Browsing by Subject "combined immunodeficiency"

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  • Vakkilainen, Svetlana; Taskinen, Mervi; Klemetti, Paula; Pukkala, Eero; Mäkitie, Outi (2019)
    Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) is a skeletal dysplasia with combined immunodeficiency, variable clinical course and increased risk of malignancy. Management of CHH is complicated by a paucity of long-term follow-up data, as well as knowledge on prognostic factors. We assessed clinical course and risk factors for mortality in a prospective cohort study of 80 patients with CHH recruited in 1985-1991 and followed up until 2016. For all patients we collected additional health information from health records and from the national Medical Databases and Cause-of-death Registry. The primary outcome was immunodeficiency-related death, including death from infections, lung disease and malignancy. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated using national mortality rates as reference. Half of the patients (57%, n = 46) manifested no symptoms of immunodeficiency during follow-up while 19% (n = 15) and 24% (n = 19) demonstrated symptoms of humoral or combined immunodeficiency, including six cases of adult-onset immunodeficiency. In a significant proportion of patients (17/79, 22%), clinical features of immunodeficiency progressed over time. Of the 15 patients with non-skin cancer, eight had no preceding clinical symptoms of immunodeficiency. Altogether 20 patients had deceased (SMR = 7.0, 95% CI = 4.3-11); most commonly from malignancy (n = 7, SMR = 10, 95% CI = 4.1-21) and lung disease (n = 4, SMR = 46, 95% CI = 9.5-130). Mortality associated with birth length below-4 standard deviation (compared to normal, SMR/SMR ratio = 5.4, 95% CI = 1.5-20), symptoms of combined immunodeficiency (compared to asymptomatic, SMR/SMR ratio= 3.9, 95% CI = 1.3-11), Hirschsprung disease (odds ratio (OR) 7.2, 95% CI = 1.04-55), pneumonia in the first year of life or recurrently in adulthood (OR = 7.6/19, 95% CI = 1.3-43/2.6-140) and autoimmunity in adulthood (OR = 39, 95% CI = 3.5-430). In conclusion, patients with CHH may develop adult-onset immunodeficiency or malignancy without preceding clinical symptoms of immune defect, warranting careful follow-up. Variable disease course and risk factors for mortality should be acknowledged.
  • Vakkilainen, Svetlana; Taskinen, Mervi; Mäkitie, Outi (2020)
    Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) is an autosomal recessive syndromic immunodeficiency with skeletal dysplasia, short stature, hypotrichosis, variable degree of immune dysfunction and increased incidence of anaemia, Hirschsprung disease and malignancy. CHH is caused by variants in theRMRPgene, encoding the untranslated RNA molecule of the mitochondrial RNA-processing endoribonuclease, which participates in for example cell cycle regulation and telomere maintenance. Recent studies have expanded our understanding of the complex pathogenesis of CHH. Immune dysfunction has a major impact on clinical course and prognosis. Clinical features of immune dysfunction are highly variable, progressive and include infections, lung disease, immune dysregulation and malignancy. Mortality is increased compared with the general population, due to infections, malignancy and pulmonary disease. Several risk factors for early mortality have been reported in the Finnish CHH cohort and can be used to guide management. Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency can possibly be of prognostic value in CHH. Regular follow-up by a multidisciplinary team should be implemented to address immune dysfunction in all patients with CHH, also in asymptomatic cases. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation can cure immune dysfunction, but its benefits in mildly symptomatic patients with CHH remain debatable. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms behind the variability of clinical features, to search for potential molecular treatment targets, to examine and validate risk factors for early mortality outside the Finnish CHH cohort and to develop management guidelines. This review focuses on the pathogenesis, clinical course and management of CHH.
  • Tesch, Victoria Katharina; Abolhassani, Hassan; Shadur, Bella; Zobel, Joachim; Mareika, Yuliya; Sharapova, Svetlana; Karakoc-Aydiner, Elif; Rivière, Jacques G.; Garcia-Prat, Marina; Moes, Nicolette; Haerynck, Filomeen; Gonzales-Granado, Luis I.; Santos Pérez, Juan Luis; Mukhina, Anna; Shcherbina, Anna; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Hammarström, Lennart; Dogu, Figen; Haskologlu, Sule; İkincioğulları, Aydan İ.; Köstel Bal, Sevgi; Baris, Safa; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Karaca, Neslihan Edeer; Kutukculer, Necil; Girschick, Hermann; Kolios, Antonios; Keles, Sevgi; Uygun, Vedat; Stepensky, Polina; Worth, Austen; van Montfrans, Joris M.; Peters, Anke M.J.; Meyts, Isabelle; Adeli, Mehdi; Marzollo, Antonio; Padem, Nurcicek; Khojah, Amer M.; Chavoshzadeh, Zahra; Avbelj Stefanija, Magdalena; Bakhtiar, Shahrzad; Florkin, Benoit; Meeths, Marie; Gamez, Laura; Grimbacher, Bodo; Seppänen, Mikko R.J.; Lankester, Arjan; Gennery, Andrew R.; Seidel, Markus G. (2020)
    Background Recent findings strongly support hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with severe presentation of LPS-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency, but long-term follow-up and survival data beyond previous patient reports or meta-reviews are scarce for those patients who do not receive a transplant. Objective This international retrospective study was conducted to elucidate the longitudinal clinical course of patients with LRBA deficiency who do and do not receive a transplant. Method We assessed disease burden and treatment responses with a specially developed immune deficiency and dysregulation activity score, reflecting the sum and severity of organ involvement and infections, days of hospitalization, supportive care requirements, and performance indices. Results Of 76 patients with LRBA deficiency from 29 centers (median follow-up, 10 years; range, 1-52), 24 underwent HSCT from 2005 to 2019. The overall survival rate after HSCT (median follow-up, 20 months) was 70.8% (17 of 24 patients); all deaths were due to nonspecific, early, transplant-related mortality. Currently, 82.7% of patients who did not receive a transplant (43 of 52; age range, 3-69 years) are alive. Of 17 HSCT survivors, 7 are in complete remission and 5 are in good partial remission without treatment (together, 12 of 17 [70.6%]). In contrast, only 5 of 43 patients who did not receive a transplant (11.6%) are without immunosuppression. Immune deficiency and dysregulation activity scores were significantly lower in patients who survived HSCT than in those receiving conventional treatment (P = .005) or in patients who received abatacept or sirolimus as compared with other therapies, and in patients with residual LRBA expression. Higher disease burden, longer duration before HSCT, and lung involvement were associated with poor outcome. Conclusion The lifelong disease activity, implying a need for immunosuppression and risk of malignancy, must be weighed against the risks of HSCT.
  • Vakkilainen, Svetlana; Klemetti, Paula; Martelius, Timi; Seppänen, Mikko J. R.; Mäkitie, Outi; Toiviainen-Salo, Sanna (2021)
    Cartilage-hair hypoplasia is a syndromic immunodeficiency with short stature, chondrodysplasia, and variable degree of immune dysfunction. Patients with cartilage-hair hypoplasia are prone to recurrent respiratory tract infections, and the prevalence of bronchiectasis ranges from 29 to 52%. Pulmonary complications contribute significantly to the mortality; therefore, regular lung imaging is essential. However, the optimal schedule for repeated lung imaging remains unestablished. We determined the rate and correlates of progression of structural lung changes in a prospectively followed cohort of 16 patients with cartilage-hair hypoplasia. We analyzed clinical, laboratory, and pulmonary functional testing data and performed lung magnetic resonance imaging at a median interval of 6.8 years since previous imaging. Imaging findings remained identical or improved due to disappearance of inflammatory changes in all evaluated patients. Patients with subtle signs of bronchiectasis on imaging tended to have low immunoglobulin M levels, as well as suffered from pneumonia during the follow-up. In conclusion, our results suggest slow if any development of bronchiectasis in selected subjects with cartilage-hair hypoplasia.
  • Buchbinder, David; Hauck, Fabian; Albert, Michael H.; Rack, Anita; Bakhtiar, Shahrzad; Shcherbina, Anna; Deripapa, Elena; Sullivan, Kathleen E.; Perelygina, Ludmila; Eloit, Marc; Neven, Benedicte; Perot, Philippe; Moshous, Despina; Suarez, Felipe; Bodemer, Christine; Bonilla, Francisco A.; Vaz, Louise E.; Krol, Alfons L.; Klein, Christoph; Seppänen, Mikko; Nugent, Diane J.; Singh, Jasjit; Ochs, Hans D. (2019)
    The association of immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived rubella virus (iVDRV) with cutaneous and visceral granulomatous disease has been reported in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs). The majority of these PID patients with rubella-positive granulomas had DNA repair disorders. To support this line of inquiry, we provide additional descriptive data on seven previously reported patients with Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) (n=3) and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) (n=4) as well as eight previously unreported patients with iVDRV-induced cutaneous granulomas and DNA repair disorders including NBS (n=1), AT (n=5), DNA ligase 4 deficiency (n=1), and Artemis deficiency (n=1). We also provide descriptive data on several previously unreported PID patients with iVDRV-induced cutaneous granulomas including cartilage hair hypoplasia (n=1), warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, immunodeficiency, myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome (n=1), MHC class II deficiency (n=1), Coronin-1A deficiency (n=1), X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) (n=1), and combined immunodeficiency without a molecular diagnosis (n=1). At the time of this report, the median age of the patients with skin granulomas and DNA repair disorders was 9years (range 3-18). Cutaneous granulomas have been documented in all, while visceral granulomas were observed in six cases (40%). All patients had received rubella virus vaccine. The median duration of time elapsed from vaccination to the development of cutaneous granulomas was 48months (range 2-152). Hematopoietic cell transplantation was reported to result in scarring resolution of cutaneous granulomas in two patients with NBS, one patient with AT, one patient with Artemis deficiency, one patient with DNA Ligase 4 deficiency, one patient with MHC class II deficiency, and one patient with combined immunodeficiency without a known molecular etiology. Of the previously reported and unreported cases, the majority share the diagnosis of a DNA repair disorder. Analysis of additional patients with this complication may clarify determinants of rubella pathogenesis, identify specific immune defects resulting in chronic infection, and may lead to defect-specific therapies.
  • Vakkilainen, Svetlana; Kleino, Iivari; Honkanen, Jarno; Salo, Harri; Kainulainen, Leena; Gräsbeck, Michaela; Kekäläinen, Eliisa; Mäkitie, Outi; Klemetti, Paula (2020)
    Background: Live viral vaccines are generally contraindicated in patients with combined immunodeficiency including cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH); however, they may be tolerated in milder syndromes. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of live viral vaccines in patients with CHH. Methods: We analyzed hospital and immunization records of 104 patients with CHH and measured serum antibodies to measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella zoster virus (VZV) in all patients who agreed to blood sampling (n= 50). We conducted a clinical trial (identifier: NCT02383797) of live VZV vaccine on five subjects with CHH who lacked varicella history, had no clinical symptoms of immunodeficiency, and were seronegative for VZV; humoral and cellular immunologic responses were assessed post-immunization. Results: A large proportion of patients have been immunized with live viral vaccines, including measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) (n= 40, 38%) and VZV (n= 10, 10%) vaccines, with no serious adverse events. Of the 50 patients tested for antibodies, previous immunization has been documented with MMR (n= 22), rubella (n= 2) and measles (n= 1) vaccines. Patients with CHH demonstrated seropositivity rates of 96%/75%/91% to measles, mumps and rubella, respectively, measured at a medium of 24 years post-immunization. Clinical trial participants developed humoral and cellular responses to VZV vaccine. One trial participant developed post-immunization rash and knee swelling, both resolved without treatment. Conclusion: No serious adverse events have been recorded after immunization with live viral vaccines in Finnish patients with CHH. Patients generate humoral and cellular immune response to live viral vaccines. Immunization with live vaccines may be considered in selected CHH patients with no or clinically mild immunodeficiency.