Browsing by Subject "climate change adaptation"

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  • Husa, Miikka Helmer (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Climate change and the biodiversity loss have created a need to change forest management in commercial forests. Carbon sequestration, climate change adaptation, and biodiversity conservation can be promoted in commercial forests through various measures, and this thesis examines what factors affect non-industrial private forest (NIPF) owners’ willingness to adopt such forest management practices. Additionally, the aim was to examine whether these factors vary among different measures. A systematic literature review was conducted to summarize previous research on the subject and to serve as reference for an empirical analysis. In the empirical part of the study, survey data of 405 Finnish NIPF owners was utilized to establish binary logistic regression models for forest owners’ willingness to adopt 13 distinct forest management practices. In the empirical analysis statistically significant factors varied among assessed forest management practices, although some patterns were recognized. The most striking consistencies were found concerning older forest owners reluctance towards deadwood in general, and positive effect of environmental motivation in willingness to adopt variety of measures, as long as they do not conflict with biodiversity. Overall, the results imply that the diversity of NIPF owners concerns also their stances on various forest management practices, and they are not indifferent in terms of what forest management practices they are willing to adopt. Thus, when designing and implementing policies and advisory services aiming to promote carbon sequestration, climate change adaptation, or biodiversity protection in commercial forests, policy makers should take into account forest owners’ heterogenous preferences regarding different forest management practices.
  • Jokinen, Toni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    In this thesis I focus on a novel disaster response and preparedness mechanism called forecast-based financing. The mechanism is linked to the changing paradigm of humanitarian response that calls for more localized and more resilience building solutions to addressing and preventing humanitarian crisis. It is also in the core of the anticipation agenda which argues that waiting for disasters to happen is not a sustainable option and that forecast data and pre-agreed triggers and actions should be used in order to prevent both loss of lives and mitigate the cost and impact of disasters. Main hypothesis is that climate related hazards to livelihoods and food security seems to be the sector where forecast-based financing could have most potential for increasing resilience and sustainability. Slow onset crises with long lead-time allow for better targeting and more variety of actions. As the lifetime of the action is longer, there is less chance of action which is in vain. Furthermore, the actions which are more localized, for example direct support to farmers, can decrease their vulnerabilities. I aim at taking a critical approach to assessing this potentiality associated with the forecast-based financing mechanism through case study. The three cases (Mongolia, Kenya, Zimbabwe) were selected from pilots implemented by the main actors: the Red Cross, World Food Programme (WFP) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and Start Network. This thesis uses a combination of evaluative and heuristic approach to qualitative case study analysis. To answer the first research question, 1) is the forecast-based financing mechanism successful in prioritization of actions in a way that best address the needs and resources of vulnerable populations, I aim at finding out if mechanism is effective (or potentially effective) in delivering impact. For the second research question, 2) are the actions sustainable and do they bring socio-economic benefits that go beyond meeting acute humanitarian needs, I will see if new pathways are found for confirming the defined hypothesis. I am using heuristic approach in terms of finding new links e.g. between actions and needs of either donors, actors or beneficiaries. I asses and analyse available reports and evaluations (secondary data) of the selected operations. I conducted eleven (11) semi-structured key informant interviews (primary data) using practitioner’s perspective for retrieving qualitative data, for further understanding and for triangulation. All key informants were affiliated to the cases. My analysis show that the potentiality for development impacts and long-term transformation of the forecast-based financing is there but it is not utilized in the cases reviewed nor is it perceived in a same way across practitioners of different backgrounds. Currently the mechanism is used more for effective response, not for addressing the root causes of vulnerability. In general, the entitlement or empowering of a person who is affected by disaster currently does not go beyond securing bridge over lean season, avoiding negative coping mechanisms or e.g. better yield or survival of livestock. Sustainability potential of the forecast-based financing seems to be currently underutilized and international funding envelopes do not offer an alternative to the humanitarian funding launched case-by-case. Most of the practitioners interviewed were clearly in favour of linking and using forecast-based financing in some way to long-term programming, thinking outside of the framework of humanitarian response, extending lead time significantly and adding positive reinforcement inputs. I argue that with a lead time that goes long in advance, towards development actions, the mechanism needs to be reframed for the donors and the sources of funding might need to be reconsidered. To implement meaningful resilience actions in slow onset cases, triggers need to be early enough and actions in two phases: 1) anticipatory and benefiting from forecast and 2) early response. At beneficiary level the actions should be geared up to better address underlying socio-economic vulnerabilities and take advantage of the long lead time.
  • Jaurimaa, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    As climate change is already affecting our planet, it is urgent to ensure adequate support to the most vulnerable communities, sectors, and ecosystems to adapt to the changing climate. The scale of the financial resources that are expected to flow into climate change adaptation is likely to lead to a stronger emphasis on measuring and verifying results as there is international consensus that climate change adaptation interventions should be results-based. However, currently, there is no scientific nor political consensus over what effective adaptation is and how it should best be measured. As a result of this, efforts are needed to improve both methodologies and guidance for assessing adaptation. Through a systematic review of projects funded by the Adaptation Fund, I categorize 30 adaptation projects. The act of cataloguing adaptation measures and further analysing their similarities and differences produces insights in two main areas: identifying how projects have been designed to address and assess adaptation effectiveness; and enhancing understanding on the role of trees and forests in adaptation initiatives. I analyse the ways these projects are planned to assess their effectiveness using three main research indicators: reducing vulnerability and increasing adaptive capacity; reducing exposure; and sharing of lessons-learned and increasing climate change adaptation science. This includes studying the defined expected project results, indicators and baselines stated in projects’ results frameworks. The project proposals are further studied to gain understanding on how trees and forests are used to address and assess adaptation. The projects are analysed to test whether projects that address climate change adaptation similarly have also similarities in assessing effective adaptation. In order to do that the projects are categorized into four categories based on their approach: 1. ecosystem-based adaptation projects; 2. engineered or sectoral adaptation projects; 3. community-based adaptation projects; and 4. small-scale funding modality projects. I focus on exploring the objectives, types, and limitations of adaptation metrics used in assessing adaptation but also provide recommendations. Since the first years of the Adaptation Fund the projects have developed in regard to assessing their expected results with a few exceptions to the general trend. The national and regional implementing entities were more often struggling to set proper results frameworks. Trees and forests had a more prominent role than would be assumed by the limited number of projects classified as forestry projects as 80% of the projects included trees and/or forests as part of activities, outputs, outcomes, or indicators. It can be concluded that the studied projects had differences in addressing and measuring of adaptation. Effective adaptation was mostly framed to contribute to reducing vulnerabilities that include measures to increase adaptive capacity. Significantly less expected outcomes and outputs were set to reduce exposure to climate change impacts. Interestingly successful adaptation was also framed as sharing of lessons-learned or communicating other findings to a wider audience, and also to measure channelling of funding, project management, or social inclusion aspects.One of the key findings is that how the project is to address adaptation also influences how effective adaptation is to be measured and verified leading to different typical strengths and challenges in assessing effectiveness.
  • Rosengren, L.M.; Raymond, C.M.; Sell, M.; Vihinen, H. (2020)
    Leverage points from systems research are increasingly important to understand how to support transformations towards sustainability, but few studies have considered leverage points in strengthening adaptive capacity to climate change. The existing literature mainly considers strengthening adaptive capacity as a steady and linear process. This article explores possibilities to fast track positive adaptive capacity trajectories of small-scale farmers in the Northern Region of Ghana. Leverage points were identified by triangulating data from semi-structured interviews with farmers (n=72), key informant interviews (n=7) and focus group discussions (FG1 n=17; FG2 n=20). The results present two ways to approach adaptation planning: 1) using four generic leverage points (gender equality, social learning, information and knowledge, and access to finance) or 2) combining the adaptive capacity and leverage point frameworks, thereby creating 15 associations. The generic points provide a set of topics as a starting point for policy and intervention planning activities, while the 15 associations support the identification of place-specific leverage points. Four benefits of using leverage points for adaptive capacity in adaptation planning were identified: guidance on where to intervene in a system, ability to deal with complex systems, inclusion of both causal and teleological decision-making, and a possibility to target deep, transformative change. © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Tuomenvirta, Heikki; Gregow, Hilppa; Harjanne, Atte; Luhtala, Sanna; Mäkelä, Antti; Pilli-Sihvola, Karoliina; Juhola, Sirkku; Hilden, Mikael; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo; Miettinen, Ilkka T.; Halonen, Mikko (2019)
    Climate change adaptation (CCA) policies require scientific input to focus on relevant risks and opportunities, to promote effective and efficient measures and ensure implementation. This calls for policy relevant research to formulate salient policy recommendations. This article examines how CCA research may contribute to policy recommendations in the light of idealized set of knowledge production attributes for policy development in Finland. Using general background information on the evolution of CCA research and a case study, we specifically examine how the set of attributes have been manifested in research serving CCA and discuss how they have affected the resulting policy recommendations. We conclude that research serving CCA can be improved by more explicit reflection on the attributes that pay attention to the context of application, the methods of teamwork and a variety of participating organizations, transdisciplinarity of the research, reflexivity based on the values and labour ethos of scientists and novel forms of extended peer review. Such attributes can provide a necessary, although not sufficient, condition for knowledge production that strives to bridge the gap between research and policy.