Browsing by Subject "colonialism"

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  • Koponen, Juhani (2020)
    This article provides an alternative reading of the history of development by tracing how the concept of development has accumulated its present power. It starts from the premise that whatever development is, it is also a concept which is deeply ingrained in our 'Western' habitus and can inform and guide our actions. Contrary to suggestions that it was 'invented' once - at whatever date - and then spread elsewhere, I argue that it emerged gradually by being born and reborn several times in different contexts. Thus, its history is not of direct genealogical continuities from a single origin but rather of parallels generated by similar structural circumstances. Although development is commonly criticised for its ambiguity, I argue that much of its power actually stems from its linguistic polyvalence: its different meanings make it useful for many different purposes. Yet the concept is held together by a more coherent structural frame which combines three main senses: ideal, processual and intentional. Building on research on colonial history, I locate a birth of development in European colonialism, where it worked as an unacknowledged condition of colonial exploitation. It also has other antecedents that remain insufficiently understood. Having been introduced in the South as a notion for colonial exploitation of local resources, after World War II its function changed again. At the dissolution of the colonial empires, it was taken into its present use as soft power by Western powers and anti-colonial nationalists alike and was transformed into the foundational concept of developmentalism. But its power has limits. Ultimately, while concepts can and do affect people's behaviour, they work within the dynamics of material and mental interests.
  • Toledo, Ana de Mesquita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Tourism is one of the largest industries in the world, raising billions of euros a year and employing millions of people worldwide. Tourism is also an integral part of the leisure activities in Western Europe in which travelling is commonplace and mainstream, looking for a new vacation spot draws many to seek guidance and inspiration to plan their next vacations. It is here that the reader, coming from the place I will call Origin, will look for the Destination. One of the most mainstream sources of information are the travel segments of periodicals in paper format or online. The intricacies of travel journalism connect both leisure and news with a touch of advertisement. Travel journalism is, as I will show further in this thesis, more connected to literature and adventure than its other counterparts. Travel segments in newspapers are directed at these potential travelers, inspiring them for their next vacation. In the contemporary world in which social media has spread the reach of pictures from all over the globe My research will focus on European travel journalism articles about Brazil. My analysis will be conducted using CDA and postcolonial theory, aided by feminist theory. This research is qualitative. I argue that the world scenario is unbalanced and that contemporary inequalities between countries stem from the not so distant colonial past. My aim is to spot and analyze these intrinsic relationships of power that are imbedded in discourse through the critical reading of travel journalism articles.
  • West, Helga Sofia (2020)
    Social reconciliation has received much attention in Christian churches since the late 1980s. Both the Church of Sweden and the Church of Norway initiated reconciliation processes with the Saami (also “Sami” or “Sámi”), the indigenous people of Northern Europe, at the beginning of the 1990s. As former state churches, they bear the colonial burden of having converted the Saami to Lutheranism. To make amends for their excesses in the missionary field, both Scandinavian churches have aimed at structural changes to include Saaminess in their church identities. In this article, I examine how the Church of Sweden and the Church of Norway understand reconciliation in relation to the Saami in their own church documents using conceptual analysis. I argue that the Church of Sweden treats reconciliation primarily as a secular concept without binding it to the doctrine of reconciliation, making the Church’s agenda theologically weak, whereas the Church of Norway utilizes Christian resources in its comprehensive approach to reconciliation with the Saami. This article shows both the challenges and contributions of the Church of Sweden and the Church of Norway to the hotly debated discussions on truth and reconciliation in the Nordic Saami context.
  • Andersson, Wilma (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Jane Austens verk har av hävd betraktats som färggranna och ironiska skildringar av temata såsom kärlek, äktenskap och familjeförhållanden. Romanerna lodar emellertid djupare än så. Min avhandling behandlar två av Austens mindre välkända men desto mer intresseväckande verk, Mansfield Park och Persuasion. Med hjälp av Edward Saids kontrapunktiska metod analyserar jag hur ämnen såsom slaveri, kolonialism samt marinofficerarnas hjältemod framhävs på ett utstuderat sätt i Mansfield Park. Analysen berör tre personer i romanen: Sir Thomas, Mrs. Norris och William. Med stöd av direkta utdrag ur romanen ger min skildring av dessa individer en beskrivning på hur Austen utan uppenbart omnämnande och med diskretion lyfter fram temata som var aktuella och omtvistade i slutet av 1700-talet och i början av 1800-talet, det vill säga slaveri och kolonialism. I min behandling av Persuasion, en roman som anses omfatta biografiska element ur Austens liv, framhåller jag hur Austen genom individerna som förekommer i romanen vill fästa uppmärksamhet vid de problem som existerade i England under sommaren år 1814 då Napoleon befann sig i landsflykt. I sin helhet kretsar sig romanen kring den kungliga flottans förehavanden medan min avhandling fokuserar sig på fyra marinofficerare: kapten Frederick Wentworth, amiral Croft samt kaptenerna Harville och Benwick. Med hjälp av beskrivande utdrag visar jag hur kapten Frederick Wentworth samt amiral Croft förekommer i romanen som hyllade hjältar vars plats i samhället bygger på meriter som erhållits genom hjältedåd. I sin tur ger kaptenerna Harville och Benwick en mer realistisk bild av marinsoldater som återvänder från kriget bortglömda av moderlandet och utan nämnvärd egendom att stöda sig på. I min avhandling klargör jag ytterligare hur Austen tack vare sin brevväxling med sina bröder samt sin iver att läsa verk av andra författare var väl medveten om den aktuella samhällsdebatten och de rådande åsikterna under 1800-talet.