Browsing by Subject "clinical trial"

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  • Neuvonen, Elisa; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Ngandu, Tiia; Levälahti, Esko; Antikainen, Riitta; Hänninen, Tuomo; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lindström, Jaana; Paajanen, Teemu; Soininen, Hilkka; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Kivipelto, Miia; Solomon, Alina (2022)
    Depression and cognition are associated, but the role of depressive symptoms in lifestyle interventions to prevent dementia needs further study. We investigated the intervention effect on depressive symptoms and their associations with cognition in the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER; NCT01041989), a two-year multidomain lifestyle trial. One thousand two-hundred and sixty individuals (60-77 years) at risk for dementia were randomised into a multidomain intervention (diet, exercise, cognitive training, and vascular/metabolic risk monitoring) or control group (regular health advice). Depressive symptoms (Zung scale) and cognition (modified Neuropsychological Test Battery) were evaluated at baseline, 12, and 24 months. One thousand one-hundred and twenty-five participants had baseline Zung data. Mean Zung score decreased 0.73 (SD 5.6) points in the intervention and 0.36 (5.6) points in the control group, with nonsignificant between-group difference (group x time coefficient -0.006, 95% CI -0.019 to 0.007). Overall, higher baseline Zung score was associated with less improvement in global cognition (-0.140, p = 0.005) and memory (-0.231, p = 0.005). Participants with clinically significant baseline depressive symptoms (Zung >= 40 points) had less intervention benefit to executive functioning (group x time x Zung -0.096, 95% CI -0.163 to -0.028). Change in Zung score was not associated with change in cognition. Clinically significant depressive symptoms warrant more attention when designing dementia-prevention interventions.
  • Rautavaara, Joonas; Kerola, Tuomas; Kaartinen, Kati; Vilpakka, Mari; Aitkoski, Atte; Anttonen, Olli; Ahvonen, Jani; Koistinen, Juhani; Vääräniemi, Kati; Miettinen, Marja; Antti, Ylitalo; Laine, Kaisa; Ojanen, Seppo; Nieminen, Tuomo (2022)
    Background Knowledge of arrhythmias in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is mainly based on ambulatory electrocardiography (ECG) studies and observations during haemodialysis (HD). We used insertable cardiac monitors (ICMs) to define the prevalence of arrhythmias, focusing on bradyarrhythmias, in ESRD patients treated with several dialysis modes including home therapies. Moreover, we assessed whether these arrhythmias were detected in baseline or ambulatory ECG recordings. Methods Seventy-one patients with a subcutaneous ICM were followed for up to 3 years. Asystole (>= 4.0 s) and bradycardia (heart rate = 4 beats) episodes, ventricular tachyarrhythmias and atrial fibrillation (AF) were collected and verified visually. A baseline ECG and a 24- to 48-h ambulatory ECG were recorded at recruitment and once a year thereafter. Results At recruitment, 44 patients were treated in in-centre HD, 12 in home HD and 15 in peritoneal dialysis. During a median follow-up of 34.4 months, 18 (25.4%) patients had either an asystolic or a bradycardic episode. The median length of each patient's longest asystole was 6.6 s and that of a bradycardia 13.5 s. Ventricular tachyarrhythmias were detected in 16 (23%) patients, and AF in 34 (51%) patients. In-centre HD and Type II diabetes were significantly more frequent among those with bradyarrhythmias, whereas no bradyarrhythmias were found in home HD. No bradyarrhythmias were evident in baseline or ambulatory ECG recordings. Conclusions Remarkably many patients with ESRD had bradycardia or asystolic episodes, but these arrhythmias were not detected by baseline or ambulatory ECG.
  • Huttunen, Henri J.; Saarma, Mart (2019)
    Neurotrophic factors (NTF) are a subgroup of growth factors that promote survival and differentiation of neurons. Due to their neuroprotective and neurorestorative properties, their therapeutic potential has been tested in various neurodegenerative diseases. Bioavailability of NTFs in the target tissue remains a major challenge for NTF-based therapies. Various intracerebral delivery approaches, both protein and gene transfer-based, have been tested with varying outcomes. Three growth factors, glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurturin (NRTN) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) have been tested in clinical trials in Parkinson?s Disease (PD) during the past 20 years. A new protein can now be added to this list, as cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) has recently entered clinical trials. Despite their misleading names, CDNF, together with its closest relative mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF), form a novel family of unconventional NTF that are both structurally and mechanistically distinct from other growth factors. CDNF and MANF are localized mainly to the lumen of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and their primary function appears to be modulation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway. Prolonged ER stress, via the UPR signaling pathways, contributes to the pathogenesis in a number of chronic degenerative diseases, and is an important target for therapeutic modulation. Intraputamenally administered recombinant human CDNF has shown robust neurorestorative effects in a number of small and large animal models of PD, and had a good safety profile in preclinical toxicology studies. Intermittent monthly bilateral intraputamenal infusions of CDNF are currently being tested in a randomized placebo-controlled phase I?II clinical study in moderately advanced PD patients. Here, we review the history of growth factor-based clinical trials in PD, and discuss how CDNF differs from the previously tested growth factors.
  • Pitkala, Kaisu H.; Strandberg, Timo E. (2022)
    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) usually provide the best evidence for treatments and management. Historically, older people have often been excluded from clinical medication trials due to age, multimorbidity and disabilities. The situation is improving, but still the external validity of many trials may be questioned. Individuals participating in trials are generally less complex than many patients seen in geriatric clinics. Recruitment and retention of older participants are particular challenges in clinical trials. Multiple channels are needed for successful recruitment, and especially individuals experiencing frailty, multimorbidity and disabilities require support to participate. Cognitive decline is common, and often proxies are needed to sign informed consent forms. Older people may fall ill or become tired during the trial, and therefore, special support and empathic study personnel are necessary for the successful retention of participants. Besides the risk of participants dropping out, several other pitfalls may result in underestimating or overestimating the intervention effects. In nonpharmacological trials, imperfect blinding is often unavoidable. Interventions must be designed intensively and be long enough to reveal differences between the intervention and control groups, as control participants must still receive the best normal care available. Outcome measures should be relevant to older people, sensitive to change and targeted to the specific population in the trial. Missing values in measurements are common and should be accounted for when designing the trial. Despite the obstacles, RCTs in geriatrics must be promoted. Reliable evidence is needed for the successful treatment, management and care of older people.
  • Ritamäki, Kaisu (Helsingfors universitet, 2019)
    Pharmaceutical companies are required to comply with fair market guidelines and regulations. However, definition of fair market value (FMV) in clinical trial is not unambiguous. In literature are some suggestions how to determine the phenomenon of FMV in clinical trial. Understanding the FMV and how it should be applied into practice when conducting clinical research is challenging. This study provides more focused information on FMV in clinical trials and its determination. FMV should be determined for research-related activities in clinical drug research. FMV of research related activities can be consistent if similar sites are performing similarly conducted studies for similar sponsors. Therapeutic area and geographical location of the trial site can also influence for the FMV. This study was performed in co-operation with Roche. The aim of the study was create a consistent and transparent method to assist in the determination of FMV in medical drug research in relation to the payments paid by the sponsor to the sites. Clinical trial agreements (CTA) and associated agreements were analysed to investigate FMV of research-related activities by study site, study type, therapeutic area and geographical area. Average price and price range of each research-related activity from previous CTAs and associated agreements of Roche Finland was calculated. Based on available data from literature and study results research-related activities and factors affecting to the FMV of clinical trials were discussed to create comprehensive understanding of FMV in clinical drug research. Based on this study average price of the specific research-related activities can be different by therapy area, site, study type and geographical area. All these factors are relevant when assessing FMV of specific research-related activity. Studied therapy area and site seems to have the most important impact when evaluating FMV. For some research-related activities such as national coordinator investigator (NCI) fee price ranges could be very big whereas in other research-related activities such as pharmacy fees prices could be quite similar. Some research-related activities were very study specific which affected evaluation of those activities. CTAs and associated agreements are valid documents to gather information assessing FMV of research-related activities in medical drug research. Average price and price range of the research related activity can be used when assessing FMV in medical drug research. However, price of the specific research-related activity need to be evaluated considering the studied therapy area, site, study type and geographical area.
  • Paavola, Mika; Malmivaara, Antti; Taimela, Simo; Kanto, Kari; Järvinen, Teppo L. N. (2017)
    Introduction: Arthroscopic subacromial decompression (ASD) is the most commonly performed surgical intervention for shoulder pain, yet evidence on its efficacy is limited. The rationale for the surgery rests on the tenet that symptom relief is achieved through decompression of the rotator cuff tendon passage. The primary objective of this superiority trial is to compare the efficacy of ASD versus diagnostic arthroscopy (DA) in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS), where DA differs only by the lack of subacromial decompression. A third group of supervised progressive exercise therapy (ET) will allow for pragmatic assessment of the relative benefits of surgical versus non-operative treatment strategies. Methods and Analysis: Finnish Subacromial Impingement Arthroscopy Controlled Trial is an ongoing multicentre, three-group randomised controlled study. We performed two-fold concealed allocation, first by randomising patients to surgical (ASD or DA) or conservative (ET) treatment in 2:1 ratio and then those allocated to surgery further to ASD or DA in 1:1 ratio. Our two primary outcomes are pain at rest and at arm activity, assessed using visual analogue scale (VAS). We will quantify the treatment effect as the difference between the groups in the change in the VAS scales with the associated 95% CI at 24 months. Our secondary outcomes are functional assessment (Constant score and Simple shoulder test), quality of life (15D and SF-36), patient satisfaction, proportions of responders and non-responders, reoperations/treatment conversions, all at 2 years post-randomisation, as well as adverse effects and complications. We recruited a total of 210 patients from three tertiary referral centres. We will conduct the primary analysis on the intention-to-treat basis. Ethics and Dissemination: The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Pirkanmaa Hospital District and duly registered at The findings of this study will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. © 2017 Article author(s).
  • Vink, P.; Torrell, J.M.R.; Fructuoso, A.S.; Kim, Sung-Joo; Kim, Sang-Il; Zaltzman, J.; Ortiz, F.; Plana, J.M.C.; Rodriguez, A.M.F.; Rodrigo, H.R.; Marti, M.C.; Perez, R.; Roncero, F.M.G.; Kumar, D.; Chiang, Y.-J.; Doucette, K.; Pipeleers, L.; Morales, M.L.A.; Rodriguez-Ferrero, M.L.; Secchi, Antonio; McNeil, S.A.; Campora, L.; Di Paolo, E.; El Idrissi, M.; López-Fauqued, M.; Salaun, B.; Heineman, T.C.; Oostvogels, L. (2020)
    Background. The incidence of herpes zoster is up to 9 times higher in immunosuppressed solid organ transplant recipients than in the general population. We investigated the immunogenicity and safety of an adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) in renal transplant (RT) recipients ≥18 years of age receiving daily immunosuppressive therapy. Methods. In this phase 3, randomized (1:1), observer-blind, multicenter trial, RT recipients were enrolled and received 2 doses of RZV or placebo 1-2 months (M) apart 4-18M posttransplant. Anti-glycoprotein E (gE) antibody concentrations, gE-specific CD4 T-cell frequencies, and vaccine response rates were assessed at 1M post-dose 1, and 1M and 12M post-dose 2. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AEs) were recorded for 7 and 30 days after each dose, respectively. Solicited general symptoms and unsolicited AEs were also collected 7 days before first vaccination. Serious AEs (including biopsy-proven allograft rejections) and potential immune-mediated diseases (pIMDs) were recorded up to 12M post-dose 2. Results. Two hundred sixty-four participants (RZV: 132; placebo: 132) were enrolled between March 2014 and April 2017. gE-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were higher in RZV than placebo recipients across postvaccination time points and persisted above prevaccination baseline 12M post-dose 2. Local AEs were reported more frequently by RZV than placebo recipients. Overall occurrences of renal function changes, rejections, unsolicited AEs, serious AEs, and pIMDs were similar between groups. Conclusions. RZV was immunogenic in chronically immunosuppressed RT recipients. Immunogenicity persisted through 12M postvaccination. No safety concerns arose. © The Author(s) 2019.
  • Groop, Per-Henrik; Cooper, Mark E.; Perkovic, Vlado; Hocher, Berthold; Kanasaki, Keizo; Haneda, Masakazu; Schernthaner, Guntram; Sharma, Kumar; Stanton, Robert C.; Toto, Robert; Cescutti, Jessica; Gordat, Maud; Meinicke, Thomas; Koitka-Weber, Audrey; Thiemann, Sandra; von Eynatten, Maximilian (2017)
    Aims: The MARLINA-T2D study (ClinicalTrials. gov, NCT01792518) was designed to investigate the glycaemic and renal effects of linagliptin added to standard-of-care in individuals with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria. Methods: A total of 360 individuals with type 2 diabetes, HbA1c 6.5% to 10.0% (48-86 mmol/ mol), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >= 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and urinary albumin-tocreatinine ratio (UACR) 30-3000 mg/g despite single agent renin-angiotensin-system blockade were randomized to double-blind linagliptin (n = 182) or placebo (n = 178) for 24 weeks. The primary and key secondary endpoints were change from baseline in HbA1c at week 24 and time-weighted average of percentage change from baseline in UACR over 24 weeks, respectively. Results: Baseline mean HbA1c and geometric mean (gMean) UACR were 7.8% +/- 0.9% (62.2 +/- 9.6 mmol/mol) and 126 mg/g, respectively; 73.7% and 20.3% of participants had microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria, respectively. After 24 weeks, the placebo-adjusted mean change in HbA1c from baseline was -0.60% (-6.6 mmol/mol) (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.78 to -0.43 [-8.5 to -4.7 mmol/mol]; P Conclusions: In individuals at early stages of diabetic kidney disease, linagliptin significantly improved glycaemic control but did not significantly lower albuminuria. There was no significant change in placebo-adjusted eGFR. Detection of clinically relevant renal effects of linagliptin may require longer treatment, as its main experimental effects in animal studies have been to reduce interstitial fibrosis rather than alter glomerular haemodynamics.
  • Flygt, Hjalmar; Söderlund, Stina; Stentoft, Jesper; Richter, Johan; Koskenvesa, Perttu; Mustjoki, Satu; Majeed, Waleed; Lubking, Anna; Dreimane, Arta; Markevarn, Berit; Stenke, Leif; Myhr Eriksson, Kristina; Gjertsen, Bjorn Tore; Gedde-Dahl, Tobias; Dimitrijevic, Andreja; Udby, Lene; Olsson-Stromberg, Ulla; Hjorth-Hansen, Henrik (2021)
    Objectives Treatment-free remission (TFR) has emerged as a treatment goal in chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase (CML-CP). Attempts to increase proportion of patients achieving TFR include combination of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and other drugs. Interferon-alpha in addition to TKI has shown promising efficacy but with dose-dependent toxicity and discontinuations. NordCML007 was initiated to study the efficacy and safety of low dose pegylated IFN-alpha (PegIFN-alpha) in combination with dasatinib (DAS) in CML-CP. Methods Forty patients with newly diagnosed CML-CP were given DAS upfront. After month 3 (M3) 15 mu g/wk of PegIFN-alpha was added and increased to 25 mu g/wk from M7 until M15. DAS treatment was continued and adverse events and BCR-ABL1 qRT-PCR values were reported yearly after M24. Results from M1 to M18 have previously been published, and here we present long-term data. Results After 5 years of follow-up, there were no suspected unexpected serious adverse reactions, no increase in serosal effusions, no disease progressions and no CML-related deaths. Rates of MR3.0 (MMR), MR4.0 and MR4.5 were 84.6%, 64.1% and 51.3% respectively at M60, and 95% of patients reached MMR at some point during the study. Conclusion Initial addition of PegIFN-alpha to DAS shows good long-term efficacy without increased toxicity.
  • Veilahti, Antti Veikko Petteri; Kovarskis, Levas; Cowley, Benjamin Ultan (2021)
    Neurofeedback for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has long been studied as an alternative to medication, promising non-invasive treatment with minimal side-effects and sustained outcome. However, debate continues over the efficacy of neurofeedback, partly because existing evidence for efficacy is mixed and often non-specific, with unclear relationships between prognostic variables, patient performance when learning to self-regulate, and treatment outcomes. We report an extensive analysis on the understudied area of neurofeedback learning. Our data comes from a randomised controlled clinical trial in adults with ADHD (registered trial ISRCTN13915109; N=23; 13:10 female:male; age 25-57). Patients were treated with either theta-beta ratio or sensorimotor-rhythm regimes for 40 one-hour sessions. We classify 11 learners vs 12 non-learners by the significance of random slopes in a linear mixed growth-curve model. We then analyse the predictors, outcomes, and processes of learners vs non-learners, using these groups as mutual controls. Significant predictive relationships were found in anxiety disorder (GAD), dissociative experience (DES), and behavioural inhibition (BIS) scores obtained during screening. Low DES, but high GAD and BIS, predicted positive learning. Patterns of behavioural outcomes from Test Of Variables of Attention, and symptoms from adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, suggested that learning itself is not required for positive outcomes. Finally, the learning process was analysed using structural-equations modelling with continuous-time data, estimating the short-term and sustained impact of each session on learning. A key finding is that our results support the conceptualisation of neurofeedback learning as skill acquisition, and not merely operant conditioning as originally proposed in the literature.
  • Koljonen, Laura; Enlund-Cerullo, Maria; Hauta-Alus, Helena; Holmlund-Suila, Elisa; Valkama, Saara; Rosendahl, Jenni; Andersson, Sture; Pekkinen, Minna; Mäkitie, Outi (2021)
    Context: Phosphate homeostasis and its modifiers in early childhood are inadequately characterized. Objective: To determine physiological plasma phosphate concentration and modifying factors in healthy infants at 12 to 24 months of age. Design: This study included 525 healthy infants (53% girls), who participated in a randomized vitamin D intervention trial and received daily vitamin D3 supplementation of either 10 or 30 μg from age 2 weeks to 24 months. Biochemical parameters were measured at 12 and 24 months. Dietary phosphate intake was determined at 12 months. Main Outcome Measures: Plasma phosphate concentrations at 12 and 24 months of age. Results: Mean (SD) phosphate concentration decreased from 12 months (1.9±0.15 mmol/L) to 24 months (1.6±0.17 mmol/L) of age (P<0.001 for repeated measurements). When adjusted by covariates, such as body size, creatinine, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, intact and C-terminal fibroblast growth factor 23, mean plasma phosphate was higher in boys than girls during follow-up (P=0.019). Phosphate concentrations were similar in the vitamin D intervention groups (P>0.472 for all). Plasma iron was associated positively with plasma phosphate at both time points (B, 0.006 and 0.005; 95% CI, 0.004-0.009 and 0.002-0.008; P<0.001 at both time points, respectively). At 24 months of age, the main modifier of phosphate concentration was plasma creatinine (B, 0.007; 95% CI 0.003-0.011, P<0.001). Conclusion: Plasma phosphate concentration decreased from age 12 to 24 months. In infants and toddlers, the strongest plasma phosphate modifiers were sex, iron, and creatinine, whereas vitamin D supplementation did not modify phosphate concentrations.
  • Fizazi, Karim; Massard, Christophe; Bono, P.; Kataja, Vesa; James, Nicholas; Tammela, T.L.; Joensuu, H.; Aspegren, John; Mustonen, M. (2017)
    Background: Patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) had extended responses to the androgen receptor antagonist ODM-201, in phase 1/2 studies. Objective: To evaluate the safety and antitumour activity of prolonged ODM-201 treatment in patients with CRPC. Design, setting, and participants: The ARADES trial was a multicentre phase 1 (dose escalation) and phase 2 (dose expansion) trial; 134 patients with CRPC were stratified by previous chemotherapy to receive ODM-201. This paper reports extended follow-up in CYP17 inhibitor (CYP17i)-naïve patients. Intervention: Patients (n = 77) received oral ODM-201 twice daily at daily doses of 200–1800 mg. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Safety, measured as the occurrence of adverse events (AEs), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and radiographic progression. Results and limitations: The safety profile of extended ODM-201 treatment (median treatment duration 8.2 mo, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.6–11.0) was consistent with that reported at the time of the original data cutoff in the main ARADES trial, with no unexpected safety concerns over time. The majority of AEs (61.1%) were mild (grade 1); the most common AE was fatigue/asthenia (35.1% of patients), with no clear relationship to ODM-201. Median time to PSA progression was 25.2 mo (95% CI 11.3–25.2) for chemotherapy-naïve men and not reached (NR; 95% CI 5.5–NR) for chemotherapy-pretreated patients; a trend for improved antitumour response was observed for chemotherapy-naïve patients. The median time to radiographic progression was longer for chemotherapy-naïve (14.0 mo, 95% CI 8.1–33.3) than for chemotherapy-pretreated (7.2 mo, 95% CI 2.7–11.0) patients. Conclusions: Prolonged exposure to ODM-201 was well tolerated, with no additional safety concerns; disease suppression was sustained, especially in chemotherapy-naïve patients. These data support further development of ODM-201 in men with CYP17i-naïve CRPC. Patient summary: Extended ODM-201 therapy was well tolerated, with beneficial antitumour activity in men with advanced prostate cancer, indicating that ODM-201 may represent a new active treatment for men with CRPC. This extension trial is registered at ( under identification number NCT01429064. Extended ODM-201 therapy showed encouraging antitumour activity in both chemotherapy-naïve and chemotherapy-treated men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Continued treatment with ODM-201 was well tolerated, with no unexpected safety concerns, and may represent a new, effective treatment option for men with CRPC. © 2017 European Association of Urology
  • Kulmala, Jenni; Ngandu, Tiia; Havulinna, Satu; Levälahti, Esko; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Solomon, Alina; Antikainen, Riitta; Laatikainen, Tiina; Pippola, Pauliina; Peltonen, Markku; Rauramaa, Rainer; Soininen, Hilkka; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Kivipelto, Miia (2019)
    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of a 2-year multidomain lifestyle intervention on daily functioning of older people. DESIGN A 2-year randomized controlled trial (, NCT01041989). SETTING Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability. PARTICIPANTS A total of 1260 older adults, with a mean age of 69 years at the baseline, who were at risk of cognitive decline. INTERVENTION A multidomain intervention, including simultaneous physical activity intervention, nutritional counseling, vascular risk monitoring and management, and cognitive training and social activity. MEASUREMENTS The ability to perform daily activities (activities of daily living [ADLs] and instrumental ADLs) and physical performance (Short Physical Performance Battery). RESULTS The mean baseline ADL score was 18.1 (SD = 2.6) points; the scale ranges from 17 (no difficulties) to 85 (total ADL dependence). During the 2-year intervention, the ADL disability score slightly increased in the control group, while in the intervention group, it remained relatively stable. Based on the latent growth curve model, the difference in the change between the intervention and control groups was -0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.61 to -0.28) after 1 year and -1.20 (95% CI = -2.02 to -0.38) after 2 years. In terms of physical performance, the intervention group had a slightly higher probability of improvement (from score 3 to score 4; P = .041) and a lower probability of decline (from score 3 to scores 0-2; P = .043) for chair rise compared to the control group. CONCLUSION A 2-year lifestyle intervention was able to maintain the daily functioning of the at-risk older population. The clinical significance of these results in this fairly well-functioning population remains uncertain, but the study results hold promise that healthy eating, exercise, and cognitive and social activity may have favorable effects on functional independence in older people.
  • Hauta-Alus, Helena H.; Holmlund-Suila, Elisa M.; Kajantie, Eero; Rosendahl, Jenni; Valkama, Saara M.; Enlund-Cerullo, Maria; Andersson, Sture; Mäkitie, Outi (2021)
    Context: The relationship between maternal and infant vitamin D and early childhood growth remains inadequately understood. Objective: This work aimed to investigate how maternal and child 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and vitamin D supplementation affect growth during the first 2 years of life. Methods: A randomized, double-blinded, single-center intervention study was conducted from pregnancy until offspring age 2 years. Altogether 812 term-born children with complete data were recruited at a maternity hospital. Children received daily vitamin D-3 supplementation of 10 mu g (group 10) or 30 mu g (group 30) from age 2 weeks to 2 years. Anthropometry and growth rate were measured at age 1 and 2 years. Results: Toddlers born to mothers with pregnancy 25(OH)D greater than 125 nmol/L were at 2 years lighter and thinner than the reference group with 25(OH)D of 50 to 74.9 nmol/L (P < .010). Mean 2-year 25(OH)D concentrations were 87 nmol/L in group 10 and 118 nmol/L in group 30 (P < .001). When group 30 was compared with group 10, difference in body size was not statistically significant (P > .053), but group 30 had slower growth in length and head circumference between 6 months and 1 year (P < .047), and more rapid growth in weight and length-adjusted weight between 1 and 2 years (P < .043). Toddlers in the highest quartile of 25(OH)D (> 121 nmol/L) were shorter (mean difference 0.2 SD score [SDS], P = .021), lighter (mean difference 0.4 SDS, P = .001), and thinner (in length-adjusted weight) (mean difference 0.4 SDS, P = .003) compared with the lowest quartile (< 81.2 nmol/L). Conclusion: Vitamin D and early childhood growth may have an inverse U-shaped relationship.
  • Vakkilainen, Svetlana; Kleino, Iivari; Honkanen, Jarno; Salo, Harri; Kainulainen, Leena; Gräsbeck, Michaela; Kekäläinen, Eliisa; Mäkitie, Outi; Klemetti, Paula (2020)
    Background: Live viral vaccines are generally contraindicated in patients with combined immunodeficiency including cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH); however, they may be tolerated in milder syndromes. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of live viral vaccines in patients with CHH. Methods: We analyzed hospital and immunization records of 104 patients with CHH and measured serum antibodies to measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella zoster virus (VZV) in all patients who agreed to blood sampling (n= 50). We conducted a clinical trial (identifier: NCT02383797) of live VZV vaccine on five subjects with CHH who lacked varicella history, had no clinical symptoms of immunodeficiency, and were seronegative for VZV; humoral and cellular immunologic responses were assessed post-immunization. Results: A large proportion of patients have been immunized with live viral vaccines, including measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) (n= 40, 38%) and VZV (n= 10, 10%) vaccines, with no serious adverse events. Of the 50 patients tested for antibodies, previous immunization has been documented with MMR (n= 22), rubella (n= 2) and measles (n= 1) vaccines. Patients with CHH demonstrated seropositivity rates of 96%/75%/91% to measles, mumps and rubella, respectively, measured at a medium of 24 years post-immunization. Clinical trial participants developed humoral and cellular responses to VZV vaccine. One trial participant developed post-immunization rash and knee swelling, both resolved without treatment. Conclusion: No serious adverse events have been recorded after immunization with live viral vaccines in Finnish patients with CHH. Patients generate humoral and cellular immune response to live viral vaccines. Immunization with live vaccines may be considered in selected CHH patients with no or clinically mild immunodeficiency.