Browsing by Subject "cognitive ability"

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  • Rantalainen, V.; Lahti, J.; Henriksson, M.; Kajantie, E.; Mikkonen, M.; Eriksson, J. G.; Räikkönen, Katri (2018)
    Background. Being breastfed in infancy has been shown to benefit neurodevelopment. However, whether the benefits persist to old age remains unclear. Methods. We examined the associations between breastfeeding and its duration on cognitive ability in young adulthood and old age, and on aging-related cognitive change over five decades. In total, 931 men from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study born in 1934-1944 in Finland took the Finnish Defence Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test (total and verbal, arithmetic and visuospatial subtest scores) twice, at ages 20.2 and 67.9 years, and had data on breastfeeding (yes v. no) and its duration ('never breastfed', 'up to 3', '3 to 6' and 6 or more months'). Linear and mixed model regressions tested the associations. Results. At 20.2 years, breastfed men had higher cognitive ability total and visuospatial subtest scores [mean differences (MDs) ranged between 3.0-3.9, p values <0.013], and its longer duration predicted higher cognitive ability total and arithmetic and visuospatial subtest scores (MDs ranged between 3.0 and 4.8, p values <0.039). At 67.9 years, breastfed men had higher total cognitive ability and all subtest scores (MDs ranged between 2.6 and 3.4, p values <0.044) and its longer duration predicted all cognitive ability scores (MDs ranged between 3.1 and 4.7, p values <0.050). Verbal subtest scores decreased over five decades in men who were never breastfed or were breastfed for 3 months or less, and increased in those breastfed for longer than 3 months. Conclusions. Neurodevelopmental advantages of breastfeeding and its longer duration persist into old age, and longer duration of breastfeeding may benefit aging-related change, particularly in verbal reasoning ability.
  • Khemiri, Lotfi; Larsson, Henrik; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Jayaram-Lindstrom, Nitya; Latvala, Antti (2020)
    Aims To assess whether parental substance use disorder (SUD) is associated with lower cognitive ability in offspring, and whether the association is independent of shared genetic factors. Design A population family-based cohort study utilizing national Swedish registries. Linear regression with increased adjustment of covariates was performed in the full population. In addition, the mechanism of the association was investigated with children-of-sibling analyses using fixed-effects regression with three types of sibling parents with increasing genetic relatedness (half-siblings, full siblings and monozygotic twins). Setting and participants A total of 3 004 401 people born in Sweden between 1951 and 1998. Measurements The exposure variable was parental SUD, operationalized as having a parent with life-time SUD diagnosis or substance-related criminal conviction in the National Patient Register or Crime Register, respectively. Outcomes were cognitive test score at military conscription and final school grades when graduating from compulsory school. Covariates included in the analyses were sex, birth year, parental education, parental migration status and parental psychiatric comorbid diagnoses. Findings In the full population, parental SUD was associated with decreased cognitive test stanine scores at conscription [4.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.55-4.57] and lower Z-standardized school grades (-0.43, 95% CI = -0.43 to -0.42) compared to people with no parental SUD (cognitive test: 5.17, 95% CI = 5.17-5.18; grades: 0.09, 95% CI = 0.08-0.09). There was evidence of a dose-response relationship, in that having two parents with SUD (cognitive test: 4.17, 95% CI = 4.15-4.20; grades: -0.83, 95% CI = -0.84 to -0.82) was associated with even lower cognitive ability than having one parent with SUD (cognitive test: 4.60, 95% CI = 4.59-4.60; grades: -0.38, 95% CI = -0.39 to -0.380). In the children-of-siblings analyses when accounting for genetic relatedness, these negative associations were attenuated, suggestive of shared underlying genetic factors. Conclusions There appear to be shared genetic factors between parental substance use disorder (SUD) and offspring cognitive function, suggesting that cognitive deficits may constitute a genetically transmitted risk factor in SUD.
  • Bijwaard, Govert E.; Tynelius, Per; Myrskylae, Mikko (2019)
    Education is negatively associated with most major causes of death. Prior work ignores the premise that cause-specific hazards are interdependent and that both education and mortality depend on cognitive ability. We analyse Swedish men aged 18-63, focusing on months lost due to specific causeswhich solves the interdependence problemand use a structural model that accounts for confounding due to cognitive ability. In a standard Cox model controlling for Intelligence Quotient, improving education is associated with large decreases in mortality for major causes of death. In the structural model, improving education is associated with a small decrease in months lost for most causes and education levels. Among the least educated, however, improving education strongly reduces the months lost, mainly those lost from external causes, such as accidents and suicide. Results suggest that conventional analysis of education and mortality may be biased, even if accounting for observed cognition.
  • Wang, Cuicui; Luo, Jie; Nie, Peixin; Wang, Daoyang (2019)
    The present study examined the relationship between substance use and reasoning in adolescents, and further investigated the modulation role of growth mindset on this relationship. A total of 1759 adolescents in China with substance use experience were investigated. The results showed that substance use (smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use) was negatively correlated with reasoning (r = -0.24 similar to -0.39, p <0.01) and growth mindset (r = -0.18 similar to -0.32, p <0.01). Regression analysis revealed that after controlling for the background variables (i.e., age, family annual income, and parents' educational level), only illicit drug use was the significant predictor of reasoning (beta = -0.325, t = -14.28, p <0.001). The interaction effect between growth mindset and illicit drug use was also a significant predictor of reasoning (beta = -0.067, t = -2.92, p = 0.004), indicating growth mindset modulated the relationship between illicit drug use and reasoning ability. Further analysis found that the negative correlation between frequency of illicit drug use and reasoning in high growth mindset group was weaker than that of low growth mindset group (F-(3.1733) = 332.51, p <0.001, f(2) = 0.22). This suggests that growth mindset plays a significant moderating role in the relationship between substance use and reasoning. Overall, substance use has adverse effect on adolescent reasoning, however, growth mindset could reduce this adverse effect.
  • Ilmarinen, Ville-Juhani; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Verkasalo, Markku Johannes; Lonnqvist, Jan-Erik (2017)
    Even though homophily (love of the same) is often thought of as a standard feature of friendships, the empirical evidence for attraction based on personality trait similarity is mixed at best. One reason for the inconsistent findings across studies could be variation in the large-scale social environment in which the studies have been conducted. We investigated whether diversity in the everyday social ecologies of 7- to 8-year-old children (N=549) moderates whether friendships are formed on the basis of similar personality traits and similar levels of Cognitive ability. Moderated polynomial regression and response surface analyses showed that classroom size moderated homophily based on Openness to Experience: children similar in Openness were more likely to form friendship ties, but only in larger classrooms. Moreover, we found homophily for Cognitive ability, especially among girls. The results for Openness and Cognitive ability were independent of each other. We discuss the social relevance of trait Openness and the notion that capacity to reciprocate underlies homophily based on Cognitive ability. Copyright (c) 2017 European Association of Personality Psychology
  • Sokka, Anni (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The aim of this study was twofold: 1) to examine the structure of the job simulation test "Research Budget" and 2) to examine job simulation performance in relation to the extremes of personality traits and cognitive abilities in personnel assessment. Job simulation performance in this context was viewed as performance evaluations provided by the assessors of the simulation test. Previous research indicates that measures of personality and cognitive abilities are the primary correlates for job simulation performance, which supports the setting of this study. The participants (N=224) completed the assignments as a part of their assessment day at a Finnish Personnel Assessment Company. Measures used in this study were a job simulation test concerning decision making, a personality inventory Stress Reaction Styles, measuring the extremes of personality traits and three measures of cognitive abilities; Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices set II, Verbal Critical Reasoning (VCR) test and Numerical Reasoning (NR) test. All data was gathered from an internal database of the company between years 2013-2014. An explorative factor analysis was conducted to study the structure of the job simulation test. The relationship between, the different measures were examined by Pearson's correlation analyses and by linear regression analyses. The results of this study showed that four SRS-type dimensions of the extremes of personality. Dependent, Avoidant, Paranoid and Borderline and cognitive ability test VCR had moderate but significant correlations with job simulation performance. In addition Dependent and VCR moderately predicted job simulation performance.
  • Jokela, Markus; Pekkarinen, Tuomas; Sarvimäki, Matti; Terviö, Marko; Uusitalo, Roope (2017)
    Although trends in many physical characteristics and cognitive capabilities of modern humans are well-documented, less is known about how personality traits have evolved over time. We analyze data from a standardized personality test administered to 79% of Finnish men born between 1962 and 1976 (n = 419,523) and find steady increases in personality traits that predict higher income in later life. The magnitudes of these trends are similar to the simultaneous increase in cognitive abilities, at 0.2-0.6 SD during the 15-y window. When anchored to earnings, the change in personality traits amounts to a 12% increase. Both personality and cognitive ability have consistent associations with family background, but the trends are similar across groups defined by parental income, parental education, number of siblings, and rural/ urban status. Nevertheless, much of the trends in test scores can be attributed to changes in the family background composition, namely 33% for personality and 64% for cognitive ability. These composition effects are mostly due to improvements in parents' education. We conclude that there is a "Flynn effect" for personality that mirrors the original Flynn effect for cognitive ability in magnitude and practical significance but is less driven by compositional changes in family background.