Browsing by Subject "communication"

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  • Järvinen, Heli (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a condition that affects social interaction, communication and behavior. Since effective communication and interaction is a prerequisite for learning, the use of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) methods has been considered necessary in study environments. The education professionals' perspectives and attitudes towards the use of AAC methods have been linked to the extent to which they support the development of communication skills of their pupils using communication aids. The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences of autism classroom teachers and classroom assistants in the use of AAC methods. This topic is examined based on the benefits and challenges that autism education professionals associate with the use of communication aids, the number of factors contributing to the successful use of the AAC methods as well as the development of the students' communication skills. In this study nine education professionals who worked in autism education classrooms and school's afternoon activities in Helsinki were interviewed. The interviews were conducted as semi-structured individual interviews, which discussed the use of AAC methods for students with ASD. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed by using inductive thematic analysis approach. Finally, the themes of each research question were compared with each other. Based on the results of this study, AAC methods are particularly useful not only for communication between students and education professionals, but also for the students' ability to express themselves, to develop better social skills and to become more independent in their everyday lives. The challenges of using AAC methods related to usability factors, students' developmental abnormalities, education professionals' practices and various resource issues. Professional co-operation, motivation, favorable usability factors of the AAC methods, and factors related to the activities and roles of education professionals were seen to influence the successful use of the AAC methods and to improve the students' communication skills. In addition, the interviewees strongly emphasized the importance of students' spontaneous communication and speech development in the motivation and work satisfaction of education professionals. The autism classroom teachers' and classroom assistants' experiences in the use of AAC methods emphasize the importance of training and multiprofessional co-operation in support of the use of communication aids and development of students' communication skills. Based on the results of this study, the speech therapists' counseling activities can be regarded as significant for the development and maintenance of the education professionals' AAC skills and for constituting positive attitudes related to the use of AAC methods. This study highlights the importance of further research focusing particularly on more specific identification of challenges related to the use of AAC methods in autism classroom education.
  • Blässar, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This thesis does study buyer-supplier dyads in the context of corporate responsibility for sustainability. Companies have recognized the need to act on sustainability when expectations on corporate responsibility increases. The pressure to act more responsibly comes from various stakeholders, however this research focuses on buyers’ expectations on suppliers. The aim of the study is to identify (a) the expectations buyers (B2B customers) have on the focal company (supplier) in terms of the responsibility of its supply and (b) analysing how the focal firms should communicatively respond to these expectations. The thesis was completed using a qualitative research method by executing a semi-structured thematic interview style. Interviews were done to find out, what corporate responsibility expectations buyers really have on their supply and how suppliers should respond to them. Eight thematic interviews with B2B customers were conducted. The theoretical framework of this research is based on previous research concerning the research theme. The study results were analysed through thematic analysis. The theoretical framework got formed based on Carroll’s (1979) pyramid of CSR: economic responsibility, legal responsibility, ethical responsibility, and philanthropic responsibility. Another framework of five CR categories: the defensive, compliance, managerial and risk tackling, opportunity and strategy, and transformative CR category was also formed and used. The theory was used to identify and categorize buyers’ CR expectations. The study results indicated buyers’ expectations on corporate responsibility for sustainability to be mostly related to environmental and social corporate responsibility. Domesticity (Finnish origin)/background of products and processes, quality (long life cycle) and reduced CO2-emissions are specific CR themes that B2B customers have most expectations on in their procurement. Other expectations are product responsibility, responsible procurement, longevity, environmental-labels, environmentally friendly packaging, recyclability, and safety in production/service. The buyers’ expectations are mostly categorized in the economic and legal responsibility as well as the compliance category of CR. The CR expectations are however very little prioritized in procurement of buyers, which challenges the idea of a big and increasing CR pressure on suppliers. The content of suppliers CR reporting and communication should involve the themes that customers raise expectations on. The importance of CR and sustainability reports got challenged due to buyers highlighting a demand for other communication sources. Salespersons and websites are more requested sources to receive suppliers CR information from than specific CR reports. The most important factors of CR communication and reporting for buyers is easy access and uncomplicated comprehension. The CR expectations do also indicate a movement towards CR reporting in shared databases. The B2B customers varying CR expectations should all be acknowledged while suppliers are developing their CR for sustainability as well as the reporting/communication. The identification and categorization of buyers CR expectations is important for suppliers to understand the phenomena profoundly. A consistent result that this study indicates is a prominent need for increased CR related dialogues in buyer-supplier dyads. A better understanding of buyers CR expectations help suppliers respond to their expectations and communicate them according to the demand.
  • Peters, Dana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Concern about global warming can lead to climate change anxiety, a form of anxiety characterized by excessive worry about the climate crisis and associated consequences on the natural world and human society. It has been suggested by previous research that humor can be used to manage feelings of anxiety. This study seeks to determine if this phenomenon can be applied specifically to climate change anxiety. The research combines a comprehensive literature review with an online survey that leveraged climate change themed internet memes as a proxy for humor to gather opinions about the intersections between these two topics. The survey data supplemented claims made by existing literature, indicating that climate change themed internet memes and humor in general can be useful coping mechanisms to mitigate feelings of climate anxiety. The survey was completed by 93 respondents; most of these participants were women, located in the US, and/or between the ages of 20 and 29. Results from the survey showed that people tend to feel best about their environmental anxiety when they are taking active steps to solve the problem. Conscious decisions such as reducing waste or participating in activist movements are easier to recognize and self-report than more passive coping skills. Reliance on humor was reported as a supplementary coping skill, but many respondents indicated that looking at humorous climate change themed memes did influence their feelings about climate change overall. The scope of this study was relatively small in scale, therefore the results presented in this thesis may not be indicative of broader social trends and likely require further research.
  • Kauppinen, Hannele (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2005)
    Economics and Society
    Colour is an essential aspect of our daily life, and still, it is a neglected issue within marketing research. The main reason for studying colours is to understand the impact of colours on consumer behaviour, and thus, colours should be studied when it comes to branding, advertising, packages, interiors, and the clothes of the employees, for example. This was an exploratory study about the impact of colours on packages. The focus was on low-involvement purchasing, where the consumer puts limited effort into the decision-making. The basis was a scenario in which the consumer faces an unpredictable problem needing immediate action. The consumer may be in hurry, which indicate time pressure. The consumer may lack brand preferences, or the preferred brand may be out of stock. The issue is that the choice is to be made at the point of purchase. Further, the purchasing involves product classes where the core products behind the brands are indistinguishable from each other. Three research questions were posed. Two questions were answered by conjoint analysis, i.e. if colours have an impact on decision-making and if a possible impact is related to the product class. 16 hypothetical packages were designed in two product classes within the healthcare, i.e. painkillers and medicine against sore throats. The last research question aimed at detecting how an analysis could be carried out in order to understand the impact of colours. This question was answered by conducting interviews that were analysed by applying laddering method and a semiotics approach. The study found that colours do indeed have an impact on consumer behaviour, this being related to the context, such as product class. The role of colours on packages was found to be threefold: attention, aesthetics, and communication. The study focused on colours as a means of communication, and it proposes that colours convey product, brand, and product class meanings, these meanings having an impact on consumers’ decision-making at the point of purchase. In addition, the study demonstrates how design elements such as colours can be understood by regarding them as non-verbal signs. The study also presents an empirical design, involving quantitative and qualitative techniques that can be used to gain in depth understanding of the impact of design elements on consumer behaviour. Hannele Kauppinen is associated with CERS, the Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management of the Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration
  • Moreno Ramírez, Francisco (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    As in many countries, education in Chile has been a huge problem for authorities and researchers. Over time, there have been many attempts to improve quality, but with little to no success. It is difficult to find the main reason why Chilean education faces many problems. One reason could be the way teachers understand the policy instruments; the national curriculum, and how clear it is. However, it also could be related to the way of using skills related to communication in general, and teacher-student interaction in particular. My assumption is they have been ignored or under considered as part of the teaching process. Some experts have recognized the relevance of communication and teacher- student interaction, because of the significance of reciprocity. It has a very crucial role for effective teaching and learning to take place (Arthur, Gordon, & Butterfield, 2003). This is an in-depth research into both systems of education, a comparative and qualitative investigation that aim to analyse guidelines for teachers and principals. This research will collect data through the analysis of both national curriculums, to see how these terms are mentioned and described in them as part of the guidelines of every taught subject, and how many of these teaching methods include teacher-student interaction. For this reason, the purpose of my thesis is to analyse how the elements of communication and teacher-student interaction are presented in the official curriculums of Chile and Finland. Although the analysis of documents is the main source of data, this investigation considers also the observation to understand the dynamics in the classroom, despite being only an illustration.
  • Syyrilä, Tiina; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Härkänen, Marja (2020)
    Abstract Aim To identify the types and frequencies of communication issues (communication pairs, person related, institutional, structural, process, and prescription-related issues) detected in medication incident reports and to compare communication issues that caused moderate or serious harm to patients. Background Communication issues have been found to be amongst the main contributing factors of medication incidents, thus necessitating communication enhancement. Design A sequential exploratory mixed-method design. Methods Medication incident reports from Finland (n=500) for the year 2015 in which communication was marked as a contributing factor were used as the data source. Indicator phrases were used for searching communication issues from free texts of incident reports. The detected issues were analysed statistically, qualitatively, and considering the harm caused to the patient. Citations from free texts were extracted as evidence of issues and were classified following main categories of indicator phrases. The EQUATOR?s SRQR checklist was followed in reporting. Results Twenty-eight communication pairs were identified, with nurse-nurse (68.2%; n=341), nurse-physician (41.6%; n=208), and nurse-patient (9.6%; n=48) pairs being the most frequent. Communication issues existed mostly within unit (76.6%, n=383). The most commonly identified issues were digital communication (68.2%; n=341), lack of communication within a team (39.6%; n=198), false assumptions about work processes (25.6%; n=128) and being unaware of guidelines (25.0%; n=125). Collegial feedback, and communication from patients and relatives were the preventing issues. Moderate harm cases were often linked with lack of communication within the unit, digital communication and not following guidelines. Conclusions The interventions should be prioritized to (a) enhancing communication about work-processes, (b) verbal communication about digital prescriptions between professionals, (c) feedback among professionals, and (f) encouraging patients to communicate about medication. Relevance to clinical practice Upon identifying the most harmful and frequent communication issues, interventions to strengthen medication safety can be implemented.
  • Wasserman, D.; Apter, G.; Baeken, C.; Bailey, S.; Balazs, J.; Bec, C.; Bienkowski, P.; Bobes, J.; Ortiz, M. F. Bravo; Brunn, H.; Boke, O.; Camilleri, N.; Carpiniello, B.; Chihai, J.; Chkonia, E.; Courtet, P.; Cozman, D.; David, M.; Dom, G.; Esanu, A.; Falkai, P.; Flannery, W.; Gasparyan, K.; Gerlinger, G.; Gorwood, P.; Gudmundsson, O.; Hanon, C.; Heinz, A.; Dos Santos, M. J. Heitor; Hedlund, A.; Ismayilov, F.; Ismayilov, N.; Isometsä, E. T.; Izakova, L.; Kleinberg, A.; Kurimay, T.; Reitan, S. Klaebo; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Lehmets, A.; Lindberg, N.; Lundblad, K. A.; Lynch, G.; Maddock, C.; Malt, U. F.; Martin, L.; Martynikhin, I.; Maruta, N. O.; Matthys, F.; Mazaliauskiene, R.; Mihajlovic, G.; Peles, A. Mihaljevic; Miklavic, V.; Mohr, P.; Ferrandis, M. Munarriz; Musalek, M.; Neznanov, N.; Ostorharics-Horvath, G.; Pajevic, I.; Popova, A.; Pregelj, P.; Prinsen, E.; Rados, C.; Roig, A.; Kuzman, M. Rojnic; Samochowiec, J.; Sartorius, N.; Savenko, Y.; Skugarevsky, O.; Slodecki, E.; Soghoyan, A.; Stone, D. S.; Taylor-East, R.; Terauds, E.; Tsopelas, C.; Tudose, C.; Tyano, S.; Vallon, P.; van der Gaag, R. J.; Varandas, P.; Vavrusova, L.; Voloshyn, P.; Wancata, J.; Wise, J.; Zemishlany, Z.; Oncu, F.; Vahip, S. (2020)
    Background. Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care. Methods. The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions. Results. We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures. Conclusions. We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
  • Bergman-Pyykkönen, Marina; Salovaara, Veronica (Finlandssvenska kompetenscentret inom det sociala området, 2021)
    FSKC Rapporter
    Emotions in social work - how can they be understood and managed? In this book we describe findings from a project that developed together with social workers from three municipalities network meetings for investigating emotions in social work practice on basis of Karen Healy's (2018) CSCE-model.
  • Sorsa, Virpi (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2012)
    Economics and Society – 248
    “Strategizing has become one of the most important managerial practices. It is becoming harder and harder to find an organization, which wouldn't engage in yearly strategic planning and implementation cycles. Although the theorizing of "planning" is becoming less popular in strategy research and the theorization of "process" and "practice" is gaining more and more ground, the practice itself - the managerial elite's strategy workshops, the writing of official strategy documents and the employees' and interest groups' various innovative ways of interpreting and using those documents - has become accustomed, legitimate and even expected in contemporary organizations. This thesis examines the social practice of strategizing in municipal and congregational strategy work through various discursive perspectives and explains how strategy enters into and figures in the daily lives of people organizations. The contributions of this thesis are presented in six essays, which examine the actual strategy conversations and texts. This approach gives the reader a unique opportunity to access information and learn about issues which are typically kept out of sight to outside eyes. The results of this thesis emphasize the constitutive role of discourse and communication at different sites of social life within the context of strategizing. With its distinctive approach to studying the transcripts and videorecordings of strategy work, this thesis sensitizes scholars to pay careful attention to language and its role in social practice of strategy and will be invaluable to scholars, researchers, and graduate students in strategy communication.”
  • Räsänen, Hannele (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Nowadays, with the influence of global economy large corporations use global software development to utilise advantages of geographically decentralised organisations and global outsourced software development. Through distributed organisations the work can be done around the clock. Global software development is impacted by three distance dimensions: time distance, geographical distance, and socio-cultural distance, which all bring some challenges. At the same time agile way of working has become more and more popular method in software development. As agile practises are created for co-located teams there is a demand for having working online solutions for communication and collaboration in distributed teams. Corporations use scaled agile way of working to support software develop-ment of large initiatives and projects. Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe) is the most popular among the scaled agile methods. This thesis was conducted as a case study in a multinational corporation. Objective of the case study was to research effectiveness of scaled agile methodology SAFe on communication and collaboration in teams and agile release trains. The case study included two parts: a web-survey and interviews. The results of the analyses of the case study support findings from the literature in the field. The results indicate the importance of communication and collaboration in agile practices and the significance of the online tools that support it.
  • Kaya, Meryem Ecem (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biology that aims to system-atically design artificial biological systems. As synthetic biologists seek increasingly complex control over cellular processes to achieve robust and predictable systems. A new frontier in synthetic biology is engineering synthetic microbial consortia. This ap-proach employs the concept of division of labor, instead of introducing large genetic cir-cuitry to homogenous cell populations. In this approach, different cell types are assigned to execute a portion of the overall circuit. Each cell type communicates with their co-worker subpopulations to complete the circuit. The main advantage of this strategy is the reduced metabolic burden on each cell type. Thus, leading to more reliable and stable overall performance. In this work, to simplify cellular communication between the mem-bers of the consortium, we used the simple architecture of quorum sensing machinery. We constructed a toolbox that contains promoter, receptor and quorum sensing signal synthase genes along with fluorescent reporters. Using this toolbox, we constructed dif-ferent cell types that can be used in synthetic consortia forming various communication topologies. We characterized the constructed cell types individually and in co-cultures.
  • Lyytimäki, Jari (2020)
    The Nordic countries are often praised for their environmental awareness and the quality of their media systems. This chapter characterizes the late 1960s and 1970s as the pioneer phase of environmental journalism in Nordic countries and says that the major media established new environmental editorial positions in the 1980s and 1990s. However, the author finds that “many of these environmental positions have been terminated since the early 2000s, partly because of financial pressures and staff cutoffs in editorial offices and partly because some media no longer prioritized the expertise of specialized environmental editors.” He concludes, “this is a part of the trend of replacing specialized reporters with journalists who cover large areas of news production, including a variety of news topics and different forms of reporting.” While some argue that because of these staff cutoffs, environmental journalism in the Nordic countries “now resembles the situation that prevailed prior to the 1990s when there were very few journalists covering environmental issues full-time,” the author argues “that environmental awareness is now much wider both among the public and the journalists themselves” and that “environmental issues are now established among the regularly and even routinely reported topics of the news agenda.”
  • Aartola, Laura (2008)
    How do central banks communicate, and what are the implications of communication regarding the predictability and uncertainty surrounding monetary policy decisions? This question is examined through communication of two world's leading central banks, the European Central Bank and the US Federal Reserve. This thesis presents in detail two empirical research papers, Andersson's 'Using intraday data to gauge financial market responses to Fed and ECB monetary policy decisions' (2007) and Ehrmann and Fratzscher's 'How should central banks communicate?' (2005). The main findings of Andersson's (2007) paper are an increase in the intraday volatility in bond and stock markets on the day of monetary policy decisions, highly pronounced in the US market. Part of this surge in volatility can be explained by the level of the news and also by the revisions in expected future monetary policy path, but the question about what causes the differences between euro area and the US still remains unsolved. Ehrmann and Fratzscher (2005) find that the ECB and the Federal Reserve differentiate in their communication as Federal Reserve being more individualistic in its communication. From the point of view of the effectiveness of communication, their main finding is that a higher degree of dispersion reduces the predictability of the policy decisions and raises the degree of uncertainty. The empirical part of this thesis partly repeats the work of Ehrmann and Fratzscher (2005) on a different time period, concentrating on the amount of communication, its inclination and the dispersion across committee members. Main findings are that communication overall has increased for both central banks, though this result is subject to the choice of the news service provider used. Another result is that both banks' communication is more inclined towards tightening than neutral statements, and that the dispersion in the communication is at the same level for both central banks. However, compared to Ehrmann and Fratzscher's work, dispersion is not found to have any effect on monetary policy predictability. For future research, it would be interesting to see whether this change has only been temporary and what are its implications to future central bank communication strategies.
  • Laukka, Elina; Huhtakangas, Moona; Heponiemi, Tarja; Kujala, Sari; Kaihlanen, Anu-Marja; Gluschkoff, Kia; Kanste, Outi (2020)
    Background: The popularity of web-based patient-professional communication over patient portals is constantly increasing. Good patient-professional communication is a prerequisite for high-quality care and patient centeredness. Understanding health care professionals' experiences of web-based patient-professional communication is important as they play a key role in engaging patients to use portals. More information is needed on how patient-professional communication could be supported by patient portals in health care. Objective: This systematic review of qualitative studies aims to identify how health care professionals experience web-based patient-professional communication over the patient portals. Methods: Abstract and full-text reviews were conducted by 2 reviewers independently. A total of 4 databases were used for the study: CINAHL (EBSCO), ProQuest (ABI/INFORM), Scopus, and PubMed. The inclusion criteria for the reviewed studies were as follows: the examination of health care professionals' experiences, reciprocal communication between patients and health care professionals, peer-reviewed scientific articles, and studies published between 2010 and 2019. The Joanna Briggs Institute's quality assessment criteria were used in the review process. A total of 13 included studies were analyzed using a thematic synthesis, which was conducted by 3 reviewers. Results: A total of 6 analytical themes concerning health care professionals' experiences of web-based patient-professional communication were identified. The themes were related to health care professionals' work, change in communication over patient portals, patients' use of patient portals, the suitability of patient portals for communication, the convenience of patient portals for communication, and change in roles. Conclusions: Health care professionals' experiences contain both positive and negative insights into web-based patient-professional communication over patient portals. Most commonly, the positive experiences seem to be related to the patients and patient outcomes, such as having better patient engagement. Health care professionals also have negative experiences, for example, web-based patient-professional communication sometimes has deficiencies and has a negative impact on their workload. These negative experiences may be explained by the poor functionality of the patient portals and insufficient training and resources. To reduce health care professionals' negative experiences of web-based patient-professional communication, their experiences should be taken into account by policy makers, health care organizations, and information technology enterprises when developing patient portals. In addition, more training regarding web-based patient-professional communication and patient portals should be provided to health care professionals.
  • Sun, Susan Huying (2008)
    This paper is about delegation within organization, more precisely, within company. The key questions are i) what is the principal's optimal choice of authority allocation and ii) what factors influence the authority allocation in the scenarios of i) none of the two parties holds private information on projects; ii) the agent is better informed on projects and his information cannot be elicited. The thinking is based on the assumption that the principal always seeks to increase the agent's initiative and maximize own expected utility. Based on Principal-agent theory, two trade-offs are studied. One is losing control versus incentive. The principal raises the agent's incentive by delegating the decision rights to him. However, delegation may result in loss of control. Another trade-off is delegation versus communication. When a non-congruent agent holds private information and the principal holds authority, the agent may start strategic communication by adding noise into his communication. The trade-off is same as this question: whether the principal should delegate decision rights to an agent who has different preference with hers, or keep decision rights and make decision based on noisy communication? The study shows that delegation is always optimal as long as the difference between the principal and agent's preferences is not too large. The authority is more likely to be delegated on decisions (i) that are relatively unimportant for the principal; (ii) for which the principal can trust the agent; (iii) that are important to the agent, either because private benefits are high or because the principal cannot hurt the agent's initiative by overruling his decisions; (iv) that are new enough to the principal, so new that she does not have enough expertise or competency on it; (v) that the agent holds private information which is not elicitable. When delegation is not feasible, there are several factors which may increase a subordinate's real authority. They are (i) multiple agents; (ii) urgency of decisions; (iii) reputation for moderate interventionism; (iv) monetary incentive to the agent; (v)multiple principals.
  • Lindén, Nina (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Sosiaalinen media on tuonut lähes jokaisen kansalaisen ulottuville rajattoman määrän tietoa, jonka oikeellisuudesta ja ajankohtaisuudesta ei ole takeita. Ihmiset ovat myös entistä kiinnostuneempia omasta terveydestään ja hyvinvoinnistaan. Internetistä ja sosiaalisesta mediasta haetaan tietoa, tukea sekä yhteisöllisyyttä. Tulevaisuudessa, teknologia kehittyy entisestään, tulee potilas-lääkärisuhde muuttumaan entisestään. Tutkielman tarkoituksena on esittää systemaattinen kirjallisuuskatsaus sosiaalisen median vaikutuksesta potilas-lääkärisuhteeseen ja potilaan hoitoon. Lisäksi pohditaan, miten sosiaalista mediaa voisi hyödyntää tulevaisuudessa potilastyössä. Tutkimusaineisto kerättiin tekemällä systemaattiset kirjallisuushaut Web of Science ja PubMed tietokannoista. Haku tehtiin käyttäen hakusanoja "patient-physician relationship" AND " social media" AND communication. Tietokantojen hakutuloksista otettiin mukaan 19 tutkimusta abstraktien perusteella. Lisäksi käytettiin käsihakua, joka laajensi aineistoa 7 tutkimuksella. Tulosten mukaan suurimmaksi ongelmaksi sosiaalisen median suhteen koettiin potilasturvallisuuden yksityisyydensuojan vaarantuminen ja siitä aiheutuvat juridiset ja eettiset ongelmat. Sosiaalisesta mediasta tarjoaa uusia työkaluja lääkärille potilastyöhön. Suurin potentiaali hukkuu vielä epävarmuuteen ja kokemattomuuteen. Sosiaalisen median tuomat edut tiedostetaan, mutta niitä ei vielä osata hyödyntää.
  • Saarela, Sanna-Riikka; Söderman, Tarja; Lyytimäki, Jari (Elsevier, 2015)
    Environmental Science and Policy, 51: 325-337
    The success of an impact assessment (IA) can mean both instrumental success of applying IA results directly in decision-making, and conceptual success linked to learning about policy problems more generally. Both instrumental and conceptual success can be claimed to be reliant on the knowledge exchange context of the IA, shaped by factors such as the complexity of the policy problem, type of policy area, organisational norms, actor constellations and continuance and openness of information sharing. Even though such context factors may be pre-set, they are nevertheless contested and reformulated during each IA process. This paper ties together lessons from six different IA processes that were performed between 2011 and 2013. The cases include agricultural policy at the EU and regional level in Greece, national-level climate change and energy policy in Finland and Estonia, resource efficiency policy at the German national level, and sustainable land use policy in Inner Mongolia, China. The paper introduces and applies a typology of knowledge brokerage context factors. The paper asks how knowledge brokerage is shaped by different contexts and what determines the consequent application (or non-application) of IA tools and the use of IA results. The paper concludes by highlighting the significance of identification and acknowledgement of different knowledge exchange contexts in IA.
  • Lemmetyinen, Sanna; Hokkanen, Laura; Klippi, Anu (2020)
    Background: Left hemisphere stroke often causes a severe communication disorder that is usually attributed to aphasia. While aphasia refers to linguistic problems, communication is also accomplished by voluntarily articulate and gestural movements, which may be compromised due to apraxia. Along with aphasia, apraxia is a common disorder in left hemisphere stroke, which in severe cases can limit the use of verbal and nonverbal communication methods. The discussion about apraxia from a communicative perspective is still scarce, although the disorder is regularly experienced among left hemisphere stroke patients with aphasia. The rehabilitation of the disorder in severe apraxia-aphasia is challenging and recovery is slow. Aims: The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the research on long-term recovery from apraxia and to discuss the meaning of these findings in observing the recovery of communication abilities in a person with a severe apraxia-aphasia. The search was not restricted to any specific type of apraxia, as this review assumes that communication may be influenced by apraxia in its different manifestations. The review is based on a systematic literature search, which includes English-language studies retrieved from the databases of Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, and Scopus. Main Contribution: Seven long-term follow-up studies of apraxia were found; one case study of apraxia of speech (AOS), four group studies of ideomotor apraxia (IMA), one case study of IMA (and aphasia), and one group study of limb apraxia. Conclusions: The reviewed group studies of patients with left hemisphere stroke indicate that apraxia is a persistent disorder, but the steepest recovery occurs within the first few months post-stroke. Imitation skills and actions involving real-tool use in activities of daily functions show the best recovery. Real-tool use also continues to improve longer, while recovery of gesturing after verbal command may not show clear signs of recovery in the chronic stage post-stroke. There is some evidence that the pace of recovery from oral apraxia and limb apraxia is comparable, and recovery from apraxia and aphasia would not correlate. Some of the studies used only imitation to assess changes in gesturing, which cannot be regarded as an ecologically valid measure to compare gesturing in natural communicative situations or even gesturing after verbal command. Finally, no follow-up studies were found that would have discussed apraxia from a communicative perspective. Overall, the field is lacking research on long-term follow-up of patients with apraxic-aphasic disorder.
  • Candolin, Ulrika (2019)
    Human activities by altering environmental conditions are influencing the mate choice of animals. This is by impacts on: (i) the production and expression of traits evaluated by mate choosers; (ii) the transmission of information about potential mates to choosers; (iii) the reception and processing of the information by choosers; and (iv) the final mate choice. Here, I first discuss how these four stages of the mate-choice process can be altered by environmental change, and how these alterations, in turn, can influence individuals, populations, and communities. Much evidence exists for human-induced environmental changes influencing mate choice, but the consequences for the fitness of courters and choosers are less well known, and even less is known about the impact on population dynamics, species interactions and community composition. More evidence exists for altered mate-choice systems influencing interspecific matings and thereby community composition and biodiversity. I then consider whether plastic adjustments and evolutionary changes can rescue adaptive mate-choice systems, and reflect on the possibility of non-adaptive mate-choice systems becoming less maladaptive under environmental change. Much evidence exists for plastic adjustments of mate-choice systems, but whether these are adaptive is seldom known, as is the contribution of genetic changes. Finally, I contemplate the possibility of mate-choice systems rescuing populations from decline in changing environments. I explain how this is context dependent with both positive and negative outcomes possible. In summary, while much evidence exists for human-induced environmental changes influencing mate-choice systems, less is known about the consequences for ecological and evolutionary processes. Considering the importance that mate choice plays in determining individual fitness and population viability, the effects of environmental change on mate-choice systems should be considered in studies on the ecological and evolutionary consequences of human disturbances to habitats.
  • Bergman, Mats (1999)
    In this study, Charles Sanders Peirce's semiotic conception of communication is examined, both on its own terms and in relation to a number of theoretical issues in media and communication studies. The main goal of the study is to outline a Peircean approach to communication inquiry, and to show that it can be of contemporary relevance in media studies. The study is mostly reconstructive, and attempts to give a balanced picture of Peirce's semiotic thought. The goal is pursued through an interpretation of Peirce's theory of signs that focuses on its communicative, normative, and social aspects. In addition, the Peircean approach is elaborated by contrasting it to certain constructionistic perspectives. The study is divided into two parts, of which the first is concerned with Peirce's conception of communication, and the second with the appropriation of semeiotic, Peirce's theory of signs, in media and communication studies. The study examines Peirce's view of inquiry, paying special attention to the role of semeiotic. It is established that Peirce adheres to a social and co-operative theory of research and science. Further, the study shows that semeiotic is based on Peirce's critical common-sensism and phenomenology, and that it is closely associated with logic. In combination, these elements give Peirce's theory of signs its characteristic teleological and normative nature. In the closer examination of semeiotic that follows, the relational and experiential aspects of the theory are emphasised. Special attention is given to Peirce's account of the interpretant, as that forms an important part of his approach to communicative processes. The main components of the Peircean conception of communication are a sharing-model of mediation, a pragmatic account of meaning, a dialogic view of communality, an experimental approach to contextualisation, and an affirmation of self-control. The dialogic approach to communicative rationality, which permeates Peirce's entire philosophy, unites subjectivity and intersubjectivity. In the semeiotic theory of meaning, this connection is made with the help of the concept of habit. In spite of the richness and promise of semeiotic, it has rarely been used as a framework for media and communication studies. This study contributes to a reevaluation of the Peircean alternative by showing that Peirce gives us the basic elements needed for a theory of communication, and that the semeiotic point of view is in certain ways more adequate for the study of communicative processes than some recently popular types of constructionism - without denying that mutual complementation is both possible and desirable.