcohol-consuming male citizens. Gender thus unfolds as a crucial dimension in the mediation of commercial views on the relationship between the consumer and the state in alcohol policy.
  • Kauppila, Aarno; Lappalainen, Sirpa; Mietola, Reetta (2021)
    In recent decades, disability policy programmes and conventions have been underlining how improving educational opportunities, especially for post-compulsory education, improve the employability and independence of disabled people, and thus their position in society and as citizens. However, little attention has been paid to actual educational practices and how they relate to these policy objectives. This article focuses on post-compulsory education for students with learning disabilities in Finland, more precisely on a vocational training programme called Preparatory Education for Work and Independent Living (PEWIL). In our ethnographic study of the programme, we scrutinise how daily educational practices govern citizenship for its students. We argue that even though these students are perceived as 'trainable' mainly in sheltered work and as only able to live in an institutionalised setting-thus reproducing their marginalisation-they have internalised the idea of a neoliberal labour market citizen with an emphasis on independence and employability. Points of interest The subject of this article is a vocational education and training programme for young people with learning disabilities. The aim of the programme is to give students skills for working and independent living in mainstream society. We are interested in how citizenship is understood on the programme. The first author participated in the everyday life of the programme and interviewed students. We found that the programme prepares students to work in sheltered workshops and to live in group homes. In interviews, the students said they want to have regular paid jobs and live independently in their own flats.
  • Löfström, Jan (2011)
    Institutional apologies for historical injustices can be conceived as acts of symbolic inclusion directed to people whose collective experiences and memories of the past have not been recognized in the hegemonic narratives of the past. However, in this article it is argued that such apologies also have exclusionary potential as vehicles of symbolic politics of citizenship in that they may designate the apologizing community, so that it effectively excludes cultural ‘aliens’, like migrants, from the community of ‘remedial’ citizens. The article suggests a crucial point is the rhetoric shifts when one is appealing to both cultural and political solidarity, as when apologizing in the name of the state but simultaneously invoking ‘our’ nation and ‘our’ history. Thus, the increasing number of institutional historical apologies is not necessarily incompatible with the trend of reinforcing the symbolic boundaries around ‘our’ historical–cultural communities that has been visible recently, e.g. in the demands for cultural canons and citizenship tests in many Western societies.
  • Kauppila, Aarno (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    My master's thesis is a study of citizenship and its ideals in disability policy from the perspective of critical ability studies. The main focus of ability studies is to analyze ableism and how it produces ideals of perfect humanness. Therefore, from the perspective of ableism these ideals produce disability and impairments as something intolerable as well as inherently and ontologically negative. My study focused on the disability policy paradigm as it is after the convention on the rights of persons with disabilities from the year 2006. The disability policy paradigm emphasizes both the rights of people with disabilities to full citizenship and their participation in society. The study data included 20 documents from European, national and municipal disability policies, released from 2006 onwards. In this study I explored how ableism defines the construction of full citizenship and how ableism affects individual's possibilities to participate as citizen according to the current disability policy. As my research method, I applied interpretative reading style based on the New Rhetoric. In the current disability policy paradigm the ideal of full citizenship is based on individualistic and neoliberalistic views, which emphasize self-mastery and independence. This ideal is impossible for people with disabilities because self-mastery and independence are defined as autonomy from other people and social services. Moreover, falling short from the ideal is located in ontologically negative space. Subsequently the bodies with impairments are always seen as imperfect and defective as well as economically burdening. Emphasizing the physical imperfectness of individuals defines their possibilities to participate in society because this participation is emulating the ideal. Also, the individuals with disabilities are forced to repeat their imperfectness in order to obtain social services, which enable participation. Ontological discrimination of people with disabilities is evident in the disability policy, even though it contradicts the aims of the policy.
  • Kallinen, Henna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This thesis examines children’s citizenship in recent empirical research in the field of child-hood studies. The thesis will examine the questions, themes and theoretical approaches that have framed the studies of children’s citizenship. Childhood studies is a multidisciplinary field and the research concerning children’s citizenship is embedded within multifaceted social and political contexts. Children’s relationship with the citizenship is unsettled. Children are being given many rights, responsibilities and possibilities to participate but at the same time they are excluded from citizenship. Children’s place as becoming citizens has been persistent in societies where especially political citizenship remains a field fully open only for adults. This under-standing frames the recent research of children’s citizenship. The study data consists of 17 research articles that are examining children’s citizenship through empirical data. These articles were reviewed and analysed applying narrative analysis. The study data shows that children’s citizenship is constructed in social, political and historical contexts. Political and legislative structures are the basis of children’s social participation. In in-stitutionalised settings, children’s participation is enabled in participatory activities. These par-ticipatory settings facilitate children’s agency and advocacy but also demonstrate some re-strictions. The approaches of lived citizenship have opened new interpretations of the ways that children enact citizenship. The studied articles show that citizenship is a concept that illumi-nates the aspects of the relationship between children and adults and may generate some under-standing of ethical encounters. Examining the marginal positions of citizenship is helpful in discussing children’s place in society. Citizenship as a concept unfolds the different aspects of inclusion and exclusion in society.
  • Lindqvist, Ann-Marie Sigrid Irene (2008)
    The study describes how adult people with learning difficulties participate in everyday life and in research from a citizenship and user perspective. The study contributes with new knowledge about obstacles and possibilities for participation in care context and in research. The purpose is to anchor the experience from the research in the increase of customer orientation in practice. Citizenship is used as an umbrella concept for participation, empowerment and autonomy. I use the definition of participation in ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health) as an operative theoretical viewpoint. The study is a qualitative research inspired by the hermeneutic phenomenological approach and with participatory methods. A group of people with learning difficulties participate in the research as advisory group. The group members have given their experiences of participation and have chosen the informants and the questions to be asked. They have also given to a certain extent their interpretation of the interviews. The data material consists of theme interviews with five users of services. Two of the group members have done eleven interviews with users applying standard questions. The interviews are analysed using the method of content-based analysis. The study shows that within the organization there are formal structures for participation such as an advisory board of users, individual planning and individual regular discussions between users and professionals. The challenge is to strengthen these structures. Participation is a political issue about democracy and human rights. People with learning difficulties need to get information in an easily available way about their rights and obligations and about their impairments. The study shows concrete measures that facilitate the participation in everyday life. The professionals have the responsibility the make a dialog possible when decisions concerning users’ everyday life are being made. Increased awareness and information are two of the keys for participation. When users have the opportunity to express their opinions a new awareness of themselves and their relation to the environment is possible. Participation is an interactive process between the users and the environment. Most of all participation is a common learning process for the professionals and for the users.
  • Eskelinen, Roy (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    This thesis studies the discussion over the Estonian citizenship issue in the United Nations (UN) and in Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) from 1993 to 1997. The citizenship question refers to a case, where Estonia, according to its state-continuum paradigm, restored its pre-Soviet citizenship legislation. As a consequence, all people residing in its territory, besides people eligible for citizenship according to the pre-Soviet law, became stateless. The case of Estonian citizenship is part of the bigger paradigm change in minority questions in post-Cold War world. The thesis’ primary sources are gathered from public online archives of the aforementioned organisations. The sources consist of correspondences and other relevant documents related to the topic. The sources are analysed by small-state realism and strategic culture theories, which help to analyse the internal factors, i.e., the long-term ambition of politically allying with the West and the trauma of Soviet occupation, that had an effect Estonia’s use of language in diplomatic arenas. This framework is then combined with speech-act theory and new rhetoric’s audience centricity, which reveal the external factors that determined the factors that had to be considered in manifesting the national-strategy. Comparing the speech-acts from two separate forums reveals how a big state affects the use of language of a small-state. In the UN, Estonia mainly defends its citizenship policy against Russia’s torrent of human rights accusations related to mainly Russian speaking non-citizens in Estonia – even though the UN found no signs of arbitrary deprivation of citizenship nor human rights infringements. In the OSCE the lack of contestation results in mutually cooperative relationship aiming to integrate non-citizens via the framework provided by Estonia. In the end, Estonia is able to defend its citizenship policy on both fronts.
  • Lammi, Minna; Pantzar, Mika (2019)
    Citizenship and consumption have been linked for over a century, emphasizing the pivotal role played by the citizen-consumer in society as a whole, and the voting power of the consumer's money. In the modern, digitalized world of the data economy, citizen-consumers are being assigned new roles: active market party, content producer, distributor, and an important source of economic value formation. This article examines how the role of the citizen-consumer is transforming in the data economy, giving a simplified account of historical continuities and discontinuities. We concentrate on the commercial side of consumer citizenship, scrutinizing two periods in the history of technology: first, the 1930s–40s when the mobile citizen-consumer was invented, designed, and promoted by the US car industry; and second, the post-1990s when an even greater sense of mobility was introduced by cell phones and the Internet, drawing examples from outlying yet technologically advanced Finland. We close with a discussion of how the digital turn has given citizen-consumers new channels of operations, querying how technological change has influenced their everyday lives.
  • Heinonen, Piia (2007)
    This case study analyses the economic operations of a group of Lusaka-based businesswomen in the formal economy. In the study, these businesswomen are considered 'new' since through their entrepreneurship they have actively adapted to the 1990s liberalisation of Zambian economy. There are signs indicating that the Zambian entrepreneurial development does not follow the modern trajectories, which makes entrepreneurship an interesting research topic. The concepts of economic citizenship and strategy are launched to understand individual operations in the context of state regulation and social setting. On one hand, I will examine the Zambian neoliberal tax policy and its impact on the economic operations and decision-making of the new businesswomen, such as tax registration. On the other hand, the empirical data from the interviews with businesswomen and from the Zambian literature and magazines are examined to grasp together a full picture of the social elements that influence businesswomen's economic operations. The study reveals that the economic citizenship of the new Lusaka businesswomen builds on a complex set of norms and responsibilities and is more likely based on the duties than on the rights of a citizen. The economic strategies of the businesswomen do not solely reflect the market rationalities, but also responsibilities towards the nation, employees and the extended family. The traditional connotations of female decency influence new businesswomen's operations as well.
  • Fortier, Anne-Marie (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2017)
    COLLeGIUM: Studies across Disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences ; 23
    This article interrupts the linear narrative that posits the conferment of citizenship (legal naturalisation) as the ‘natural’ outcome of citizenisation. Where the scholarship on citizenship and migration privileges the institutional life of citizenisation – where naturalisation appears as a discrete event at the end of the ‘citizenisation’ continuum – the social life of citizenisation includes naturalisation as an ontological process but is not reducible to it. ‘Ontological process’ refers to the ways in which different categories or locales of existence (the self, society, culture, the state, the nation, histories, geographies) are combined to produce understandings of what citizenship ‘really is’. Drawing on critical policy studies, ‘the social life’ of citizenisation and naturalisation rejects a conception of policy as a coercive instrument of the state or as a fixed document. I then turn to feminist science and technology scholars Annemarie Mol’s (2002) ‘ontological politics’ and Charis Thompson’s (2005) ‘ontological choreographies’ as useful frameworks to work with for tracing ontological processes within practices of citizenisation and naturalisation. To illustrate, the article builds on the widely used opposition between ascribed (birthright) and chosen citizenship (naturalisation) to show how the distinction falls apart when we understand naturalisation as part of the normalisation of such assumptions and their effects on global inequalities. The analysis demonstrates how the proposed analytical framework puts into relief joint processes of ontologising, normalising, subjectification, and stratification. Understanding how citizenisation and naturalisation function in tandem institutionally and socially is important if we are to gain a fuller grasp of how old and new forms of inequalities are refigured in twenty-first century citizenship.