Browsing by Subject "comparative genomics"

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  • Varadharajan, Srinidhi; Rastas, Pasi; Löytynoja, Ari; Matschiner, Michael; Calboli, Federico C. F.; Guo, Baocheng; Nederbragt, Alexander J.; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.; Merilä, Juha (2019)
    The Gasterosteidae fish family hosts several species that are important models for eco-evolutionary, genetic, and genomic research. In particular, a wealth of genetic and genomic data has been generated for the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), the "ecology's supermodel," whereas the genomic resources for the nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) have remained relatively scarce. Here, we report a high-quality chromosome-level genome assembly of P. pungitius consisting of 5,303 contigs (N50 = 1.2Mbp) with a total size of 521 Mbp. These contigs were mapped to 21 linkage groups using a high-density linkage map, yielding a final assembly with 98.5% BUSCO completeness. A total of 25,062 protein-coding genes were annotated, and about 23% of the assembly was found to consist of repetitive elements. A comprehensive analysis of repetitive elements uncovered centromere-specific tandem repeats and provided insights into the evolution of retrotransposons. A multigene phylogenetic analysis inferred a divergence time of about 26 million years ago (Ma) between nine- and three-spined sticklebacks, which is far older than the commonly assumed estimate of 13 Ma. Compared with the three-spined stickleback, we identified an additional duplication of several genes in the hemoglobin cluster. Sequencing data from populations adapted to different environments indicated potential copy number variations in hemoglobin genes. Furthermore, genome-wide synteny comparisons between three- and nine-spined sticklebacks identified chromosomal rearrangements underlying the karyotypic differences between the two species. The high-quality chromosome-scale assembly of the nine-spined stickleback genome obtained with long-read sequencing technology provides a crucial resource for comparative and population genomic investigations of stickleback fishes and teleosts.
  • Celorio-Mancera, Maria de la Paz; Rastas, Pasi; Steward, Rachel A.; Nylin, Soren; Wheat, Christopher W. (2021)
    The comma butterfly (Polygonia c-album, Nymphalidae, Lepidoptera) is a model insect species, most notably in the study of phenotypic plasticity and plant-insect coevolutionary interactions. In order to facilitate the integration of genomic tools with a diverse body of ecological and evolutionary research, we assembled the genome of a Swedish comma using 10X sequencing, scaffolding with matepair data, genome polishing, and assignment to linkage groups using a high-density linkage map. The resulting genome is 373 Mb in size, with a scaffold N50 of 11.7 Mb and contig N50 of 11,2Mb. The genome contained 90.1% of single-copy Lepidopteran orthologs in a BUSCO analysis of 5,286 genes. A total of 21,004 gene-models were annotated on the genome using RNA-Seq data from larval and adult tissue in combination with proteins from the Arthropoda database, resulting in a high-quality annotation for which functional annotations were generated. We further documented the quality of the chromosomal assembly via synteny assessment with Melitaea cinxia. The resulting annotated, chromosome-level genome will provide an important resource for investigating coevolutionary dynamics and comparative analyses in Lepidoptera.
  • Teikari, Jonna E.; Hou, Shengwei; Wahlsten, Matti; Hess, Wolfgang R.; Sivonen, Kaarina (2018)
    Salinity is an important abiotic factor controlling the distribution and abundance of Nodularia spumigena, the dominating diazotrophic and toxic phototroph, in the brackish water cyanobacterial blooms of the Baltic Sea. To expand the available genomic information for brackish water cyanobacteria, we sequenced the isolate Nodularia spurn/germ UHCC 0039 using an Illumina-SMRT hybrid sequencing approach, revealing a chromosome of 5,294,286 base pairs (bp) and a single plasmid of 92,326 bp. Comparative genomics in Nostocales showed pronounced genetic similarity among Nodularia spumigena strains evidencing their short evolutionary history. The studied Baltic Sea strains share similar sets of CRISPR-Cas cassettes and a higher number of insertion sequence (IS) elements compared to Nodularia spumigena CENA596 isolated from a shrimp production pond in Brazil. Nodularia spumigena UHCC 0039 proliferated similarly at three tested salinities, whereas the lack of salt inhibited its growth and triggered transcriptome remodeling, including the up-regulation of five sigma factors and the down-regulation of two other sigma factors, one of which is specific for strain UHCC 0039. Down-regulated genes additionally included a large genetic region for the synthesis of two yet unidentified natural products. Our results indicate a remarkable plasticity of the Nodularia salinity acclimation, and thus salinity strongly impacts the intensity and distribution of cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea.
  • Wang, Kai; Wu, Ying; Ye, Mengyuan; Yang, Yifan; Asiegbu, Fred O.; Overmyer, Kirk; Liu, Shenkui; Cui, Fuqiang (2021)
    Plant-beneficial microbes have drawn wide attention due to their potential application as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. Moso bamboo, which is among the monocots with the highest growth rate, lives perennially with abundant microbes that may benefit annually growing crops. Genome information of moso bamboo associated bacteria remains underexplored. We isolated and identified a novel Paraburkholderia strain Suichang626 from moso bamboo roots. Growth promoting effects of Suichang626 on both moso bamboo and seedlings of the model dicot Arabidopsis thaliana were documented in laboratory conditions. To gain insight into the genetic basis of this growth promotion effect, we sequenced the genome of Suichang626. Evidenced by genome-wide phylogeny data, we propose that Suichang626 is a novel strain of Paraburkholderia sacchari. Gene homologs encoding biosynthesis of the plant growth-promoting chemicals, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, were identified in the genome of Suichang626. Comparative genomics was further performed with plant-beneficial and plant/animal pathogenic species of Paraburkholderia and Burkholderia. Genes related to volatile organic compounds, nitrogen fixation, and auxin biosynthesis were discovered specifically in the plant growth-promoting species of both genera.
  • Jouhten, Hanne; Ronkainen, Aki; Aakko, Juhani; Salminen, Seppo; Mattila, Eero; Arkkila, Perttu; Satokari, Reetta (2020)
    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrentClostridioides difficileinfection (rCDI) and it's also considered for treating other indications. Metagenomic studies have indicated that commensal donor bacteria may colonize FMT recipients, but cultivation has not been employed to verify strain-level colonization. We combined molecular profiling ofBifidobacteriumpopulations with cultivation, molecular typing, and whole genome sequencing (WGS) to isolate and identify strains that were transferred from donors to recipients. SeveralBifidobacteriumstrains from two donors were recovered from 13 recipients during the 1-year follow-up period after FMT. The strain identities were confirmed by WGS and comparative genomics. Our results show that specific donor-derived bifidobacteria can colonize rCDI patients for at least 1 year, and thus FMT may have long-term consequences for the recipient's microbiota and health. Conceptually, we demonstrate that FMT trials combined with microbial profiling can be used as a platform for discovering and isolating commensal strains with proven colonization capacity for potential therapeutic use.
  • Mäkinen, Mari; Kuuskeri, Jaana; Laine, Pia; Smolander, Olli-Pekka; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Zeng, Zhen; Asiegbu, Fred; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Lundell, Taina (2019)
    Background The white rot fungus Phlebia radiata, a type species of the genus Phlebia, is an efficient decomposer of plant cell wall polysaccharides, modifier of softwood and hardwood lignin, and is able to produce ethanol from various waste lignocellulose substrates. Thus, P. radiata is a promising organism for biotechnological applications aiming at sustainable utilization of plant biomass. Here we report the genome sequence of P. radiata isolate 79 originally isolated from decayed alder wood in South Finland. To better understand the evolution of wood decay mechanisms in this fungus and the Polyporales phlebioid clade, gene content and clustering of genes encoding specific carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) in seven closely related fungal species was investigated. In addition, other genes encoding proteins reflecting the fungal lifestyle including peptidases, transporters, small secreted proteins and genes involved in secondary metabolism were identified in the genome assembly of P. radiata. Results The PACBio sequenced nuclear genome of P. radiata was assembled to 93 contigs with 72X sequencing coverage and annotated, revealing a dense genome of 40.4 Mbp with approximately 14 082 predicted protein-coding genes. According to functional annotation, the genome harbors 209 glycoside hydrolase, 27 carbohydrate esterase, 8 polysaccharide lyase, and over 70 auxiliary redox enzyme-encoding genes. Comparisons with the genomes of other phlebioid fungi revealed shared and specific properties among the species with seemingly similar saprobic wood-decay lifestyles. Clustering of especially GH10 and AA9 enzyme-encoding genes according to genomic localization was discovered to be conserved among the phlebioid species. In P. radiata genome, a rich repertoire of genes involved in the production of secondary metabolites was recognized. In addition, 49 genes encoding predicted ABC proteins were identified in P. radiata genome together with 336 genes encoding peptidases, and 430 genes encoding small secreted proteins. Conclusions The genome assembly of P. radiata contains wide array of carbohydrate polymer attacking CAZyme and oxidoreductase genes in a composition identifiable for phlebioid white rot lifestyle in wood decomposition, and may thus serve as reference for further studies. Comparative genomics also contributed to enlightening fungal decay mechanisms in conversion and cycling of recalcitrant organic carbon in the forest ecosystems.
  • Mäkinen, Mari; Kuuskeri, Jaana; Laine, Pia; Smolander, Olli-Pekka; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Zeng, Zhen; Asiegbu, Fred O; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Lundell, Taina (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background The white rot fungus Phlebia radiata, a type species of the genus Phlebia, is an efficient decomposer of plant cell wall polysaccharides, modifier of softwood and hardwood lignin, and is able to produce ethanol from various waste lignocellulose substrates. Thus, P. radiata is a promising organism for biotechnological applications aiming at sustainable utilization of plant biomass. Here we report the genome sequence of P. radiata isolate 79 originally isolated from decayed alder wood in South Finland. To better understand the evolution of wood decay mechanisms in this fungus and the Polyporales phlebioid clade, gene content and clustering of genes encoding specific carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) in seven closely related fungal species was investigated. In addition, other genes encoding proteins reflecting the fungal lifestyle including peptidases, transporters, small secreted proteins and genes involved in secondary metabolism were identified in the genome assembly of P. radiata. Results The PACBio sequenced nuclear genome of P. radiata was assembled to 93 contigs with 72X sequencing coverage and annotated, revealing a dense genome of 40.4 Mbp with approximately 14 082 predicted protein-coding genes. According to functional annotation, the genome harbors 209 glycoside hydrolase, 27 carbohydrate esterase, 8 polysaccharide lyase, and over 70 auxiliary redox enzyme-encoding genes. Comparisons with the genomes of other phlebioid fungi revealed shared and specific properties among the species with seemingly similar saprobic wood-decay lifestyles. Clustering of especially GH10 and AA9 enzyme-encoding genes according to genomic localization was discovered to be conserved among the phlebioid species. In P. radiata genome, a rich repertoire of genes involved in the production of secondary metabolites was recognized. In addition, 49 genes encoding predicted ABC proteins were identified in P. radiata genome together with 336 genes encoding peptidases, and 430 genes encoding small secreted proteins. Conclusions The genome assembly of P. radiata contains wide array of carbohydrate polymer attacking CAZyme and oxidoreductase genes in a composition identifiable for phlebioid white rot lifestyle in wood decomposition, and may thus serve as reference for further studies. Comparative genomics also contributed to enlightening fungal decay mechanisms in conversion and cycling of recalcitrant organic carbon in the forest ecosystems.
  • Konstantinou, Despoina; Popin, Rafael; Fewer, David P.; Sivonen, Kaarina; Gkelis, Spyros (2021)
    Sponges form symbiotic relationships with diverse and abundant microbial communities. Cyanobacteria are among the most important members of the microbial communities that are associated with sponges. Here, we performed a genus-wide comparative genomic analysis of the newly described marine benthic cyanobacterial genus Leptothoe (Synechococcales). We obtained draft genomes from Le. kymatousa TAU-MAC 1615 and Le. spongobia TAU-MAC 1115, isolated from marine sponges. We identified five additional Leptothoe genomes, host-associated or free-living, using a phylogenomic approach, and the comparison of all genomes showed that the sponge-associated strains display features of a symbiotic lifestyle. Le. kymatousa and Le. spongobia have undergone genome reduction; they harbored considerably fewer genes encoding for (i) cofactors, vitamins, prosthetic groups, pigments, proteins, and amino acid biosynthesis; (ii) DNA repair; (iii) antioxidant enzymes; and (iv) biosynthesis of capsular and extracellular polysaccharides. They have also lost several genes related to chemotaxis and motility. Eukaryotic-like proteins, such as ankyrin repeats, playing important roles in sponge-symbiont interactions, were identified in sponge-associated Leptothoe genomes. The sponge-associated Leptothoe stains harbored biosynthetic gene clusters encoding novel natural products despite genome reduction. Comparisons of the biosynthetic capacities of Leptothoe with chemically rich cyanobacteria revealed that Leptothoe is another promising marine cyanobacterium for the biosynthesis of novel natural products.
  • Castro, Hanna; Jaakkonen, Anniina; Hakakorpi, Anna; Hakkinen, Marjaana; Isidro, Joana; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia; Hallanvuo, Saija (2019)
    Packaged raw milk contaminated with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis mediated a large yersiniosis outbreak in southern Finland in 2014. The outbreak was traced back to a single dairy farm in southern Finland. Here we explore risk factors leading to the outbreak through epidemiologic investigation of the outbreak farm and through genomic and phenotypic characterization of the farm's outbreak and non-outbreak associated Y. pseudotuberculosis strains. We show that the outbreak strain persisted on the farm throughout the 7-month study, whereas the non-outbreak strains occurred sporadically. Phylogenomic analysis illustrated that the outbreak strain was related to previously published genomes of wild animal isolates from Finland, implying that wild animals were a potential source of the outbreak strain to the farm. We observed allelic differences between the farm's outbreak and non-outbreak strains in several genes associated with virulence, stress response and biofilm formation, and found that the outbreak strain formed biofilm in vitro and maintained better growth fitness during cold stress than the non-outbreak strains. Finally, we demonstrate the rapid growth of the outbreak strain in packaged raw milk during refrigerated storage. This study provides insight of the risk factors leading to the Y. pseudotuberculosis outbreak, highlights the importance of pest control to avoid the spread of pathogens from wild to domestic animals, and demonstrates that the cold chain is insufficient as the sole risk management strategy to control Y. pseudotuberculosis risk associated with raw drinking milk.
  • Castro, H.; Jaakkonen, A.; Hakakorpi, A.; Hakkinen, M.; Isidro, J.; Korkeala, H.; Lindström, M.; Hallanvuo, S. (2019)
    Frontiers in Microbiology Vol. 14, No. 10, p. 1049.
    Packaged raw milk contaminated with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis mediated a large yersiniosis outbreak in southern Finland in 2014. The outbreak was traced back to a single dairy farm in southern Finland. Here we explore risk factors leading to the outbreak through epidemiologic investigation of the outbreak farm and through genomic and phenotypic characterization of the farm’s outbreak and non-outbreak associated Y. pseudotuberculosis strains. We show that the outbreak strain persisted on the farm throughout the 7-month study, whereas the non-outbreak strains occurred sporadically. Phylogenomic analysis illustrated that the outbreak strain was related to previously published genomes of wild animal isolates from Finland, implying that wild animals were a potential source of the outbreak strain to the farm. We observed allelic differences between the farm’s outbreak and non-outbreak strains in several genes associated with virulence, stress response and biofilm formation, and found that the outbreak strain formed biofilm in vitro and maintained better growth fitness during cold stress than the non-outbreak strains. Finally, we demonstrate the rapid growth of the outbreak strain in packaged raw milk during refrigerated storage. This study provides insight of the risk factors leading to the Y. pseudotuberculosis outbreak, highlights the importance of pest control to avoid the spread of pathogens from wild to domestic animals, and demonstrates that the cold chain is insufficient as the sole risk management strategy to control Y. pseudotuberculosis risk associated with raw drinking milk.
  • Olkkola, Satu; Rossi, Mirko; Jaakkonen, Anniina; Simola, Maria; Tikkanen, Jouni; Hakkinen, Marjaana; Tuominen, Pirkko; Huitu, Otso; Niemimaa, Jukka; Henttonen, Heikki; Kivistö, Rauni (2021)
    Small mammals are known to carry Campylobacter spp.; however, little is known about the genotypes and their role in human infections. We studied intestinal content from small wild mammals collected in their natural habitats in Finland in 2010-2017, and in close proximity to 40 pig or cattle farms in 2017. The animals were trapped using traditional Finnish metal snap traps. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from the intestinal content using direct plating on mCCDA. A total of 19% of the captured wild animals (n = 577) and 41% of the pooled farm samples (n = 227) were positive for C. jejuni, which was the only Campylobacter species identified. The highest prevalence occurred in yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (Myodes glareolus) which carried Campylobacter spp. in 66.3 and 63.9% of the farm samples and 41.5 and 24.4% of individual animals trapped from natural habitats, respectively. Interestingly, all house mouse (Mus musculus) and shrew (Sorex spp.) samples were negative for Campylobacter spp. C. jejuni isolates (n = 145) were further characterized by whole-genome sequencing. Core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) clustering showed that mouse and vole strains were separated from the rest of the C. jejuni population (636 and 671 allelic differences, 94 and 99% of core loci, respectively). Very little or no alleles were shared with C. jejuni genomes described earlier from livestock or human isolates. FastANI results further indicated that C. jejuni strains from voles are likely to represent a new previously undescribed species or subspecies of Campylobacter. Core-genome phylogeny showed that there was no difference between isolates originating from the farm and wild captured animals. Instead, the phylogeny followed the host species-association. There was some evidence (one strain each) of livestock-associated C. jejuni occurring in a farm-caught A. flavicollis and a brown rat (Rattus norvegicus), indicating that although small mammals may not be the original reservoir of Campylobacter colonizing livestock, they may sporadically carry C. jejuni strains occurring mainly in livestock and be associated with disease in humans.
  • Castro, Hanna; Douillard, Francois; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia (2021)
    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen and a resilient environmental saprophyte. Dairy farms are a reservoir of L. monocytogenes, and strains can persist on farms for years. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 250 L. monocytogenes isolates to investigate the persistence and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) of Listeria strains inhabiting dairy farms. We performed a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based phylogenomic analysis to identify 14 monophyletic clades of L. monocytogenes persistent on the farms for ≥6 months. We found that prophages and other mobile genetic elements were, on average, more numerous among isolates in persistent than nonpersistent clades, and we demonstrated that resistance genes against bacitracin, arsenic, and cadmium were significantly more prevalent among isolates in persistent than nonpersistent clades. We identified a diversity of mobile elements among the 250 farm isolates, including three novel plasmids, three novel transposons, and a novel prophage harboring cadmium resistance genes. Several of the mobile elements we identified in Listeria were identical to the mobile elements of enterococci, which is indicative of recent transfer between these genera. Through a genome-wide association study, we discovered that three putative defense systems against invading prophages and plasmids were negatively associated with persistence on farms. Our findings suggest that mobile elements support the persistence of L. monocytogenes on dairy farms and that L. monocytogenes inhabiting the agroecosystem is a potential reservoir of mobile elements that may spread to the food industry. IMPORTANCE Animal-derived raw materials are an important source of L. monocytogenes in the food industry. Knowledge of the factors contributing to the pathogen's transmission and persistence on farms is essential for designing effective strategies against the spread of the pathogen from farm to fork. An increasing body of evidence suggests that mobile genetic elements support the adaptation and persistence of L. monocytogenes in the food industry, as these elements contribute to the dissemination of genes encoding favorable phenotypes, such as resilience against biocides. Understanding of the role of farms as a potential reservoir of these elements is needed for managing the transmission of mobile elements across the food chain. Because L. monocytogenes coinhabits the farm ecosystem with a diversity of other bacterial species, it is important to assess the degree to which genetic elements are exchanged between Listeria and other species, as such exchanges may contribute to the rise of novel resistance phenotypes.
  • Kovanen, Sara; Rossi, Mirko; Pohja-Mykrä, Mari; Nieminen, Timo; Raunio-Saarnisto, Mirja; Sauvala, Mikaela; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Kivistö, Rauni Inari (2019)
    Poultry are considered a major reservoir and source of human campylobacteriosis, but the roles of environmental reservoirs, including wild birds, have not been assessed in depth. In this study, we isolated and characterized Campylobacter jejuni from western jackdaws (n = 91, 43%), mallard ducks (n = 82, 76%), and pheasants (n = 9, 9%). Most of the western jackdaw and mallard duck C. jejuni isolates represented multilocus sequence typing (MLST) sequence types (STs) that diverged from those previously isolated from human patients and various animal species, whereas all pheasant isolates represented ST-19, a common ST among human patients and other hosts worldwide. Whole-genome MLST revealed that mallard duck ST-2314 and pheasant ST-19 isolates represented bacterial clones that were genetically highly similar to human isolates detected previously. Further analyses revealed that in addition to a divergent ClonalFrame genealogy, certain genomic characteristics of the western jackdaw C. jejuni isolates, e.g., a novel cdtABC gene cluster and the type VI secretion system (T6SS), may affect their host specificity and virulence. Game birds may thus pose a risk for acquiring campylobacteriosis; therefore, hygienic measures during slaughter and meat handling warrant special attention. IMPORTANCE The roles of environmental reservoirs, including wild birds, in the molecular epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni have not been assessed in depth. Our results showed that game birds may pose a risk for acquiring campylobacteriosis, because they had C. jejuni genomotypes highly similar to human isolates detected previously. Therefore, hygienic measures during slaughter and meat handling warrant special attention. On the contrary, a unique phylogeny was revealed for the western jackdaw isolates, and certain genomic characteristics identified among these isolates are hypothesized to affect their host specificity and virulence. Comparative genomics within sequence types (STs), using whole-genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST), and phylogenomics are efficient methods to analyze the genomic relationships of C. jejuni isolates.
  • de Been, Mark; van Schaik, Willem; Cheng, Lu; Corander, Jukka; Willems, Rob J. (2013)
  • Mäkinen, Veli; Navarro, Gonzalo; Sirén, Jouni; Välimäki, Niko (2010)
  • Ceapa, Corina; Davids, Mark; Ritari, Jarmo; Lambert, Jolanda; Wels, Michiel; Douillard, Francois P.; Smokvina, Tamara; de Vos, Willem M.; Knol, Jan; Kleerebezem, Michiel (2016)
    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a diverse Gram-positive species with strains isolated from different ecological niches. Here, we report the genome sequence analysis of 40 diverse strains of L. rhamnosus and their genomic comparison, with a focus on the variable genome. Genomic comparison of 40 L. rhamnosus strains discriminated the conserved genes ( core genome) and regions of plasticity involving frequent rearrangements and horizontal transfer ( variome). The L. rhamnosus core genome encompasses 2,164 genes, out of 4,711 genes in total ( the pan-genome). The accessory genome is dominated by genes encoding carbohydrate transport and metabolism, extracellular polysaccharides ( EPS) biosynthesis, bacteriocin production, pili production, the cas system, and the associated clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat ( CRISPR) loci, and more than 100 transporter functions and mobile genetic elements like phages, plasmid genes, and transposons. A clade distribution based on amino acid differences between core ( shared) proteins matched with the clade distribution obtained from the presence-absence of variable genes. The phylogenetic and variome tree overlap indicated that frequent events of gene acquisition and loss dominated the evolutionary segregation of the strains within this species, which is paralleled by evolutionary diversification of core gene functions. The CRISPR-Cas system could have contributed to this evolutionary segregation. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains contain the genetic and metabolic machinery with strain-specific gene functions required to adapt to a large range of environments. A remarkable congruency of the evolutionary relatedness of the strains' core and variome functions, possibly favoring interspecies genetic exchanges, underlines the importance of gene-acquisition and loss within the L. rhamnosus strain diversification.