Browsing by Subject "comparative research"

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  • Ahonen, Pertti (2015)
    The purpose of this paper is to examine conceptual changes of government accounting in Finland in 1980–2009 with certain comparisons to the UK, Italy and Austria. The analysis applies ‘public administration’, ‘new public management’ (NPM) and ‘public governance’ as ‘umbrella concepts’ for examining government accounting. The results indicate Finland as a vigorous reformer although more reluctant to explain its reforms in NPM terms than the comparison countries. The ultimate conclusions of the paper outline for the examination of government accounting for the better acknowledgement of the political and ideological aspects of its conceptual changes.
  • Kautto, Mikko (2001)
    The thesis explores patterns of welfare state adjustment in Nordic welfare states in a Western European context, with a focus on changes in the 1990s. Its theoretical starting points are in the contemporary controversy between the power resource theory and the welfare regime approach that have underlined the role of ideology and politics as explanatory factors for the character of welfare states and their enduring divergence, and the new convergence thesis that sees 'external' factors, such as globalisation and EU, push for declining differences among welfare states. For both strands of thinking a crucial empirical question concerns how policy reforms affect diversity among welfare states, i.e. the patterning of differences and similarities that differentiate types of welfare states. To consider this problematic two research questions are formulated: Are there systematic patterns of differences among welfare states? Do welfare states converge over time? Empirically the study addresses variation and trends in statutory fiscal and welfare policies with the help of statistics, especially with Eurostat's social protection expenditure data. The study outlines an ideal typical picture of the Nordic welfare model for gauging change, and employs basic statistical parameters, tables, graphical methods and clustering techniques that suit the case-oriented approach in general, but the aim of examining types in particular. Three studies are included in the thesis. Financing of welfare states and redistribution strategies are examined in two broader studies including fifteen Western European countries. The third study is a more focused case study on welfare state adjustment in Finland and Sweden between 1990-98. The study concludes with four generalisations: Firstly, over the period examined the Nordic countries as a group had moved further away from the ideal typical picture of the Nordic welfare model. Secondly, in a relative comparison and in most of the areas examined the Nordic countries still clustered together and showed family resemblance. Thirdly, there were signs for convergence in several instances, although not to the extent to abolish diversity. Fourthly, these convergence processes meant that the distinctiveness of the Nordic countries by late-1990s was less evident than earlier.
  • Kajoskoski, Tuija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Households account for a significant proportion of final energy consumption in Europe. Household energy consumption has been researched intensively and intervention studies aiming at changing energy behaviour have been popular. Previous intervention studies have mainly been concentrating on individual behaviour, and research analysing the role of contextual factors has been very limited. The aim of the thesis is to study the effects of geographical and cultural, material and institutional, and socioeconomic and demographic contexts on the outcomes of household energy use interventions. The data used in this thesis was collected in a European research project “ENERGISE”, in which interventions on two energy intensive household practices, space heating and laundry washing, were carried out. The data included 306 households from eight European countries: Switzerland, Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands, Finland, Hungary, Ireland and the UK. The data was analysed using the following methods: one-way ANOVA, independent samples t-test, Pearson’s correlation, and multiple linear regression. The following independent variables were tested: country, building type, baseline consumption levels, education level, employment status, family size, and age. The analyses were conducted in two phases. In the first phase, the main effects of the independent variables were tested. In the second phase, multiple regression models were built based on the results from the first phase. The intervention outcomes differ between some of the geographical contexts. Temperatures are reduced the most in Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands, and laundry cycles are reduced more in Denmark than in other countries during the interventions. Higher baseline consumption levels are connected to higher reductions in both household practices. Families with five or more persons reduce the room temperatures and laundry cycles less than smaller families. Households with contact person aged 55-64 reduce laundry cycles the least. Building type, contact person education level and contact person employment status are not connected to the intervention outcomes. The results confirm observations from previous studies, that context may significantly affect the successfulness of energy behaviour interventions and therefore it should be carefully considered in planning interventions. The results also suggest that different energy practices are likely to be affected by different sets of contextual factors. The thesis shows that conducting cross-national comparative research is challenging and it requires careful planning throughout the research process.
  • Wolff, Charlotte E.; Huilla, Heidi; Tzaninis, Yannis; Magnúsdóttir, Berglind Rós; Lappalainen, Sirpa; Paulle, Bowen; Seppänen, Piia; Kosunen, Sonja (2021)
    This review investigates how the scholarly fields, themes and concepts of 'inclusive education' are applied in the research and educational contexts of Finland, Iceland and the Netherlands. It identifies and outlines which thematic areas of research and sub-fields of study are referenced in each country by applying a systematic, multilingual approach. We reviewed literature in the local languages of each of these countries over the past decade, from 2007 to 2018, paying particular attention to (a) micro-level, in-depth, classroom interactions; (b) social and political contexts; and (c) social categories. Results of this review emphasise that across all three countries (a) there are similar conceptualisations of inclusive education dominated by categories of disability and special needs, and (b) there is a similar lack of attention to modes of exclusion based on social class, gender, ethnicity and geography as well as to how these can be addressed by more advanced research on inclusive education in these local spheres.
  • Fagerlund, Monica; Houtsonen, Jarmo (European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Training, 2021)
    European Law Enforcement Research Bulletin
    Official police records and victimisation surveys are two focal sources of information on domestic violence (DV). Police data inform us about the incidents that come to the attention of the law enforcement authorities. Population-based surveys offer estimates on total prevalence of victimisation, its characteristics, and combined with police data, on official social control and the proportion of hidden crime. Internationally, there is great variation in both the quality and availability of police data concerning DV, as well as concerning measures and the mere existence of victimisation studies. One of the first tasks in the IMPRODOVA project was to create a map of this variation by examining the properties and availability of data sources across partner countries. The results indicate substantial deficiencies in data sources, the foremost problem being the lack of nationally representative and regularly repeated victimisation surveys. Concerning police data, regionally separate information systems and the potential unreliability of the data present the biggest challenges for examining DV and official social control of it.
  • van Gerven, Minna (Kela, 2008)
    Sosiaali- ja terveysturvan tutkimuksia 100
    Tämä tutkimus tarkastelee hyvinvointivaltion muutosta vertailevasta näkökulmasta analysoimalla sosiaaliturvaetuuksien (työttömyysturvan, sairauspäivärahan ja työkyvyttömyyseläkkeen sekä toimeentulotuen) saajien oikeuksien ja saamisehtojen muutoksia Isossa-Britanniassa, Alankomaissa ja Suomessa vuosien 1980 ja 2006 välisenä aikana. Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan, 1) miten etuuksien saantiehtoja ja oikeuksia on näissä kolmessa eurooppalaisessa maassa muutettu vuodesta 1980 lähtien, 2) onko yhtäläisiä trendejä muutoksen suunnasta löydettävissä eri maiden ja järjestelmien väliltä sekä 3) mitä nämä muutokset kertovat hyvinvointivaltion muutoksen suunnasta sekä sen laajuudesta Euroopassa. Aineistona käytetään kansallisia sosiaaliturvalainsäädäntöjä ja muita kansallisia primäärilähteitä. Aineistosta löytyy neljä eurooppalaista trendiä: muutokset ovat 1) korostaneet työn merkitystä, 2) lisänneet etuudensaajien aktivointia, 3) kohdentaneet etuuksia tarkemmin tietyille tuensaajille sekä 4) heikentäneet etuuksien tasoa. Nämä yhdensuuntaiset trendit antavat syyn olettaa, että reformien tavoitteet ovat lähentyneet toisiaan Euroopassa. Toisaalta mitä yksityiskohtaisemmin aineistoa tarkastellaan, sitä enemmän eroavuuksia löytyy. Yksityiskohtainen analyysi osoittaa, että maat seuraavat kohtalaisen hyvin ennalta määrättyjä kehityspolkuja siinä, miten uusiin haasteisiin vastataan: brittiläisessä sosiaalipolitiikassa on ensisijaisesti palattu vähimmäisturvan tarjontaan, Alankomaiden järjestelmä pyrkii yhä säilyttämään työväestön sosiaalivakuutukset ja Suomessa perusturva on pyritty pitämään suurimpien muutosten ulkopuolella. Tutkimus osoittaa myös, että eräät maat ja niiden järjestelmät ovat käyneet läpi merkittävämpiä muutoksia kuin toiset. Merkittävimmät yksittäiset muutokset on toteutettu Isossa-Britanniassa maatasolla sekä työkyvyttömyys(eläke)järjestelmässä järjestelmätasolla. Lähempi tarkastelu osoittaa myös, että muutoksen koko vaihtelee eri etuudensaajaryhmien välillä. Varsinkin nuoret ja pitkäaikaistyöttömät sekä osittain työkyvyttömät ovat kokeneet viime vuosikymmenten aikana ehtojen tiukentumisen, ja heidän oikeuksiaan on rajoitettu. Tutkimuksen johtopäätös on, että toteutetut sosiaaliturvan muutokset viime vuosikymmeninä seuraavat kansallisia ratkaisumalleja. Kuitenkin muutoksen mahdollisuus on olemassa, sillä näillä polkuriippuvaisilla sosiaaliturvaetuuksien muutoksilla on leveämmät urat kuin usein kirjallisuudessa esitetään. – Suomenkielinen yhteenveto s. 290–293.
  • Aalbers, Manuel; Haila, Anne-Kaarina Elise (2018)
    Manuel B Aalbers and Anne Haila discuss their respective recent books, The Financialization of Housing: A Political Economy Approach (Aalbers, 2016) and Urban Land Rent: Singapore as a Property State (Haila, 2016). Their debate focuses on issues such as comparative research, a political econ- omy approach to urban studies, and topics of interest such as land rent, financialisation, housing, property states, path dependency, regulation and the role of the state.
  • Kumpulainen, Riitta (2001)
    The present study is historical and comparative by nature. The research problem consists of two domains. The first one deals with the consequences of the proceeding modernisation process in the two peripheral areas of Finnish Lapland and the Western Islands of Scotland. Indicators such as economic development, population development, changes in political and religious atmosphere and spread of public education have been discussed to show that although the modernisation process has proceeded differently in each area, both have remained economically backward and culturally distinct when compared to the rest of the country. This has been interpreted to reflect an institutionalised cultural division of labour, as Michael Hechter's (1975) concept of internal colonialism suggests. Because increasing labour mobility and particularly seasonal mobility is one of the most pronounced consequences of the modernisation process in both areas, it has been studied as the second domain. By studying seasonal mobility, an attempt to grasp the individual experience of a structural change has been made. In Scotland, the East Coast herring industry offered seasonal work for the Islanders between 1850-1939 and in Finland, the developing forest industry for the lumberjacks and road builders from the beginning of the century until the 1960's. By analysing documents and life histories written by the mobile individuals, themes such as what the mobile way of life is like and how the individuals were affected by it have been discussed. To conclude, it is argued that although the modernisation process has produced peripherality on the institutional level in the two areas under study, it has produced also modernity on the individual level. This is due to the various modernising elements that belong to the mobile way of life, such as working in well-organised large job sites and meeting fellow-workers originating from various places. As a result, the simultaneous existence of the modern and traditional on individual and structural levels has become characteristic in both areas.