Browsing by Subject "community"

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  • Ahonen, Talvikki; Mikkola, Sini; Kallatsa, Laura; Metso, Pekka (2022)
    This article addresses eucharistic and communal transformations of two local Finnish churches, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland (ELCF) and the Orthodox Church of Finland (ocF), amid the coven-19 pandemic and precautions. We analyze how eucharistic practices have transformed in the ELCF and the OCF and the ways these transformations are reflected in the experiences of both parishioners and pastors. The data consist of four questionnaires (N = 739) collected from Lutheran and Orthodox believers and Lutheran vicars during the pandemic. Our results indicate that the significance of belonging was emphasized during the time of social distancing. While among those in the ELCF, experiences of belonging were manifested in terms of Eucharist, among those in the OCR, belonging was most often reflected in relation to liturgical community. The differences in eucharistic theologies of the OCF and the ELCF have perhaps become more visible in exceptional circumstances.
  • Blackman, Rosetta C.; Mächler, Elvira; Altermatt, Florian; Arnold, Amanda; Beja, Pedro; Boets, Pieter; Egeter, Bastian; Elbrecht, Vasco; Filipe, Ana Filipa; Jones, J. Iwan; Macher, Jan; Majaneva, Markus; Martins, Filipa M. S.; Múrria, Cesc; Meissner, Kris (Pensoft, 2019)
    Metabarcoding and Metagenomics 3: e34735
    Over the last decade, steady advancements have been made in the use of DNA-based methods for detection of species in a wide range of ecosystems. This progress has culminated in molecular monitoring methods being employed for the detection of several species for enforceable management purposes of endangered, invasive, and illegally harvested species worldwide. However, the routine application of DNA-based methods to monitor whole communities (typically a metabarcoding approach) in order to assess the status of ecosystems continues to be limited. In aquatic ecosystems, the limited use is particularly true for macroinvertebrate communities. As part of the DNAqua-Net consortium, a structured discussion was initiated with the aim to identify potential molecular methods for freshwater macroinvertebrate community assessment and identify important knowledge gaps for their routine application. We focus on three complementary DNA sources that can be metabarcoded: 1) DNA from homogenised samples (bulk DNA), 2) DNA extracted from sample preservative (fixative DNA), and 3) environmental DNA (eDNA) from water or sediment. We provide a brief overview of metabarcoding macroinvertebrate communities from each DNA source and identify challenges for their application to routine monitoring. To advance the utilisation of DNA-based monitoring for macroinvertebrates, we propose an experimental design template for a series of methodological calibration tests. The template compares sources of DNA with the goal of identifying the effects of molecular processing steps on precision and accuracy. Furthermore, the same samples will be morphologically analysed, which will enable the benchmarking of molecular to traditional processing approaches. In doing so we hope to highlight pathways for the development of DNA-based methods for the monitoring of freshwater macroinvertebrates.
  • Lehtinen, Matti; Apter, Dan; Eriksson, Tiina; Harjula, Katja; Hokkanen, Mari; Natunen, Kari; Nieminen, Pekka; Paavonen, Jorma; Palmroth, Johanna; Petaja, Tiina; Pukkala, Eero; Vänskä, Simopekka; Cheuvart, Brigitte; Soila, Maaria; Bi, Dan; Struyf, Frank (2021)
    Introduction We conducted a community-randomized trial (NCTBLINDED) in Finland to assess gender-neutral and girls-only vaccination strategies with the AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 (AS04-HPV-16/18)vaccine. Methods Girls and boys (12-15 years) were invited. We randomized 33 communities (1:1:1 ratio): Arm A: 90% of randomly selected girls and boys received AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine and 10% received hepatitis B vaccine (HBV); Arm B: 90% of randomly selected girls received AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine, 10% of girls received HBV, and all boys received HBV; Arm C: all participants received HBV. Effectiveness measurements against prevalence of HPV-16/18 cervical infection were estimated in girls at 18.5 years. The main measures were: (1) overall effectiveness comparing Arms A or B, regardless of vaccination status, vs Arm C; (2) total effectiveness comparing AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccinated girls in pooled Arms A/B vs Arm C; (3) indirect effectiveness (herd effect) comparing girls receiving HBV or unvaccinated in Arm A vs Arm C. Co-primary objectives were overall effectiveness following gender-neutral or girls-only vaccination. Results Of 80,272 adolescents invited, 34,412 were enrolled. Overall effectiveness was 23.8% (95% confidence interval: -19.0, 51.1; P = 0.232) with gender-neutral vaccination. Following girls-only vaccination, overall effectiveness was 49.6% (20.1, 68.2; P = 0.004). Total effectiveness was over 90% regardless of vaccination strategy. No herd effect was found. Immunogenicity of the AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine was high in both sexes. Conclusions This study illustrates the difficulty in conducting community randomized trials. It is not plausible that vaccinating boys would reduce overall effectiveness, and the apparent lack of herd effect was unexpected given findings from other studies. This analysis was likely confounded by several factors but confirms the vaccine's high total effectiveness as in clinical trials.
  • Hannikainen, Pietari (2020)
    This article examines an emerging "community movement" in the national Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Finland. Emerging from the local level, with links to wider renewal networks across Protestant Churches, the movement consists of a variation of 30-40 worship communities that are based on strong roles for laymen, challenging the traditional models of church life. Many communities are expanding and drawing young adults, in contrast to general developments in the Church. This article asks: What kinds of patterns of participation exist among the members and how are they related to experiences of membership? The results of a quantitative survey (N=529), conducted 2017, revealed three types of participation: "traditional," "community-oriented" and "experiential." The main finding is the distinct community process typical to these communities, which is connected to a strong sense of membership, commitment, and contentment, and which is actualized through lay participation. The article sheds light on the developments in a specific Nordic majority church in response to a changing cultural environment.
  • Cosens, Barbara; Ruhl, J. B.; Soininen, Niko; Gunderson, Lance; Belinskij, Antti; Blenckner, Thorsten; Camacho, Alejandro E.; Chaffin, Brian C.; Craig, Robin Kundis; Doremus, Holly; Glicksman, Robert; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Larson, Rhett; Similä, Jukka (National Academy of Sciences, 2021)
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Sep 2021, 118 (36) e2102798118
    The speed and uncertainty of environmental change in the Anthropocene challenge the capacity of coevolving social–ecological–technological systems (SETs) to adapt or transform to these changes. Formal government and legal structures further constrain the adaptive capacity of our SETs. However, new, self-organized forms of adaptive governance are emerging at multiple scales in natural resource-based SETs. Adaptive governance involves the private and public sectors as well as formal and informal institutions, self-organized to fill governance gaps in the traditional roles of states. While new governance forms are emerging, they are not yet doing so rapidly enough to match the pace of environmental change. Furthermore, they do not yet possess the legitimacy or capacity needed to address disparities between the winners and losers from change. These emergent forms of adaptive governance appear to be particularly effective in managing complexity. We explore governance and SETs as coevolving complex systems, focusing on legal systems to understand the potential pathways and obstacles to equitable adaptation. We explore how governments may facilitate the emergence of adaptive governance and promote legitimacy in both the process of governance despite the involvement of nonstate actors, and its adherence to democratic values of equity and justice. To manage the contextual nature of the results of change in complex systems, we propose the establishment of long-term study initiatives for the coproduction of knowledge, to accelerate learning and synergize interactions between science and governance and to foster public science and epistemic communities dedicated to navigating transitions to more just, sustainable, and resilient futures.
  • Mäenpää, Hanna Maria Kristiina; Raatikainen, Mikko Johannes; Tiihonen, Juha Tapani; Männistö, Tomi Matti (2017)
    Researchers from University of Helsinki are working on intelligent, open-source requirements management platform with decision-support capabilities. This poster presents the planned research approach and expected deliverables.
  • Li, Xiaofei; Wang, Shengnan; Prather, Chelse; Wan, Ho Yi; Zhu, Hui; Nummi, Petri; Inbar, Moshe; Gao, Qiang; Wang, Deli; Zhong, Zhiwei (2021)
    Large herbivores often co-occur and share plant resources with herbivorous insects in grassland ecosystems; yet, how they interact with each other remains poorly understood. We conducted a series of field experiments to investigate whether and how large domestic herbivores (sheep; Ovis aries) may affect the abundance of a common herbivorous insect (aphid; Hyalopterus pruni) in a temperate grassland of northeast China. Our exclosure experiment showed that 3 years (2010-2012) of sheep grazing had led to 86% higher aphid abundance compared with ungrazed sites. Mechanistically, this facilitative effect was driven by grazing altering the plant community, rather than by changes in food availability and predator abundance for aphids. Sheep significantly altered plant community by reducing the abundance of unpalatable forbs for the aphids. Our small-scale forb removal experiment revealed an "associational plant defense" by forbs which protect the grass Phragmites australis from being attacked by the aphids. However, selective grazing on forbs by sheep indirectly disrupted such associational plant defense, making P. australis more susceptible to aphids, consequentially increasing the density of aphids. These findings provide a novel mechanistic explanation for the effects of large herbivores on herbivorous insects by linking selective grazing to plant community composition and the responses of insect populations in grassland ecosystems.
  • Mäenpää, Pasi (2005)
    The study examines interconnections between consumption, urban culture and public space. It consists of theorizing of modern urban interaction and three empirical case studies, as well as an applied section and a discussion which generalises the results of the study by deepening the theory and widening the cultural perspective. City of Helsinki, the capital of Finland is the concrete object of the study, especially the city centre and its commercial spaces. Both theoretically and empirically the study combines sociology of consumption with urban sociology and multidisciplinary urban studies. Theoretically the main conception comes from Georg Simmel, Erving Goffman, Richard Sennett, Marshall Berman, Colin Campbell and Roger Caillois and the way it has been utilized to urban interaction in modern public space which I term urban or city publicity. City as a place for public appearance of theatrum mundi is one of the basic ideas of urbanism. From this idea and by analysing empirical data I evidence that chance-taking and imitation or mimicry as elements of the social form of play are also key notions to understand fundamentals of urban culture at the street level. The action of consuming as pleasure-seeking shopping means circling and watching with fantasizing and mental probing and trying things on before purchasing. Also shopping forms an autonomic and autotelic playform which has become a generalized urban practice. This practice is enabled by the social order of urban public space as interaction of mere eye contact and avoidance between anonymous people. From the empirical data I infer the concepts of anticipating and mimetic self-relation that I further apply to the data. The main character of urban culture is attached to mimetic self-relation, i.e. the mode in which an individual who is stranger to other individuals in the city publicity projects her or his ideal self-image and opens up to new ways of performing herself or himself. The basic idea of society that Goffman had as “self-dramatization” and “impression management” turns inwards in the culture of urban consumption. Grounded on this, I develop a theory of modern consumption that is able to explain its insatiableness and expansion. Then I analyse and criticise the spatial order and the production of space in the present day city. Finally, I deepen the theory of urban play and widen the perspective to modern culture in general by showing its connections and effects on architecture, youth culture and the development of information technology. The production and reproduction of the practice of consumption and the urban publicity construct the main sphere of social transaction of our society.
  • Klabbers, Jan (T.M.C. Asser Press cop., 2021)
    Netherlands Yearbook of International Law
    This contribution addresses the role of national yearbooks of international law in the formation and maintenance of national academic communities (“imagined communities”, if you will), and their potential role in the education of aspiring international lawyers. It takes personal reflections as its starting point, and eventually suggests that such yearbooks are well worth cherishing—they fill a void in the academic industrial process, a void left by the predominance attached to research monographs and journal articles.
  • Purola, Karoliina; Kuusisto, Arniika (2021)
    This paper examines the ways in which parents talk about their participation in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC), and the factors that, according to them, promote parental participation. Although parental participation has been studied to an extent as regards children’s academic attainment, up-to-date knowledge on the broader phenomena related to parental participation is lacking. The data were collected from a Finnish ECEC center that has a long tradition of encouraging parental participation in its operational environment in municipal ECEC center and were analyzed through the Social Capital Index. The results provide targeted knowledge on what tools could perhaps be functional in supporting parental participation. The findings indicate that the feeling of participating and being active is strongly influenced by the feeling of connectedness to and within the ECEC community among parents, children, and ECEC educators. The opportunities, structures, and traditions that enable parental participation are essential.
  • Harris, Hanna (2002)
    This study discusses the three waves of modern urbanization described as the Infrastructure City, the Spectacle City and the Process City. The aim is to see how we are now moving to the third wave of urbanization, herein referred to as the Process City, and what implications this has to urban studies and the production of urban culture. The study is an essay based on interviews of the key figures of the chosen examples and related literature. The aim is to create a dialogue between theory and selected examples, such as the Helsinki 2000 year of Culture, cafe9.net as one of its projects and other similar new spaces for culture that are meta-producers of hybrid cultural functions, in order to show that a third wave of urbanization, the Process City, has become characteristic of urban culture. The main focus is on showing how communities and networks operating in the everyday life have become important elements of urbanization, in addition to the previously acknowledged urban infrastructures and isolated, one-off urban events. This third wave of urbanization is examined through Edward Soja's (1996) model of three spatialities. An important theoretical starting point, also common to Soja's work, was the aim to pass beyond dualisms of micro and macro, modern and postmodern. Michel Maffesoli's (1985) notion of 'comprehensive sociology' was found useful for making this explicit. Another important theoretical consideration is that of discussing the similarities and differences between the notions of community and network. Further studies, beyond the scope of this one, are indicated 1) in the nature and extent of the individual practices and life styles operating within the studied spaces and networks, and 2) in the general emergence of the 'culture of the third'. Principle bibliography included: Castells, Manuel (1996). The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture. Volume I: The Rise of the Network Society. Oxford: Blackwell. Maffesoli, Michel (1985). La connaissance ordinaire. Précis de sociologie compréhensive. Paris: Librairie des Méridiens, Klincksieck & co. Soja, Edward W. (1996). Thirdspace. Journeys to Los Angeles and Other Real-and-Imagined Places. Oxford: Balckwell. URBS (2000). Kirja Helsingin kaupunkikulttuurista. Stadipiiri (eds.) Helsingin kaupungin tietokeskus. Helsinki: Edita.
  • Harris, Hanna (2002)
    his study discusses the three waves of modern urbanization described as the Infrastructure City, the Spectacle City and the Process City. The aim is to see how we are now moving to the third wave of urbanization, herein referred to as the Process City, and what implications this has to urban studies and the production of urban culture. The study is an essay based on interviews of the key figures of the chosen examples and related literature. The aim is to create a dialogue between theory and selected examples, such as the Helsinki 2000 year of Culture, cafe9.net as one of its projects and other similar new spaces for culture that are meta-producers of hybrid cultural functions, in order to show that a third wave of urbanization, the Process City, has become characteristic of urban culture. The main focus is on showing how communities and networks operating in the everyday life have become important elements of urbanization, in addition to the previously acknowledged urban infrastructures and isolated, one-off urban events. This third wave of urbanization is examined through Edward Soja's (1996) model of three spatialities. An important theoretical starting point, also common to Soja's work, was the aim to pass beyond dualisms of micro and macro, modern and postmodern. Michel Maffesoli's (1985) notion of 'comprehensive sociology' was found useful for making this explicit. Another important theoretical consideration is that of discussing the similarities and differences between the notions of community and network. Further studies, beyond the scope of this one, are indicated 1) in the nature and extent of the individual practices and life styles operating within the studied spaces and networks, and 2) in the general emergence of the 'culture of the third'. Principle bibliography: Castells, Manuel (1996). The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture. Volume I: The Rise of the Network Society. Oxford: Blackwell. Maffesoli, Michel (1985). La connaissance ordinaire. Précis de sociologie compréhensive. Paris: Librairie des Méridiens, Klincksieck & co. Soja, Edward W. (1996). Thirdspace. Journeys to Los Angeles and Other Real-and-Imagined Places. Oxford: Blackwell. URBS (2000). Kirja Helsingin kaupunkikulttuurista. Stadipiiri (eds.) Helsingin kaupungin tietokeskus. Helsinki: Edita.
  • Smith, Vincent Stuart; French, Lisa; Vincent, Sarah; Woodburn, Matt; Addink, Wouter; Arvanitidis, Christos; Banki, Olaf; Casino, Ana; Dusoulier, Francois; Glöckler, Falko; Hobern, Donald; Kalfatovic, Martin R.; Koureas, Dimitrios; Mergen, Patricia; Miller, Joe; Schulman, Leif; Juslén, Aino (2022)
    The landscape of biodiversity data infrastructures and organisations is complex and fragmented. Many occupy specialised niches representing narrow segments of the multidimensional biodiversity informatics space, while others operate across a broad front, but differ from others by data type(s) handled, their geographic scope and the life cycle phase(s) of the data they support. In an effort to characterise the various dimensions of the biodiversity informatics landscape, we developed a framework and dataset to survey these dimensions for ten organisations (DiSSCo, GBIF, iBOL, Catalogue of Life, iNaturalist, Biodi versity Heritage Library, GeoCASe, LifeWatch, eLTER ELIXIR), relative to both their current activities and long-term strategic ambitions.
  • Smith, Vincent; French, Lisa; Vincent, Sarah; Woodburn, Matt; Addink, Wouter; Arvanitidis, Christos; Bánki, Olaf; Casino, Ana; Dusoulier, Francois; Glöckler, Falko; Hobern, Donald; Kalfatovic, Martin R.; Koureas, Dimitrios; Mergen, Patricia; Miller, Joe; Schulman, Leif; Juslén, Aino (Pensoft Publishers, 2022)
    Biodiversity Data Journal
    Background The landscape of biodiversity data infrastructures and organisations is complex and fragmented. Many occupy specialised niches representing narrow segments of the multidimensional biodiversity informatics space, while others operate across a broad front, but differ from others by data type(s) handled, their geographic scope and the life cycle phase(s) of the data they support. In an effort to characterise the various dimensions of the biodiversity informatics landscape, we developed a framework and dataset to survey these dimensions for ten organisations (DiSSCo, GBIF, iBOL, Catalogue of Life, iNaturalist, Biodi versity Heritage Library, GeoCASe, LifeWatch, eLTER ELIXIR), relative to both their current activities and long-term strategic ambitions. New information The survey assessed the contact between the infrastructure organisations by capturing the breadth of activities for each infrastructure across five categories (data, standards, software, hardware and policy), for nine types of data (specimens, collection descriptions, opportunistic observations, systematic observations, taxonomies, traits, geological data, molecular data and literature) and for seven phases of activity (creation, aggregation, access, annotation, interlinkage, analysis and synthesis). This generated a dataset of 6,300 verified observations, which have been scored and validated by leading members of each infrastructure organisation. The resulting data allow high-level questions about the overall biodiversity informatics landscape to be addressed, including the greatest gaps and contact between organisations.
  • Smith, Vincent; French, Lisa; Vincent, Sarah; Woodburn, Matt; Addink, Wouter; Arvanitidis, Christos; Bánki, Olaf; Casino, Ana; Dusoulier, Francois; Glöckler, Falko; Hobern, Donald; Kalfatovic, Martin R.; Koureas, Dimitrios; Mergen, Patricia; Miller, Joe; Schulman, Leif; Juslén, Aino (Pensoft Publishers, 2022)
    Biodiversity Data Journal
    Background The landscape of biodiversity data infrastructures and organisations is complex and fragmented. Many occupy specialised niches representing narrow segments of the multidimensional biodiversity informatics space, while others operate across a broad front, but differ from others by data type(s) handled, their geographic scope and the life cycle phase(s) of the data they support. In an effort to characterise the various dimensions of the biodiversity informatics landscape, we developed a framework and dataset to survey these dimensions for ten organisations (DiSSCo, GBIF, iBOL, Catalogue of Life, iNaturalist, Biodi versity Heritage Library, GeoCASe, LifeWatch, eLTER ELIXIR), relative to both their current activities and long-term strategic ambitions. New information The survey assessed the contact between the infrastructure organisations by capturing the breadth of activities for each infrastructure across five categories (data, standards, software, hardware and policy), for nine types of data (specimens, collection descriptions, opportunistic observations, systematic observations, taxonomies, traits, geological data, molecular data and literature) and for seven phases of activity (creation, aggregation, access, annotation, interlinkage, analysis and synthesis). This generated a dataset of 6,300 verified observations, which have been scored and validated by leading members of each infrastructure organisation. The resulting data allow high-level questions about the overall biodiversity informatics landscape to be addressed, including the greatest gaps and contact between organisations
  • Hazard, Charles James (2002)
    This thesis looks at sectarianism, which is found in central Scotland. I analyse the relationship between Scotland’s two largest ethnic groups, Protestant Lowland Scots and Irish Catholics on both a historical and contemporary period. By looking at what l see as the key points of conflict between the communities, I attempt to explain why sectarianism persists within central Scotland. By looking at the historical, political and sporting aspects of central Scottish society hopefully we can begin to understand the forces which drive sectarianism in this area I put forward the idea that sectarianism in central Scotland has affected the chances for a nationalist political breakthrough in Scotland. As a political decision, I analyse the segregated education issue, which I claim is a major component in the sectarian debate. By looking at the communities involved, I show how the historical past has become a major source for the continuing conflict. I show how religious and national identity has become associated with football to such an extent that ones religious identity is based on which football club one supports. By using the concept of “Telling”, I show how both communities negotiate around the religious issue with the minimum of fuss in order to avoid conflict.
  • Helne, Tuula (2002)
    Stakes, Tutkimuksia ; 123
    The focus in the debate on exclusion is often placed on excluded people and their assumed characteristics: passivity, deviance, helplessness. Less attention has been paid to the society that produces this discourse. This study aims to turn the focus away from the periphery and place it on the centre, on the context in which exclusion is construed as a social problem. It asks what 'the society of exclusion' is like. How does the society that has given rise to discourse on exclusion and that this discourse produces look like? The exclusion debate is understood as a diagnosis of our time, as a horizon for investigating its sore points. The sorest pertain to the issue of community and that of the disappearing social. Exclusion is more than a social problem: it is a problem of 'the social'. This approach has been influenced by French research. The perspective is relational: exclusion is seen to arise in relation to other people, society and its institutions. The study also draws on constructionism, particularly its critical branch. It takes the disputability of the concept of exclusion as its starting point and presumes that exclusion is not a social fact or state but something that is constantly reproduced by social discourses and mechanisms. These mechanisms are ideological, linked with governance. As discourses and politics are not detached from each other, it is appropriate to criticise discourses that legitimate otherness and scapegoating by essentialising excluded people. The goal is to increase the degrees of freedom of those defined as excluded. The exclusion discourse includes numerous paradoxes. Efforts are made to include excluded people within the sphere of society and its normality. The presumption is that community is something existent and unproblematic, which the very fact that we speak about exclusion undermines. Moreover, the discourse on exclusion lays down boundaries, weakening our sense of community. The genuineness of the efforts to include excluded people can be doubted. Nor is the attitude towards the community building of the excluded positive. The concept of exclusion was brought into use as there was a need for a concept that describes processes. Nevertheless, excluded people are localised socially, spatially and symbolically. They are located in the periphery or beyond it, in a moral and spatial otherness. Drawing boundaries is, however, becoming increasingly problematic nowadays, as more and more positions are becoming uncertain. The fact that excluded people are described as passive individuals supports policies in which public policy is replaced with activation efforts. The discourse joins the trends that have undermined faith in social insurance and contributed to the shift towards neoliberal private prudentalism. Society is increasingly governed by individualisation. However, in order for a society to be a society, both a sense of community and a language for it are needed. The exclusion discourse is also aiming at these, but its language may not be ideal for the purpose. The book consists of a summary and five articles.
  • Silverberg, Emily L.; Sterling, Trevor W.; Williams, Tyler H.; Castro, Grettel; Rodriguez de la Vega, Pura; Barengo, Noel C. (2021)
    One-third of Americans with diabetes will develop diabetic retinopathy (DR), the leading cause of blindness in working-age Americans. Social determinants of health (SDOHs) are conditions in a person's environment that may impact health. The objective of this study was to determine whether there is an association between SDOHs and DR in patients with type II diabetes. This cross-section study used data from the 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). This study included people with self-reported diabetes in the US in 2018 (n = 60,703). Exposure variables included homeownership, marital status, income, health care coverage, completed level of education, and urban vs. rural environment. The outcome variable was DR. Logistic regression analysis were applied to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Alaskan Native/Native American (OR 2.11; 95% CI: 1.14-3.90), out of work (OR 2.82; 95% CI: 1.62-4.92), unable to work (OR 2.14; 95% CI: 1.57-2.91), did not graduate high school (OR 1.91; 95% CI: 1.30-2.79), only graduated high school (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.08-1.97), or only attended college or technical school without graduating (OR 1.42; 95% CI: 1.09-1.86) were SDOHs associated with DR in patients with diabetes. Health care providers should identify these possible SDOHs affecting their diabetic patients.
  • Karttunen, Marie-Louise (2005)
    Although this is a study of a specific community in space and time, that comprising English merchants and their families in St. Petersburg prior to the revolutions of 1917, I have had two ancillary agendas: Firstly to examine the construction and maintenance of community at a grass roots level, in that this was a social entity which very much created itself. And, secondly, to explore the methodological apparatus encompassed by a discourse-centered perspective on culture and community production, which I believe offers the most promising avenue for ethnographic research currently available. The understandings inherent in a discourse-centered approach are that culture exists in it transmission, in its movement from person to person, from group to group - that meanings are contained in the relationships between words, terms, stretches of talk and in the relationships between these 'concrete' cultural artefacts and the 'objective' world of exteriority - of event, geography, 'others' and macro or global process - and finally, that the metaculture - or talk about culture - which accompanies every phenomenon (including discourse itself), dictates the way every item becomes part of the cultural fabric (or does not, as the case may be). A discourse-centered approach carries with it a specific methodology. If meaning inheres in circulating discourse and its relationships, then this is the locus of ethnographic inquiry. As the group under analysis is long defunct, the data I have used is drawn from the written material produced by this highly literate, bourgeouis, records-orientated collectivity. These have been of a both formal/official and a subjective nature. The Minutes kept by the two major organisations concerned with Anglo-Russian trade span the centuries between the 1500s and the 1900s - British Foreign Office records, the Church Registers and archives of official correspondence have all fleshed out the public profile of the community. Private records have included extensive diaries, letters, visitors books, guest lists, memoirs, photographs and so on. Secondary understandings have been drawn from texts produced by the published writers of the era and, naturally, contemporary anthropology and social and economic history. My principal sources in this latter category have been discourse-centered scholars such as Urban, Silverstein, Sherzer, and a number who, while not specifically working within the paradigm, contribute understandings compatible with it. The paper begins with a discussion of the theoretical/methodological approach taken throughout then explores the growth of the community over the centuries and the emergence of a reflexive understanding of themselves as comprising 'a society'. This leads into an analysis of what, and whom, they referenced in their use of second person plural pronouns: us, we and our. Chapter five examines sources of tradition and innovation contributing to the cultural 'stuff' of the community, and the bases for acceptance and rejection of cultural items in different fields. Chapter six examines the paths along which discourse moved which, as it was a group densely lnked by kin ties, involved an analysis of their 'merchant kinship'. Finally I examine local hegemony and conflict. Throughout its duration it was 'governed' by the local association of merchants, the British Factory and chapters seven and eight explore the workings of this community within a community.
  • Prozorov, Sergei (2015)
    The article addresses the attempts of contemporary continental philosophy to develop a politics that would move beyond the Hobbesian logic of the constitution of political community. In their readings of Hobbes, Roberto Esposito and Giorgio Agamben emphasize the nihilistic character of Hobbes’s approach to community. For Esposito, Hobbes’s commonwealth is legitimized by a prior negation of the originary human community in the construction of the state of nature as the state of war. Yet, as Agamben shows, this negative state of nature is never fully transcended by the commonwealth, which persistently reproduces it in the state of exception. These critiques emphasize the complex relation between nature and artifice in Hobbes’s thought, which have profound implications for the attempts to arrive at a ‘post-Hobbesian’ mode of political community. Neither a facile search for a truer, more fundamental state of nature nor an affirmation of artifice and denaturation as constitutive of human community are sufficient to evade the Hobbesian constellation. A genuine move beyond Hobbes would rather consist in thoroughly deactivating the very relation between nature and artifice whereby they become indistinct and no longer negate each other.